ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter complementary medicine and cosmetic products¹⁻³. Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.) have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more ’recent’ addition, the essential oils derived from these plants, being widely used as an antibacterial in World War I1,4. The oil is traditionally believed to have sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and antiinflammatory properties, in addition to its recognised antimicrobial effects. Many of the activities attributed to lavender oil have not, however, been substantiated in the scientific literature. This is further complicated by the fact that the majority of research into lavender essential oils has been based on oil derived from English lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), with little or no differentiation being made between this and other lavender essential oils. The therapeutic potential of essential oils produced from other varieties, such as L. x intermedia (lavandin), L. stoechas (French lavender) and L. x allardii, have largely been ignored. Although the ethnobotanical uses and major chemical constituents are similar between various lavenders, some differences do occur in both oil composition and in the reported therapeutic uses for different species3,5. The significant scientific interest in recent years into the validity/veracity of the traditional beliefs surrounding lavender oil and their scientific basis, if any, was recently reviewed by Cavanagh & Wilkinson³. In this paper we provide an overview of the use of lavender oil in infectious disease and an update on recent research on alternative uses of lavender oil.
Australian Infection Control
Lavender essential oil: a review
Heather
MA
Cavanagh
BSc(Hons) Microbiology
Jenny
M
Wilkinson
BSc(Hons)(Qld), GradDip FET(SQld),
(University of Glasgow), PhD(Macq)
PhD Molecular Virology (University of Glasgow), School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, NSW
PGCE (Strathclyde University)
School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, NSW
Abstract
Lavender essential oil is popular as a complementary medicine in its own right and as an additive to many over the counter
complementary medicine and cosmetic products
'
\
Indeed, products derived from the popular garden herb Lavender (Lavandula spp.)
have been used for centuries as a therapeutic agent, with the more 'recent
'
addition, the essential oils derived from these plants, being
widely used as an antibacterial in World War
I],!
The oil is traditionally believed to have sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and anti-
inflammatory properties, in addition to its recognised antimicrobial effects.
Many of the activities attributed to lavender oil have not, however, been substantiated in the scientific literature. This is further
complicated by the fact that the majority of research into lavender essential oils has been based on oil derived from English lavender
(Lavandula angustifolia), with little or no differentiation being made between this and other lavender essential oils. The therapeutic
potential of essential oils produced from other varieties, such as L.
x
intermedia (lavandin), L. stoechas (French lavender) and L.
x
allardii,
have largely been ignored. Although the ethnobotanical uses and major chemical constituents are similar between various lavenders,
some differences do occur in both oil composition and in the reported therapeutic uses for different ~pecies~,~. The significant scientific
interest in recent years into the validity/veracity of the traditional beliefs surrounding lavender oil and their scientific basis, if any, was
recently reviewed by Cavanagh
&
Wilkinson? In this paper we provide an overview of the use of lavender oil in infectious disease and
an update on recent research on alternative uses of lavender oil.
Lavender oil (primarily L. angustifolia) has been found to be
active against many species of bacteria, including those resistant
to antibiotics such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE)
b~R.
Recent
investigations into the antibacterial properties of a range of
Lavandula oils (L. angustifolia, L. allardii, L.
x
intermedia 'Grosso',
L.
x
intermedia 'Seal', L.
x
intermedia 'Miss Donnington', L.
x
heterophylla and
L.
stoechas 'Avonview') support the anecdotal use
of lavender oils as antibacterial agents and demonstrated that
Despite the known antibacterial activity, questions remain about
the clinical utility of lavender oil. The MIC (minimum inhibitory
concentration) values of lavender oil (L. angustifolia and
L.
latifolia) have been reported as being comparable to that of tea
tree oil (0.16% against Haemophilus influenzae, 0.32% against S.
pyogenes and S. aureus and greater than 0.32% against
E.
~oli)'~.
These figures would appear to support the use of lavender oils as
a prophylactic or for use in topical application for surface
infection rather than for use against deep-seated infections.
some oils which had previously not been investigated (e.g. L. Lavender oil has also been reported to be an effective antifungal
heterophylla) displayed good antibacterial activity against a range agent against fungi of both medical and agricultural importance,
of bacteria including Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterobacter aerogenes, especially in inhibition of germ-tube growth
".
A recent study
S. aureus, MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, demonstrated that all Lavandula essential oils examined to date
Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, VRE, Shigella sonnei and displayed some antifungal activity, with oils derived from
L.
Propionibacterium acnes
9.
an~ustifolia and L.
x
intermedia demonstrating the greatest effect
-.
Interestingly, there was considerable variability in the activity of against Aspergillus nidulans and Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
the essential oils, with L. angustifolia and
L.
x
intermedia oils In contrast, oil derived from L, stoechas was particularly effective
showing the highest activity against several bacteria. However, against the agricultural fungi Leptosphaeria maculans and Sclerotinia
no one oil produced the highest level of antibacterial activity sclerotiorum, demonstrating that Lavandula oils have activity
against all bacteria tested, suggesting that differences in chemical against fungi of both medical and agricultural importance, and
composition make some oils more effective against particular suggesting that essential oils from various lavender varieties may
bacteria. No strong correlation has been observed between be useful in the treatment of fungal infections
''.
percentage of major chemical components and antibacterial
activity, and
P
aeruginosa was not susceptible to any Lavandula oil The recent interest in the therapeutic use of hydrosols, however,
tested9. These results support the anecdotal use of lavender oils appears unlikely to have scientific merit as no antimicrobial
as antibacterial agents and demonstrate that some oils which had activity has been found to be associated with any Lavandtlla
previously not been investigated have good antibacterial activity. hydrosols examined by this group to date
12.
Hydrosols or
Vol10 Issue
1
March 2005
Australian Infection Control
distillate waters are a by-product of steam distillation and
contain variable amounts of essential oil and other plant derived
components. The variation found in the activity of the different
oils suggests that different oils should be targeted for different
therapeutic uses. Further work is required to determine whether
the
in uitro
results are realised in a clinical environment, but it is
clear that not all lavenders are equal in terms of their
antimicrobial properties.
Interestingly, the volatile components of Lavandula essential oils
have also been found to display potent antifungal activity;
however, no significant differences in activity have been reported
between different
Lauandula
oil volatiles
l2I5.
Vapour treatment
would appear to have an advantage over solution treatment in
that the microbial growth could be inhibited by a smaller amount
of essential oil, while potentially also acting as a potent inhibitor
of sporulation, assuming that suitable vapour concentration and
treatment times can be determined. Initial studies suggest that
the gaseous contact activity of the essential oils was determined
mainly by the maximum vapour concentration at an early stage
of incubation and that maintaining high vapour concentration for
long periods of time was not necessary
15.
It should be noted,
however, that the effective vapour concentrations in a clinical
setting have not yet been directly related to the concentrations
used routinely in aromatherapy.
The use of essential oil volatiles for therapeutic benefit is not new.
Indeed, lavender oil today is used predominantly in
aromatherapy or massage, and many benefits are claimed for its
use in this way, including relief of the symptoms of stress and
depression, in improving 'mood' and relieving anxiety
3.
Aromatherapy is thought to be therapeutically effective due to
both the psychological effect of the odour and the physiological
effects of the inhaled volatile compounds, where the latter effects
are believed to act via the limbic system, particularly the
amygdala and hippocampus. However, although inhalation of
lavender oil volatiles has been reported to be capable of altering
patient mood and improving sleep patterns, the true therapeutic
benefit of inhalation of lavender oil remains controversial
',
16, 17.
This may be related to the fact that many studies combine both
massage and lavender oil and are unable to determine whether
the benefits seen are as a result of massage or of lavender oil
inhalation/absorption.
For example, a recent study investigating the use of lavender oil
aromatherapy in dementia patients found no evidence that a
purely olfactory form of aromatherapy led to decreased agitation
in severely demented patients and suggested that cutaneous
application of the essential oil may be necessary to achieve the
optimum effect 18. Similarly, although percutaneous
administration of one of the main ingredients of lavender oil,
(-)-
linalool, led to a decrease in systolic blood pressure and skin
temperature, compared to a corresponding control group
receiving a placebo, no effect on subjective evaluation of well-
being was noted
19.
In another study, although massages with lavender essential oil
and an inert carrier oil were unable to demonstrate any
significant long-term benefits in improving pain control, but
anxiety or quality of life (compared to those patients who
received the inert carrier oil only or no massage) and sleep scores
improved significantly in both the massage and the combined
massage (aromatherapy and massage) groups. These findings
were accompanied by a statistically significant reduction in
depression scores in the massage group, whether lavender oil
was used or not 20. Inhalation of lavender aromatherapy during
radiotherapy was also found to reduce anxiety
21.
Conversely, several authors have noted an association between
lavender odour, positive emotional states and therapeutic
benefit
22~25.
For example, Diego
et al.
26
found that individuals
receiving lavender oil (10%) odour for
3
minutes were
significantly more relaxed, had decreased anxiety scores, better
moods and showed increased alpha power in their EEGs (an
indication of increased drowsiness). Similarly, in a pilot study by
Walsh
&
Wilson 27, long-stay neurology in-patients also showed
increased mood scores and reduced psychological distress
following aromatherapy (tea tree, rosemary and
L. angustifolia
oils), suggesting that lavender aromatherapy can improve
patients' experiences in intensive care with no detrimental
physical or behavioural outcomes.
Inhalation of lavender oil is also reported to be of benefit in pain
relief. Lavender oil has been shown to be an effective short-term
treatment for lower back pain when acupoint stimulation was
followed by acupressure with aromatic lavender oilZR. In an other
recent (animal) study, it was shown that inhalation of lavender oil
(L.
x
intermedia
'Grosso') for
1
hour resulted in significant
analgesic activity at doses that did not produce a sedative side-
effect, with the oil appearing to significantly reduce the acetic
acid-writhing response in a naloxone-sensitive manner.
A
similar
effect was found with oral (100mg/kg) administration2'.
It has been suggested, however, that, rather than having a direct
analgesic effect, inhalation of lavender oil may simply elicit a
more positive appraisal and subsequent positive retrospective
evaluation of treatment-related pain from the patient when they
report on lavender aromatherapy associated pain relief
".
Interestingly, Barocelli
et al.
z'
also reported that oral
administration of lavender oil, or its major constituents linalool
or linalyl acetate, could protect animals against acute ethanol-
induced gastric ulcers.
Extensive research is now being carried out worldwide to
identify and isolate the chemical components of lavender oil,
which will allow the identification of biologically active
constituents of the oil and determination of any synergistic
effects of the 'mixed' components. While it is known that the
main constituents play a major role in the biological activity of
lavender oil, it has also been reported that the antimicrobial
activity of different types of lavender oil are not all related to
these major constituents.
For example, studies investigating the relationship between
biological activity and chemical composition of lavender have
found no correlation between linalool or linalyl acetate content
Vol
10
Issue
1
March
2005
Australian Infection Control
and antibacterial or antifungal activity
7.
In addition, very little is
known of any synergistic relationships which occur between the
oil constituents.
There is no doubt that identification of the biologically active
components of lavender oil and determination of their mechanisms
of action,
in
isolation and in combination, will help to clarify many
of the inconsistencies currently found in lavender oil research and
may lead to identification of novel, effective therapeutic
compounds. Indeed, one constituent of lavender oil, perillyl
alcohol
(POH)
has recently been identified as a potential anticancer
agent, which may be useful in both treatment and prevention3l.".
Lavender is traditionally regarded as a 'safe' oil and, although it
was recently reported that lavender oil, and its major constituent
linalyl acetate, are toxic to human skin cells
in
vitro,
contact
dermatitis to lavender oil appears to occur at only a very low
frequency
3z
34. The relevance of this
in
vitro
toxicity to
dermatological application of
Lavandula
oils remains unclear.
Despite the apparent safety of lavender oil as a topical agent, oral
administration is not recommended.
In conclusion, many more claims are made for therapeutic benefit
derived from lavender oil than are reviewed in this paper;
however, controversy surrounds many aspects (reviewed in
Cavanagh
&
Wilkinson
9).
Further research is required to
determine the true bioactivity of lavender oil and its constituents.
Despite this lack of evidence for many claims, lavender continues
to be used by the general public and clinical staff, perhaps
because any potential therapeutic benefit is seen as a possible
'bonus' to the simple love of lavender.
References
1. Gattefosse R-M. Gattefosse's Aromatherapy. Saffron Walden,
England, 1937.
2. Evelegh T. Lavender. Lorenz Books, Sydney, 1996.
3. Cavanagh HMA
&
Wilkinson
JM.
Biological activities of lavender
essential oil.
J
Phyto Res 2002; 16:301-308.
4. Grieve M. A Modem Herbal. Harcourt, Brace
&
Co, New York, 1931.
5. Agricultural Research Service. Dr Duke's Phytochemical and
ethnobotanical databases.
http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/
2000.
6. Nelson
RRS.
In-vitro activities of five plant essential oils against
methacilh-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus
and vancomycin-resistant
Enferococcus faecium.
J
Antimicrob Chemother 1997; 40:305-306.
7. Lis-Balchin M, Deans SG
&
Eaglesham E. Relationship between
bioactivity and chemical composition of commercial essential oils.
Flavour Fragr J 1998; 13:98-104.
8. Hammer K, Carson C
&
Riley T. Antimicrobial activity of essential
oils and other plant extracts. J Appl Microbiol1999; 86985.990.
9. Moon T, Cavanagh HMA
&
Wilkinson JM. Lavender as an
antibacterial essential oil
-
are all lavenders equal? AICA National
Conference, 2004, abstracts p46.
10. Inouye S, Yamaguchi H
&
Taluzawa T. Screening of the antibacterial
effects of a variety of essential oils on respiratory tract pathogens,
using the modified dilution assay method. J Infect Chemother 2001;
7251-254.
11. Daferera DJ, Ziogas BN,
&
Polissiou MG. GC-MS analysis of essential
oils from some Greek aromatic plants and their fungitoxicity on
Penicillium digitatum.
J
Agric Food Chem 2000; 48:2576-2581.
12. Moon T, Chan YF, Wilkinson
JM
&
Cavanagh HMA. Antifungal
activity of
Lava~zdula
essential oil and oil volatiles. AICA National
Conference, 2004; abstracts p46.
Inouye
S,
Watanabe M, Nishiyama Y, Takeo K, Akao M
&
Yamaguchi
H. Antisporulating and respiration-inhibitory effects of essential oils
on filamentous fungi. Mycoses 1998; 41:403-410.
Inouye S, Tsuruoka T, Watanabe M, Takeo K, Akao M, Nishiyama Y
&
Yamaguch H. Idubitory effect of essential oils on apical growth of
Aspergillusfumigatus.
Mycoses 2000; 4317-23.
Inouye
S,
Tsuruoka T, Uchida
K
&
Yamaguchi H. Effect of sealing and
Tween 80 on the antifungal susceptibility testing of essential oils.
Microbiol Immunol2001; 45:201-208.
Bumett
KM,
Solterbeck LA
&
Strapp CM. Scent and mood state
following an anxiety-provoking task. Psychol Rep 2004; 95:707-722.
Camped CE, Crawley EJ
&
Meier ME. Role of suggestion in odor-
induced mood change. Psychol Rep 2004; 94(3:2):1127-1136.
Snow LA, Hovanec
L
&
Brandt J. A controlled trial of aromatherapy
for agitation in nursing home patients with dementia. J Altern
Complement Med 2004; 10:431-437.
Heuberger E, Redhammer S
&
Buchbauer G. Transdermal absorption
of (-)-linalool induces autonomic deactivation but has no impact on
ratings of well-being in humans.
Neuropsycho-pharmacology
2004;
29:1925-1932.
Soden K, Vincent
K,
Craske S, Lucas C
&
Ashley S. A randomized
controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting. Palliat
Med 2004; 18:87-92.
Graham PH, Browne
L,
Cox H
&
Graham J. Inhalation aromatherapy
during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind
randomized trial.
J
Clin Oncol2003; 21:2372-2376.
Alaoui-Ismaili
0,
Vernet-Maury E, Dittrnar A, Delhomme G
&
Chanel
J. Odor hedonics: connection with emotional response estimated by
autonomic parameters. Chem Senses 1997; 22:237-248.
Tysoe P. The effect on staff of essential oil burners in extended care
settings. Int J Nurs Pract 2000; 6:110-112.
Masago R, Matsuda T, IOkuchi Y, Miyazaki Y, Iwanaga K, Harada H
&
Katsuura T. Effects of inhalation of essential oils on EEG activity
and sensory evaluation. J Physiol Anthropol Appl Human Sci 2000;
1935-42.
Millot J-L
&
Brand G. Effects of pleasant and unpleasant ambient
odors on human voice pitch. Neurosci Lett 2001; 29:61-63.
Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M, Schanberg S, Kuhn
C, McAdam V, Galamaga R
&
Galamaga M. Aromatherapy positively
affects mood, EEG patterns or alertness and math computations. Int J
Neurosci 1998; 96:217-224.
Walsh E
&
Wilson C. Complementary therapies in long-stay
neurology in-patients settings. Nurs Stand 1999; 13:32-35.
Yip YB
&
Tse SH. The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation
and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific
low back pain in Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial.
Complement Ther Med 2004; 12:28-37.
Barocelli E, Calcina F, Chiavarini M, Impicciatore M, Bruni R, Bianchi
A
&
Ballabeni V. Antinociceptive and gastroprotective effects of
inhaled and orally administered
Lavandula hybrida
Reverchon
"Grosso" essential oil. Life Sci 2004; 76:213-223.
Gedney JJ, Glover TL
&
Fillingim RB. Sensory and affective pain
discrimination after inhalation of essential oils. Psychosom Med 2004;
66:599-606.
Samaila D, Ezekwudo DE, Yimam
KK
&
Elegbede JA. Bioactive plant
compounds Inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in
human cancer cell lines, in vitro. Transactions of the Integrated
Biomedical Informatics
&
Enabling Technologies Symposium Journal
2004; 1:34-42.
Liston BW, Nines R, Carlton
PS,
Gupta A, Aziz R, Frankel W
&
Stoner
GD. Perillyl alcohol as a chemopreventive agent in N-
nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced
rat esophageal tumorigenesis.
Cancer Res 2003; 63:2399-2403.
Prashar A, Locke IC
&
Evans CS. Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its
major components to human skin cells. Cell Prolif 2004; 37221-229.
Matthieu L, Meuleman L, Van Hecke E, Blondeel A, Dezfoulian 8,
Constandt L
&
Goossens A. Contact and photocontact allergy to
ketoprofen: the Belgan experience. Contact Dermatitis 2004; 50:238-
241.
Vol10 Issue
1
March 2005
... Besides, the essential oil lavender is also known for its excellent aroma and is extensively used in the perfumery, flavor and cosmetic industries. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and anti-inflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Chu and Kemper (2001) also stated that Lavender extracts have traditionally been prescribed to treat infertility, infection, anxiety and fever, and have been used as antidepressants, antispasmodics, anti-flatulent agents, antiemetic remedies and diuretics. ...
... The essential oil is also known for its excellent aroma and is extensively used in the perfumery, flavor and cosmetic industries. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and antiinflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Chu and Kemper (2001) also stated that Lavender extracts have traditionally been prescribed to treat infertility, infection, anxiety and fever, and have been used as antidepressants, antispasmodics, anti-flatulent agents, antiemetic remedies and diuretics. ...
... Besides, the essential oil lavender is also known for its excellent aroma and is extensively used in the perfumery, flavor and cosmetic industries. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and anti-inflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Chu and Kemper (2001) also stated that Lavender extracts have traditionally been prescribed to treat infertility, infection, anxiety and fever, and have been used as antidepressants, antispasmodics, anti-flatulent agents, antiemetic remedies and diuretics. ...
... The essential oil is also known for its excellent aroma and is extensively used in the perfumery, flavor and cosmetic industries. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and antiinflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Chu and Kemper (2001) also stated that Lavender extracts have traditionally been prescribed to treat infertility, infection, anxiety and fever, and have been used as antidepressants, antispasmodics, anti-flatulent agents, antiemetic remedies and diuretics. ...
Article
Full-text available
Soybean is one of the rapidly growing crops, both globally and in Ethiopia, though its productivity in the country is very low due to several production constraints, among which soybean rust is one of the most important one. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate sixty-four soybean genotypes which were introduced from USA, including three standard check varieties to identify sources of resistance for the disease. The entries were laid out in an 8X8 simple lattice design and grown in the Southwestern Ethiopia at Jimma agricultural research center, during the 2017 and 2018 main cropping season. The analysis of variance revealed that significant difference for most of the studied traits, i.e., including Area under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC), mean disease severity, and grain yield. Based on the field evaluation, a total of 44 soybean genotypes showed Reddish Brown (RB) lesions and 20 soybean genotypes showed Tan lesions; while none of the tested soybean genotypes showed immune reaction to soybean rust. Genotype PI417089A showed Tan lesions and higher value of AUDPC, and rust severity; however this genotype was the highest yielding genotype, indicating the tolerance of this genotype for Asian soybean rust. Genotypes that showed reddish brown reaction and tolerance to the disease need to be subjected to further testing and used as parental line for hybridization. The effort to identify very good source of resistance need to be strengthened, with major emphasis on characterizing the different types of rust races,evaluating large number of materials from diverse sources and understand the mechanisms of soybean genotypes tolerance and resistance to soybean rust.
... Besides, the essential oil lavender is also known for its excellent aroma and is extensively used in the perfumery, flavor and cosmetic industries. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and anti-inflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Chu and Kemper (2001) also stated that Lavender extracts have traditionally been prescribed to treat infertility, infection, anxiety and fever, and have been used as antidepressants, antispasmodics, anti-flatulent agents, antiemetic remedies and diuretics. ...
... The essential oil is also known for its excellent aroma and is extensively used in the perfumery, flavor and cosmetic industries. The oil is known to possess sedative, carminative, anti-depressive and antiinflammatory properties (Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Chu and Kemper (2001) also stated that Lavender extracts have traditionally been prescribed to treat infertility, infection, anxiety and fever, and have been used as antidepressants, antispasmodics, anti-flatulent agents, antiemetic remedies and diuretics. ...
Experiment Findings
Full-text available
... This study investigated the effects of foot massage using lavender aroma oil (Lavandula angustifolia), whose positive effects have been demonstrated by several previous studies [11,13,17,23]. Foot massage with aromatic oils is suitable for both children and older adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focused on the effects of aroma foot massage on sleep quality and constipation relief among older adult residents in nursing facilities. This research used a non-equivalent control group and a quasi-experimental design. The participants included 40 older adults aged ≥70 years residing in two nursing facilities in Seoul City. The aroma foot massage nursing intervention consisted of a preparation stage using jojoba carrier (aroma recipe) oil and lavender oil, an aroma foot massage stage, and a finishing stage. Sleep quality scores after the experiment increased by 3.72 at post-test (M = 38.44) compared to pre-test (M = 34.72), which confirmed that sleep quality improved significantly following intervention in the experimental group as compared to the control group (F = 14.45, p = 0.001). Furthermore, the frequency of defecation in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (Z = −3.93, p < 0.001). Similarly, the constipation assessment scores decreased at post-test significantly by 2.39 in the experimental group as compared to the control group (F = 17.87, p < 0.001). These results confirm that aroma foot massage is an effective nursing intervention for alleviating constipation symptoms and improving sleep quality. Therefore, we recommend that aroma foot massage be used as a complementary intervention in combination with drug-based treatment to improve sleep quality and relieve the constipation symptoms experienced by older adults living in nursing facilities.
... Indeed, the typical lavender scent is globally recognized and is included in many home and bath-care products. Lavender essential oil is considered a valuable raw-material in cosmetics and perfumes, and for flavoring [3,26]. Although the Lavandula genus comprises 39 wild essential oil bearing species, only four are commercially valued [3]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Portuguese lavenders remain undervalued in global markets due to the lack of high-quality end-products and scarcity of scientific-based studies validating their bioactive potential. Moreover, chemical variability is frequent in these species, and can compromise both safety and efficacy. In the present study, the anti-inflammatory potential of L. luisieri and L. pedunculata, two highly prevalent species in Portugal, was assessed and correlated with their chemical variability. Representative samples with distinct chemical profiles were selected to assess the anti-inflammatory effect on LPS-stimulated macrophages. L. luisieri essential oil with low quantities of necrodane derivatives was the most potent at inhibiting NO production. Interestingly, the essential oil was more effective than its main compounds (1,8-cineole and fenchone), assessed alone or in combination. Our results also demonstrated a significant effect of the oil on the expression of the inflammatory proteins (iNOS and pro-IL-1β) and on the NF-κB pathway. Overall, this study highlights the impact of chemical variability on oils’ efficacy by showing distinct effects among the chemotypes. We also identify L. luisieri essential oil, which has low quantities of necrodane derivatives, as the most promising in mitigation of the inflammatory response, thus corroborating its traditional uses and paving the way for the development of herbal medicinal products.
... They found a significantly higher percentage of linalool (54.24%) and a very low percentage of linalyl acetate (0.77%) in lavender essential oil. The quantitative composition of essential oils depends on the method of cultivation of lavender, altitude, and microclimatic conditions (Cavanagh and Wilkinson 2005). ...
... The scent of lavender is quite popular in several home, bath care and pet products and provides a unique flavor to beverages, condiments, sweets, marmalades and honey. Moreover, lavender essential oils are a valuable raw material for the food (flavoring), perfumery and cosmetic industries and are widely used in aromatherapy (Boelens, 1985;Upson and Andrews, 2004;Cavanagh and Wilkinson, 2005). Some of these oils are regulated by international ISO standards (ISO, 2007 and, which highlights their high economic value. ...
Article
Full-text available
Lavandula viridis L´Hér. is an endemic Iberian species with a high essential oil yield and a pleasant lemon scent. Despite these interesting features, this species remains unrecognized and poorly explored by the food and pharmaceutical industries. Nevertheless, it has been valued in traditional medicine being used against flu, circulatory problems and to relieve headaches. Since these disorders trigger inflammatory responses, it is relevant to determine the anti-inflammatory potential of L. viridis L´Hér. essential oil in an attempt to validate its traditional use and concomitantly to increment its industrial exploitation. Therefore, in the present study the chemical composition of this volatile extract as well as the effect on ROS production, inflammatory response and proteasome activity on LPS-stimulated macrophages were disclosed. Also, its safety profile on keratinocytes, hepatocytes and alveolar epithelial cells was depicted, envisioning a future human administration. The essential oil was characterized by high quantities of 1,8-cineole, camphor and α-pinene. From a pharmacological point of view, the essential oil showed a potent antioxidant effect and inhibited nitric oxide production through down-modulation of nuclear factor kappa B-dependent Nos2 transcription and consequently iNOS protein expression as well as a decrease in proteasomal activity. The anti-inflammatory activity was also evidenced by a strong inhibition of LPS-induced Il1b and Il6 transcriptions and downregulation of COX-2 levels. Overall, bioactive safe concentrations of L. viridis L´Hér. essential oil were disclosed, thus corroborating the traditional usage of this species and paving the way for the development of plant-based therapies.
Article
Full-text available
One of the most pressing issues confronting the civilized and modern world is air pollution. Particulate matter (PM) is a well-known pollutant that contributes significantly to urban air pollution and has numerous short- and long-term adverse effects on human health. One method of reducing air pollution is to create green spaces, mainly green walls, as a short-term solution. The current study investigated the ability of nine plant species to reduce traffic-related PM using a green wall system installed along a busy road in Mashhad, Iran. The main aims were (1) estimate the tolerance level of plant species on green walls to air pollution using the air pollution tolerance index (APTI); (2) assess the PM capture on the leaves of green wall species using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and accumulation of heavy metals using inductively coupled plasma (ICP); (3) select the most tolerance species for reducing air pollution using anticipated performance index (API). The plants’ APTI values ranged from 5 to 12. The highest APTI value was found in Carpobrotus edulis and Rosmarinus officinalis, while Kochia prostrata had the lowest. Among the APTI constituents, leaf water content (R² = 0.29) and ascorbic acid (R² = 0.33) had a positive effect on APTI. According to SEM analysis, many PMs were adsorbed on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces, as well as near the stomata of Lavandula angustifolia, C. edulis, Vinca minor, and Hylotelephium sp. Based on EDX analysis, carbon and oxygen formed the highest amount (more than 60%) of metals detected in the elemental composition of PM deposited on the leaves of all species. The Sedum reflexum had the highest Cr, Fe, Pb, and As accumulation. The concentrations of all heavy metals studied in green wall plants were higher than in the control sample. Furthermore, the C. edulis is the best plant for planting in industrial, urban areas of the city based on APTI, biological, economic, and social characteristics. It concludes that green walls composed primarily of plants with small leaves can significantly adsorb PM and accumulation of heavy metal. Graphical abstract
Article
As a diagnostic and therapeutic technique for coronary artery disease, angiography is usually associated with some disorders and complications such as fear, pain, discomfort, limited mobility, and anxiety. The present study is a systematic review determining the effects of aromatherapy with different plants in patients undergoing angiography. This review was conducted according to the 06-PRISMA guideline and registered in the CAMARADES-NC3Rs Preclinical Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Facility (SyRF) database. The English databases were Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO, and ScienceDirect to search articles regarding the effects of aromatherapy with different plants in patients experiencing angiography without a date limitation. The searched keywords in this study were "aromatherapy", "angiography", "coronary artery disease", "anxiety", "stress", and "cardiovascular diseases". Out of 1835 papers, 20 papers up to 2021, met the inclusion criteria for discussion in this systematic review with the data extracted. Most studies were intended to evaluate the effect of aromatherapy on patients’ anxiety with coronary artery bypass graft surgery (11 papers, 55.0%). The most widely used essential oil belonged to the lavender essential oil (13 papers, 65.0%). The results of the current review confirmed that aromatherapy management with lavender, damask rose, orange, and peppermint is able to significantly decrease anxiety, pain, nausea and vomiting, sleep quality, hemodynamic indices, blood pressure, etc. in patients with coronary angiography. However, more investigation is required to confirm the precise mechanisms and side effects of the alternative treatment.
Article
Purpose: This study assessed the effects of massage therapy using 5% lavender oil on the severity of restless legs syndrome (RLS) and the quality of life (QoL) of patients on hemodialysis (HD). Design and methods: This is a randomized placebo-controlled study with a pretest-posttest design. This study was conducted from January 30, 2019, to May 6, 2019, at HD centers in Turkey, and it includes 58 participants-31 study patients and 27 controls. Data were collected using patient identification form, RLS severity rating scale, Kidney Disease Quality of Life Scale (KDQOLTM -36) and patient follow-up charts. As per the massage therapy protocol, the patients in the study and control groups received massage therapy with lavender oil and baby oil, respectively. Findings: RLS severity significantly decreased in all follow-up weeks in the study group and in the first, second, and third follow-up weeks in the control group. There were significant differences between the groups in terms of KDQOLTM -36 subscales and total scores at the initial and final follow-ups. Conclusion: In HD patients, massage with lavender oil lessened the severity of RLS and improved the QoL. Accordingly, this therapy can be recommended to HD patients. Clinical relevance: Massage therapy during HD sessions is easy, inexpensive, and patient-friendly with no side effects. It is known to reduce symptoms and enable the patients to easily perform daily activities of living. Massage therapy with lavender oil is effective and can be easily applied to patients with RLS by nurses. Trial registration: This study was registered under the Clinical Trials protocol registration system (NCT04630470) upon completion.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper is to analyse the relationship between self-report hedonic evaluations and the physiological expression of emotion in response to odorants. We try to solve the following questions: (1) Is it possible to find any experimental evidence that the sense of smell is linked with emotion? (2) What kind of odorants can be distinguished by autonomic analysis? (3) Is there a link between hedonics and autonomic information? The effects of odorants on the emotional process were estimated, in terms of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Fifteen subjects inhaled five odorants as olfactory stimuli: lavender (LAV), ethyl acetoacetate (EAA), camphor (CAM), acetic acid (AA) and butyric acid (BA). After inhaling the odorant, subjects were requested to fill out an 11-point hedonic scale to rate its pleasantness versus unpleasantness. ANS parameters were as follows: two electrodermal responses, skin potential (SP) and resistance (SR); two thermovascular parameters, skin blood flow (SBF) and skin temperature (ST); and two cardiorespiratory parameters; instantaneous respiratory frequency (IRF) and instantaneous heart rate (IHR). Simultaneous recording of six parameters showed that specific autonomic patterns were associated with each odorant. An analysis of variance made it possible to differentiate among the five odorants. Two-by-two odorant comparisons for autonomic responses using Tukey's HSD multiple comparison test only permitted differentiation between pleasant odorants (LAV and EAA) and unpleasant (AA and BA) ones, but camphor was differentiated from both pleasant and unpleasant odorants. Each odorant elicited responses in the different parameters, yet subjects responded through their preferential channels; an average of two channels was used by each subject. These results when compared with those obtained with other senses (visual and auditory), did not evidence the postulated preferential link between olfaction and emotion. A strong link between hedonics and ANS response could be demonstrated when considering each subject and mainly through his/her preferential channel(s); conversely a weak correlation (SR duration excepted) was obtained between inter-subjects' hedonic evaluation. It seems that for a given population the autonomic response reflect the odor valence only through some parameters related to the main preferential channel(s) and thus the global autonomic pattern has to be considered.
Article
Full-text available
Complementary therapies have been embraced by many nurses, but the effectiveness of such regimes on the wellbeing of patients has never been researched successfully. This article describes a pilot study which evaluated their effects on long-stay neurology patients.
Article
The inhibitory effect of seven essential oils on the apical growth of hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus was studied using a bio cell tracer by vapour contact in a sealed vessel. Based on the inhibitory pattern, these essential oils were classified into three groups. The first group, composed of citron, lavender and tea tree oils, stopped the apical growth in a loading dose of 63 mu g ml(-1) air, but allowed the regrowth of the hyphae after removal of the vapour, indicating fungistatic action. The second group, consisting of perilla and lemongrass oils, stopped the apical growth in a loading dose of 6.3 mu g ml(-1) air, and did not allow the regrowth after gaseous contact at 63 mu g ml(-1) air, indicative of fungicidal action. The third group, consisting of cinnamon bark and thyme oils, retarded the growth in a dose of 6.3 mu g ml(-1) air, stopped it in a dose of 63 mu g ml(-1) air, and incompletely suppressed regrowth of the hyphae. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that vapours of essential oils were absorbed on fungal mycelia and agar medium most abundantly by the first group, followed by the second and third groups, reflecting the volatility of the respective groups. Suppression of the apical growth by vapour contact was ascribed to the direct deposition of essential oils on fungal mycelia, together with an indirect effect via the agar medium absorbed.
Article
In order to establish the value of the use of biological activities as accessory criteria (in conjunction with gas chromatography, but in the absence of enantiomeric analysis) for establishing the authenticity of essential oils, the biological activities of 105 commercial essential oils were investigated against 25 species of bacteria, 20 strains of Listeria monocytogenes, and three filamentous fungi; their antioxidant action was also determined and all the results were related to the actual chemical composition of the oils as determined by gas chromatography. The results showed some relationship between the major components and some bioactivities. There was a negative correlation between 1,8-cineole content and antifungal activity. There was, however, great variability between the biological action of different samples of individual oils and groups of oils under the same general name, e.g. lavender, eucalyptus or chamomile, which was reflected in differences in chemical composition, The results suggest that, although the biological activities are not all related to the main components, any significant blending, rectification and adulteration of commercial oils can be monitored by their biological activities. The use of essential oils named simply as ‘chamomile’ or ‘eucalyptus’, or any commercial oil which has been adulterated, cannot be justifiably used in treating medical conditions unless it can be shown that the action is non-specific and independent of the chemical composition. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The perception of odors is well identified as having strong emotional correlates. It is also well known that the acoustic characteristics of the voice differ according to the emotional state. This study compared some acoustic features of the voice of 18 subjects reading the same text in pleasant (lavender) and unpleasant (pyridine) ambient odor conditions. The results revealed that the pitch of the voice was higher in the pleasant than in the unpleasant condition. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of local and functional convergences of encoding vocal emotion and hedonic perception of odors.
Article
Sporulation of four species of filamentous fungi, namely Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Penicillium expansum and Rhizopus oryzae, was suppressed by gaseous contact with citron, lavender and thyme oils and, to a lesser extent, by that of perilla and tea tree oils. Lemongrass and cinnamon bark oils were scarcely active. The antisporulating effect of the essential oils was not observed when they were applied as a solution, indicating that their vapours were the active form. Moreover, exposure of fungal cultures to vapours of the active essential oils caused curling of the tips of aerial hyphae (R. cryzae) or incomplete development of conidiophores (A. fumigatus). These antisporulating effects of the vapourizing essential oils seemed to be correlated with their respirationinhibitory activity, rather than with their growthinhibitory activity. Zusammenfassung. Die Sporulierung von vier Fadenpilzarten, nämlich Aspergillus fumigatus, Fusarium solani, Penicillium expansum und Rhizopus oryzae, wurde durch Kontakt mit Dämpfen von Zitronenöl, Lavendelöl und Thymianöl, weniger mit Dämpfen von Perillaöl und Teebaumöl gehemmt. Limonengrasöl und Zimtrindenöl waren kaum wirksam. Die Sporulierungshemmwirkung der ätherischen Öle wurde nicht beobachtet, wenn sie als Lösung angewendet wurden; demnach sind die Dämpfe die Aktivphase. Die Exposition bewirkte weiterhin ein Kräuseln der Lufthyphenenden bei R. oryzae und eine unvollständige Entwicklung der Konidiophoren bei A. fumigatus. Diese Sporulierungshemmung der Dämpfe ätherischer Öle scheint eher mit der Atmungshemmung als mit der Wachstumshemmung korreliert zu sein.
Article
EEG activity, alertness, and mood were assessed in 40 adults given 3 minutes of aromatherapy using two aromas, lavender (considered a relaxing odor) or rosemary (considered a stimulating odor). Participants were also given simple math computations before and after the therapy. The lavender group showed increased beta power, suggesting increased drowsiness, they had less depressed mood (POMS) and reported feeling more relaxed and performed the math computations faster and more accurately following aromatherapy. The rosemary group, on the other hand, showed decreased frontal alpha and beta power, suggesting increased alertness. They also had lower state anxiety scores, reported feeling more relaxed and alert and they were only faster, not more accurate, at completing the math computations after the aromatherapy session.
Article
FULL TEXT available free from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1046/j.1365-2672.1999.00780.x/pdf The antimicrobial activity of plant oils and extracts has been recognized for many years. However, few investigations have compared large numbers of oils and extracts using methods that are directly comparable. In the present study, 52 plant oils and extracts were investigated for activity against Acinetobacter baumanii, Aeromonas veronii biogroup sobria, Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia col, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype typhimurium, Serratia marcescens and Staphylococcus aureus, using an agar dilution method. Lemongrass, oregano and bay inhibited all organisms at concentrations of < or = 2.0% (v/v). Six oils did not inhibit any organisms at the highest concentration, which was 2.0% (v/v) oil for apricot kernel, evening primrose, macadamia, pumpkin, sage and sweet almond. Variable activity was recorded for the remaining oils. Twenty of the plant oils and extracts were investigated, using a broth microdilution method, for activity against C. albicans, Staph. aureus and E. coli. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations were 0.03% (v/v) thyme oil against C. albicans and E. coli and 0.008% (v/v) vetiver oil against Staph. aureus. These results support the notion that plant essential oils and extracts may have a role as pharmaceuticals and preservatives.