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Impact of Office Design on Employees' Productivity: A Case Study of Banking Organizations of Abbottabad, Pakistan

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Abstract

Increased personal control and comfort needs of employees triggered the concern among organizations to provide them with an environment and office design, which fulfills the employees' needs and helps to boost their productivity. The main objective of this study is to find out the relationship between office design and productivity. For this purpose, 31 bank branches of 13 banks were contacted and studied. The findings of this study show that office design is very vital in terms of increasing employees' productivity. Comfortable and ergonomic office design motivates the employees and increases their performance substantially. Hughes (2007) surveyed 2000 employees pertain to various organizations and industries in multiple levels. The reported results of these survey showed that nine out of ten believed that a workspace quality affects the attitude of employees and increases their productivity. Employees in different organizations have different office designs. Every office has unique furniture and spatial arrangements, lighting and heating arrangements and different levels of noise. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the office design factors on employees' productivity. The literature reveals that good office design has a positive affect on employees' productivity and the same assumption is being tested in this study for the banking sector of Pakistan. This study will try to find out the effects of office design on employees' productivity. The area chosen is the banking sector of Abbottabad District, Pakistan. The study will be based on primary data collected through a structured questionnaire (Appendix 1). 2. Significance of the Study The impact and significance of office design on employees' productivity is addressed in this study. Human resource professionals in the organizations are well aware of the importance of this issue. In the context of Pakistan, this is a relatively new topic. Very few researchers addressed in the context of human resource management. Very few researches can be found in the field of Human Resource Management, this huge gap needs to be filled by new research scholars. In Pakistan, workplace environment and its related issues are significantly neglected. It is evident that there is less importance to office design, incentives and assisting facilities and also it is not available to the employees. The situation is that they cannot even complain about them. These circumstances are affecting the performance of the employees greatly, in the form of delay in work completion, frustration, effect on personal growth etc. This study will try to find out the effects of office design in terms of furniture, noise, lighting, temperature and spatial arrangement on employees' productivity.
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Volume 3, Issue 1, 2009
Impact of Office Design on Employees’ Productivity: A Case study of Banking
Organizations of Abbottabad, Pakistan
Amina Hameed, Research Associate, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of
Information Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan, amina_7_h@yahoo.com
Shehla Amjad, Professor, Department of Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information
Technology, Abbottabad, Pakistan, shehla@ciit.net.pk
Abstract
Increased personal control and comfort needs of employees triggered the concern among organizations to
provide them with an environment and office design, which fulfills the employees’ needs and helps to boost
their productivity. The main objective of this study is to find out the relationship between office design and
productivity. For this purpose, 31 bank branches of 13 banks were contacted and studied. The findings of
this study show that office design is very vital in terms of increasing employees’ productivity. Comfortable
and ergonomic office design motivates the employees and increases their performance substantially.
Keywords: Productivity; Office Design; Ergonomics.
1. Introduction
Most people spend fifty percent of their lives within indoor environments, which greatly influence their mental
status, actions, abilities and performance (Sundstrom, 1994). Better outcomes and increased productivity is
assumed to be the result of better workplace environment. Better physical environment of office will boosts
the employees and ultimately improve their productivity. Various literature pertain to the study of multiple
offices and office buildings indicated that the factors such as dissatisfaction, cluttered workplaces and the
physical environment are playing a major role in the loss of employees’ productivity (Carnevale 1992,
Clements-Croome 1997).
Hughes (2007) surveyed 2000 employees pertain to various organizations and industries in multiple levels.
The reported results of these survey showed that nine out of ten believed that a workspace quality affects
the attitude of employees and increases their productivity. Employees in different organizations have
different office designs. Every office has unique furniture and spatial arrangements, lighting and heating
arrangements and different levels of noise. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of the office
design factors on employees’ productivity. The literature reveals that good office design has a positive affect
on employees’ productivity and the same assumption is being tested in this study for the banking sector of
Pakistan. This study will try to find out the effects of office design on employees’ productivity. The area
chosen is the banking sector of Abbottabad District, Pakistan. The study will be based on primary data
collected through a structured questionnaire (Appendix 1).
2. Significance of the Study
The impact and significance of office design on employees’ productivity is addressed in this study. Human
resource professionals in the organizations are well aware of the importance of this issue. In the context of
Pakistan, this is a relatively new topic. Very few researchers addressed in the context of human resource
management. Very few researches can be found in the field of Human Resource Management, this huge
gap needs to be filled by new research scholars.
In Pakistan, workplace environment and its related issues are significantly neglected. It is evident that there
is less importance to office design, incentives and assisting facilities and also it is not available to the
employees. The situation is that they cannot even complain about them. These circumstances are affecting
the performance of the employees greatly, in the form of delay in work completion, frustration, effect on
personal growth etc. This study will try to find out the effects of office design in terms of furniture, noise,
lighting, temperature and spatial arrangement on employees’ productivity.
2
3. Literature Review
A widely accepted assumption is that better workplace environment produces better results. Mostly the
office is designed with due importance to the nature of job and the individuals that are going to work in that
office. The performance of an employee is measured actually by the output that the individiual produces
and it is related to productivity. At corporate level, productivity is affected by many factors such as
employees, technology and objectives of the organization. It is also dependent on the physical environment
and its affect on health and employees’ performance.
3.1 Defining Office Design
Office design is defined by BNet Business Dictionary (2008) as, “the arrangement of workspace so that work
can be performed in the most efficient way”. Office design incorporates both ergonomics and work flow,
which examine the way in which work is performed in order to optimize layout. Office design is an important
factor in job satisfaction. It affects the way in which employees work, and many organizations have
implemented open-plan offices to encourage teamwork. Office design is very vital in employee satisfaction,
and the broad concept of office design also includes the workflow. The work is analyzed initially and it is
identified that how it is accomplished and then the overall setting of the office is made according to that flow.
This ensures the smooth running of work in the office without hindrances.
3.2 Defining Productivity
Rolloos (1997) defined the productivity as, “productivity is that which people can produce with the least
effort”. Productivity is also defined by Sutermeister (1976) as, “output per employee hour, quality
considered”. Dorgan (1994) defines productivity as, “the increased functional and organizational
performance, including quality”. Productivity is a ratio to measure how well an organization (or individual,
industry, country) converts input resources (labor, materials, machines etc.) into goods and services. In this
case, we are considering performance increase as when there is less absenteeism, fewer employee leaving
early and less breaks; whereas in a factory setting, increase in performance can be measured by the
number of units produced per employee per hour. In this study, subjective productivity measurement method
is used. The measures of this method are not based on quantitative operational information. Instead, they
are based on personnel’s subjective assessments. Wang and Gianakis (1999) have defined subjective
performance measure as an indicator used to assess individuals’ aggregated perceptions, attitudes or
assessments toward an organizations product or service. Subjective productivity data is usually collected
using survey questionnaires. Subjective data can also be descriptive or qualitative collected by interviews.
(Clements-Croome and Kaluarachchi 2000) Subjective productivity data is gathered from employees,
supervisors, clients, customers and suppliers.
3.3 Workplace and Productivity
Over the years, many organizations have been trying new designs and techniques to construct office
buildings, which can increase productivity, and attract more employees. Many authors have noted that, the
physical layout of the workspace, along with efficient management processes, is playing a major role in
boosting employees’ productivity and improving organizational performance (Uzee, 1999; Leaman and
Bordass, 1993; Williams et al. 1985).
An independent research firm conducted a research on US workplace environment (Gensler, 2006). In
March 2006, a survey was conducted by taking a sample size of 2013. The research was related to;
workplace designs, work satisfaction, and productivity. 89 percent of the respondents rated design, from
important to very important. Almost 90 percent of senior officials revealed that effective workplace design is
important for the increase in employees’ productivity. The final outcome of the survey suggested that
businesses can enhance their productivity by improving their workplace designs. A rough estimation was
made by executives, which showed that almost 22 percent increase can be achieved in the company’s
performance if their offices are well designed.
But practically, many organizations still do not give much importance to workplace design. As many as 40
percent of the employees believe that their companies want to keep their costs low that is why their
workplaces have bad designs; and 46 percent of employees think that the priority list of their company does
not have workplace design on top. When data was summarized, almost one out of every five employees
rated their workplace environment from, ‘fair to poor’. 90 percent admitted that their attitude about work is
adversely affected by the quality of their workplace environment. Yet again 89 percent blamed their working
environment for their job dissatisfaction (Gensler, 2006).
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3.4 Relationship between Office Design and Productivity
The American Society of Interior Designers (ASID, 1999) carried out an independent study and revealed that
the physical workplace design is one of the top three factors, which affect performance and job satisfaction.
The study results showed that 31 percent of people were satisfied with their jobs and had pleasing
workplace environments. 50 percent of people were seeking jobs and said that they would prefer a job in a
company where the physical environment is good.
Brill et al. (1984) ranked factors, which affect productivity according to their importance. The factors are
sequenced based on the significance: Furniture, Noise, Flexibility, Comfort, Communication, Lighting,
Temperature and the Air Quality. Springer Inc (1986) stated that “an insurance company in a study revealed
that the best ergonomic furniture improved performance by 10 to 15 percent.
Leaman (1995) conducted a survey which is briefly highlighted here. Author attempted to find the
relationship between indoor environment, dissatisfied employees and their productivity. The results revealed
that the productivity of the work is affected because the people were unhappy with temperature, air quality,
light and noise levels in the office. The productivity level was measured by the method of self reported
measurement, which is a 9 point scale from greater than -40 and less than +40 percent (loss/gain). The
scale was associated with the question: “Does your office environment affect your productivity at work?”
(Leaman, 1995). The data collected was correlated and results said that the coefficient of correlation
(r)=0.92 and the correlation exists between people who showed dissatisfaction with their indoor environment
and those reporting that their productivity is affected by the office environment. The significant level p-value
is 0.0034.
4. Research Methodology
The purpose of the study is to find out the relationship between office design and employees’ productivity
and the impact of office design on employees’ productivity.
The objectives of the study include:
To analyze office design of banks in Abbottabad, Pakistan.
To analyze the features that employees value in the workplace.
To assess whether office design is one of the factors in affecting employees’ productivity.
To determine the impact of office design on employees’ productivity.
To analyze the impact of office design if any on gender of employees.
The Banking sector of Abbottabad, Pakistan has been chosen as the population for the study. Out of 31
bank branches, 21 bank branches in Abbottabad, Pakistan were taken as sample. A total of 105 employees
from these 21 branches were taken as the sample size. The distribution of sample among banks and
number of employees taken from each bank are given.
Primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. Observation was also used to collect
information about the office design. The Questionnaire consisted of 24 questions; 4 questions on each
variable. Out of these, 4 questions were on productivity, based on the technique of subjective productivity
measurement. Subjective productivity data was gathered from the employees, supervisors, clients,
customers and suppliers. A direct subjective productivity measurement is a survey question concerning an
employees’ own productivity. For example, such a question might be, on a scale of 1-4; ‘how your
productivity changed during the last year’ (Black and Lynch, 1996 and Laitinen et al. 1999). Data was
collected from the sample of 13 banks (105 employees). A five point Likert Scale was used to measure all
the variables. The scale varies from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) for most of the questions. A
few questions were measured by the five point Likert Scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (always). The
questions in the questionnaire for the subjective productivity measurement were in percentages.
5. Conceptual framework
Based on the literature review, the relationship between office design and productivity can be
conceptualized and depicted in Figure (1). The relationship is defined in such a way that the set of factors
impact on an individual, which in turn determine the final outcome in terms of increased or decreased
productivity of that individual. These factors have different impacts on different employees based on their
gender.
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Figure: 1. Conceptual Framework
Independent Variables Dependent Variable
(Office Design)
6. Research Findings
Five indicators of office design such as furniture, noise, temperature, lighting and spatial arrangement are
considered for study. The overall response for each factor was analyzed and the mean and standard
deviation values are shown in the Table 1. Data was analyzed to identify the factor that the relatively high
tendency towards decreasing productivity. Different office design factors such as furniture, noise, lighting,
temperature and spatial arrangement were used to determine the extent of the loss in productivity.
Table 1. Mean of factors
Factors
Total number of
respondents
Mean (SD) for
Factor
Furniture 105 3.70 (0.63)
Noise
105 3.67 (0.62)
Lighting 105 3.23 (0.77)
Temperature 105 3.86 (0.44)
Spatial
arrangement
105 3.41 (0.63)
SD= Standard deviation
Furniture
Noise
Lighting
Temperature
Spatial
arrangements
Productivity
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The prime factor which affects the productivity of employees is lighting in the office. Next to the factor
lighting, it is spatial arrangement. Then the importance sequence is noise, furniture and temperature. Both
natural and artificial light is very essential in any office environment. It gives a sense of energy and affects
the mood of the employees. Hawthorne effect is the best example of benefit of lighting in productivity.
Accomplishment of daily tasks in workplaces with less or dim light is difficult for employees. Working in dim
light leads to eye strain and thus causing headaches and irritability. Due to this discomfort, productivity is
very much affected causing overall decrease in employee’s performance.
According to the data collected, 26.6 percent respondents were female employees and 73.3 percent were
male employees. The overall response according to the gender and the mean and productivity for male and
female employees is detailed in Table 2.
Table 2 Overall Responses According to Gender
SD= standard deviation
According to the results in Table 2, male employees are affected by the furniture in their offices (3.68); their
productivity is also affected by the furniture they are using or which surrounds their workplaces (3.62). Along
with this the results also show that female employees are less affected by the furniture in their work area
(3.77) and their performance also remains unaffected with uncomfortable furniture (3.23). If only the
performance of both male and female employees is compared then we can see that male employees
perform less than female employees due to bad furniture, which they use in their workplaces.
While analyzing the means of Noise obtained from the data, it was revealed that male employees were not
much affected by noise (3.84) but due to even a little noise their productivity was affected (3.62). On the
other hand, the female respondents’ results show that there are many noise distractions in their workplace
(3.21) and in their surroundings. But due to this noise productivity of female employees is not affected
(3.23). Because female employees are always chatting, therefore, they can work in noisy surroundings.
Comparing the productivity of male employees (3.62) and female employees (3.23) with respect to noise,
productivity of male employees is more then female employees.
One of the most important features in office design is light. Both natural and artificial light is needed in a
proper and adequate amount to carry out normal activities of everyday office work. This factor was analyzed
in my research. Results revealed that male employees show a low mean (3.26), which means that lighting is
not proper in offices and when we see the productivity of male employees against this mean it is high
(3.62). So, the conclusion can be made that due of improper lighting in offices male employees have
difficulty in completing and concentrating on their work and their productivity (3.62) is affected. In the same
way when female employees’ results were analyzed, and it transpired that they were affected (3.13) a little
more than male employees, but their productivity (3.23) is not affected by lighting around their workplace.
On comparing, only the productivity of male employees (3.62) and female employees (3.23) the result shows
that lighting affects male employees more while working in offices then female employees.
Factors Mean (SD) for Male
employees
Mean (SD) for female
employees
Furniture
3.68 (0.64)
3.77 (0.61)
Noise
3.84 (0.46) 3.21 (0.77)
Lighting
3.26 ((0.82) 3.13 (0.59)
Temperature
3.84 (0.46)
3.92 (0.36)
Spatial arrangement 3.49 (0.61) 3.21 (0.66)
Overall mean
Overall Productivity
3.62
3.62
3.45
3.23
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Temperature affects productivity the most. Female respondents’ results show that the temperature
conditions of their offices are good (3.92) in both summers and winters. Due to the pleasant temperature in
summers and winters there is no adverse effect on their productivity (3.23). Similarly, the mean value for
male employees is (3.84), which means that temperature is not irregular in their offices. But a little
irregularity in temperature affects their productivity (3.62). Another major aspect of the way in which the
workplace aids productivity is in supporting work processes through the way that space is arranged.
According to the results female employees are more conscious about the arrangement of space in their
workplaces (3.21) but due to this their productivity is not affected (3.23), it is satisfactory. In case of male
employees, they are far less affected (3.49) by the spatial arrangement than female employees but their
productivity (3.62) is affected by this.
The overall mean of all the factors show a low mean for female employees (3.45) and a relatively high mean
for male employees (3.62). This means that female employees are more concerned about their workplace
surroundings than male employees.
Differences are found amongst the responses to different factors in the workplace. Male employees’ results
show that they are more concerned about the lighting in their offices then the spatial arrangement and other
factors.
There is a direct relationship between office Design and productivity. This relationship between office design
and productivity was determined by using the Pearson’s Correlation in standard statistical software
“Statistical Package for Social Sciences” (SPSS). Pearson’s Correlation is a measurement of the strength of
a linear or straight line relationship between two variables. The Correlation Coefficients indicate both the
direction of the relationship and its magnitude (Table 3).
Table 3 Correlation between Elements of Office Design and Employee Productivity
The analysis of the results indicate a positive correlation between furniture and productivity (r = 0.194) and is
significant at 0.05. This shows that when the furniture of the office is not comfortable and according to the
needs of the employees their productivity is affected. There is a positive relationship between Noise and
Productivity. The correlation coefficient (r=0.429) is significant at 0.01.
The positive relationship between lighting and productivity (r = 0.720) at 0.01 shows that employees’
productivity highly correlates to the lighting conditions in the offices. The results of temperature reveal its
significant correlation with productivity (r=0.467) at p=0.01. Spatial Arrangement is the space factor in office
design; when the correlation was calculated in SPSS it gave a positive relation with productivity (r=0.380)
where p=0.01. It means that the spatial arrangement has a considerable effect on the employees’
productivity (Table 4).
Office design Elements Pearson
Correlation (r)
Significance
(2-tailed)
Furniture
.194(*) .047
Noise
.429(**) .000
Lighting
.720(**) .000
Temperature and Air Quality
.467(**) .000
Spatial arrangement .380(**) .000
r is Pearson correlation coefficient
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
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Table 4. Regression Results of Model
Model Summary
Model R R Square
Adjusted R
Square
Std. Error of the
Estimate
1
.759(a) .576 .555 .51525
R= Correlation coefficient
a. Predictors: (Constant), Spatial arrangement, Noise, Furniture, Lighting, Temperature
Source: Survey
Model
Sum of
Squares
df Mean Square F Sig.
Regression
35.717 5 7.143 26.907 .000(a)
Residual
26.283 99 .265
1
Total
62.000 104
df= degree of freedom , F=regression mean square/residual mean square ,Sig=P-value
a. Predictors: (Constant), Spatial arrangement, Noise, Furniture, Lighting, Temperature
b. Dependent Variable: Productivity Source: Survey
The coefficient of determination R. square = 0.576. This gives us the ratio of explained variation to total
variation. On converting the R. square value to percentage it comes to be approximately 58 Percent. From
this percentage it is concluded that 58 percent of the variability of employees’ productivity is accounted for
by the variables in this model.
The regression co-efficient for the predictor variables; furniture, noise, lighting, temperature and spatial
arrangements are 0.015, -0.068, 0.739, and 0.021 and 0.162, respectively. The coefficient values show, the
change in productivity with a unit change in a variable value, when all the other variables are held constant.
When we analyze the coefficient value for the variable, ‘lighting’ we can say that there is an increase of
0.739 in the productivity of an employee for every unit increase (betterment) in the lighting conditions of the
office, keeping all the other variables constant.
The Regression Equation:
Employee Productivity = -0.645 + .015 F - 0.068 N+ 0.739 L + 0.021 T + 0.162 SA
(Where F=furniture, N=noise, L=lighting, T=temperature and SA=spatial arrangements)
7. Discussion of the Findings
Analysis of the collected data revealed that office design has a substantial impact on the employees’
productivity. The overall impact of different elements showed that lighting affects the productivity of most
employees. The overall mean of all the factors show that female employees are more concerned about their
workplace surroundings, whereas, their male counterparts are less concerned with it.
The overall response, according to gender, showed differences amongst the responses for different
elements in the workplace. Male respondents’ results show that they are more concerned about the lighting
in their offices, followed by the spatial arrangement.
There is a direct relationship between office design and productivity. The Relationship between Office
design and Productivity was determined by using the Pearson’s Correlation in SPSS. A strong correlation
exists between elements of office design and productivity of office design. The regression analysis of the
data shows that the coefficient of determination R. square = 0.576, so, it can be concluded that 58 percent
of the variability in employees’ productivity is accounted for by the variables in this model.
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7.1 Implications for Management
Based on the findings, following are the implications of the study.
Lighting was found to be the major factor, which is affecting the daily and overall productivity of
employees in offices. Therefore, it is recommended to have proper and adequate artificial as well
as natural light to improve the office design for better performance.
Most of the organizations do not give importance to office design; this study will give them ample
reasons to consider office design as an important factor in increasing their employees’ productivity.
7.2 Limitations of the Study
Following are a few limitations of the study
The sample size was not diverse enough to give the image of all organizations functioning in
Pakistan.
The data collected was based on subjective productivity measurement; some other objective
method of collecting data can also be used.
Data was collected by employing the simple method of structured questionnaires; other methods
could have been used for collecting data.
7.3 Direction for future Research
In order to establish a greater understanding of these relationships research, which combines human
resource management, workplace layout and performance management, needs to be developed.
Within the indoor environment, lighting and thermal environment have the biggest influence on employees’
productivity. It would therefore make sense to develop, in the near future, a validated human model in which
at least the thermal environment in combination with the lighting conditions can be evaluated in terms of
comfort and loss of productivity.
References
American Society of Interior Designers (1999) “Recruiting and retaining qualified employees by design.”
White paper
Black, S. & Lynch, L. (1996). Human-Capital Investments And Productivity. Technology, Human Capital and
the Wage Structure. Vol 86. No. 2, 263 – 267.
Bnet Business dictionary 2008
Brill, M. Margulis S, Konar E, BOSTI (1984) Using Office Design to Increase Productivity. Vol. 1, 1984: Vol.
2, 1984. Buffalo, N.Y.: Workplace Design and Productivity.Buildings/IAQ, pp.495 500.
Carnevale, D.G., (1992), Physical Settings of Work. Public Productivity and Management Review, 15, 4,
423-436.
Clements-Croome, D.J., (1997). Specifying Indoor Climate, in book Naturally Ventilated Buildings, (Spon)
Clements-Croome, D., Kaluarachchi, Y. (2000) An Assessment of the Influence of the In-door Environment
on the Productivity of Occupants in Offices Design, Construction and Operation of Healthy Buildings ,pp.67
81.
Dorgan, C.E. (1994) productivity Link to the Indoor Environment Estimated Relative to ASHRAE 62-1989
Proceedings of Health Buildings ‘94, Budapest, pp.461 472.
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Sundstrom, E., Town, J.P., Rice, R.W., Osborn, D.P. and Brill, M. (1994), Office noise, satisfaction, and
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Williams, C., Armstrong, D., Malcom, C. (1985), The Negotiable Environment: People, White-Collar Work,
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Appendix 1
Questionnaire for Research study on
“Impact of Office Design on Employees’ Productivity”
INSTRUCTIONS:
Please READ each question carefully.
ENCIRCLE the option you think best suits you.
Encircle only ONE option for each question.
Name :( optional) _________________________Designation:______________________
Bank’s Name: ______________________Branch’s Name: ________________
Age____ Gender___________
Furniture
1. My furniture is flexible to adjust, rearrange or reorganize my workspace.
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- Almost
4- Fairly enough
5- Completely flexible
2. My furniture is comfortable enough so that I can work without getting tired till 5pm.
1- I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
3. The physical conditions at work influence my productivity.
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- Often
4- Mostly
5- Always
4. Adequate and comfortable furniture will affect my productivity positively.
1- I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
Noise
5. My work environment is quiet.
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- Often
4- Mostly
5- Always
6. I am able to have quiet and undisturbed time alone.
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- Often
4- Mostly
5- Always
11
7. My workspace has many noise distractions.
1- I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
8. Noise free environment will increase my productivity.
1- 10%
2- 20%
3- 30%
4- 40%
5- 50% or more
Temperature
9. To what extent your room temperature affects your normal level of productivity.
1- No effect
2- Positive effect
3- Normal effect
4- Quite good effect
5- Bad effect
10. The overall temperature of my workspace in winters is
1- Cold
2- Cool
3- Pleasant
4- Slightly warm
5- Warm
11. The overall temperature of my workspace in Summers is
1- Cold
2- Cool
3- Pleasant
4- Slightly warm
5- Warm
12. I am able to control temperature or airflow in my office.
1-I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
Lighting
13. My workspace is provided with efficient lighting so that I can work easily without strain on my eyes.
1- I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
14. Do you have control over the lighting on your desk (i-e adjustable desk light on desk)?
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- I don’t need desk light
4- Mostly
5- Completely
15. Ample amount of natural light comes into my office.
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
12
3- Often
4- Mostly
5- Always
16. Number of windows in my work area complete my fresh air and light need.
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- Did not notice
4- Mostly
5- Always
Spatial Arrangement
17. My office/branch is open enough to see my colleagues working.
1- I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
18. My work area is sufficiently equipped for my typical needs (normal storage, movements, etc).
1- Not at all
2- To some extent
3- Often
4- Mostly
5- Always
19. I am satisfied with the amount of space for storage and displaying important materials.
1- Extremely dissatisfied
2- Dissatisfied
3- Neutral
4- Satisfied
5- Extremely satisfied
20. My workspace serves multi purpose functions for informal and instant meetings.
1- I strongly disagree
2- I disagree
3- I’m neutral
4- I agree
5- I strongly agree
Productivity
21. Favorable environmental conditions(less noise, suitable temperature etc) in the office building will
increase my productivity at work
1- No effect
2- Increase by 20%
3- Increase by 30%
4- Increase by 40%
5- Increase by 50% or more
22. Unfavorable environmental conditions(noise distractions, unsuitable temperature etc) in the office
building will Decrease my productivity at work
1- No effect
2- Decrease by 20%
3- Decrease by 30%
4- Decrease by 40%
5- Decrease by 50% or more
23. Due to overall office environment can you complete your daily tasks easily?
1- Not at all
13
2- To some extent
3- Often
4- Mostly
5- Always
24. By what percentage your overall productivity would increase if the related office environment
problems are solved.
1- No change
2- 10%
3- 20%
4- 30%
5- 40% or more
... In this study, subjective measurement method of productivity is used not based on quantitative operational information, but on personnel's subjective assessments. Subjective productivity data are gathered from employees, supervisors, clients, customers, and suppliers (Hameed & Amjad 2009). Wang and Gianakis (1999) have defined subjective performance measure as an indicator used to assess individuals' aggregated perceptions, attitudes or assessments toward an organizations product or service. ...
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The study estimates the impact of collective bargaining agreement and its related factors on employees’ perceived productivity in terms of union-management relation’s climate, income, fringe benefits, and job satisfaction of the employees. It also determines whether there is significant difference in the employees’ perceived productivity based on the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The results revealed that the relationship climate which exists between union and the management is found to have significant adverse effect on the average unpaid hours spent by employees working within the college. On the other hand, the total monthly wage earnings of employees have negative effect on the average hours an employee spent in bringing his work home while job satisfaction positively influences the productivity level of employees. The result further shows significant difference in the productivity level of employees across civil status and current designation.
... It has been observed that employee always play vital role when they are provided their basic needs like bonus, increment in salary and promotion. A research survey was conducted by Hameed and Amjad (2009) investigated 31 bank branches that focused on comfortable and ergonomic office and their work performance. Aisha et al. (2013) conducted a study in Indonesia on "Effects of motivation, working ability, incentives and working condition on the employee performance" examined that Employees works in multi-dimension when these variables are provided them. ...
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Teacher motivation plays an important role in the improvement of professional performance. Normally, motivated teachers are more likely to perform better. This research study aimed to examine the factors effecting teachers' level of motivation and their professional performance at public secondary school in District Ghotki. Major objective of the study was to examine the factors effecting teachers' level of motivation and their professional performance at public secondary schools in District Ghotki. The research design of the study was quantitative in nature. The population of the study was all the public secondary school teachers. The sample size was (N=150) public secondary school teachers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the respondents of the study. Adapted questionnaire was used for data collection from sample size of 150. Cronbach's Alpha technique was used for the reliability of the questionnaire. The data was analyzed though regressions test. The findings of the study revealed that two hypotheses such as training and involvement in decisions have an effect on professional performance of teachers and two other hypotheses such as reward and work environment have no any effect on professional performance of teachers. It was recommended that management of school should provide the opportunities to the teachers in decision making process. Ministry of education or policy makers must develop a national training policy and conduct training programs that is based on performance of teachers as they can develop their skills and knowledge. There could be different responses about motivational factors and professional performance among the other public secondary school teachers or in the universities. As this study is conducted in public sector secondary schools but it can be conduct in private schools as well. The sample size of this study was one hundred fifty (150) public secondary school teachers but it could be increased.
... Statt (1994) argues that the modern workplace environment is composed of technologies, computers, and machines as well as employee general furniture. A good workplace environment has a direct effect on employee productivity (Hameed and Amjad, 2009). To achieve high levels of employee productivity, the bank must ensure that the workplace environment is conducive to the employee. ...
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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between employee involvement and productivity evidence from the banking industry. A self-administrated survey method was used to conduct the study. Data were collected from 100 bank employees through a well-structured questionnaire. The results were analyzed through frequency analysis, mean and standard deviation, t-test and canonical correlation by using SPSS 23 package software. For demographic information of gender of the respondents, sample t-test was used and found that there is no significant difference of response between male and female also difference of response between public banks and private banks towards employee involvement and employee productivity. Canonical Correlation shows the relationship between employee involvement and employee productivity. The research helps to understand the relationship between employee involvement and employee productivity in the banking industry of Bangladesh. It will also make a worthy contribution to the literature and enhance the knowledge in this subject area as it provides authentic results that can be used in further research.
... Result shows a positive and significant relationship. Hameed and Amjad (2009) examined the relationship between workplace environment design and job performance of 31 bank branches. The result shows a significant relationship. ...
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... Office lighting is an important IEQ factor that has numerous effects on human beings [4][5][6]. In several studies [7][8][9], office lighting, as it is closely related to visual ability and alertness, has been proven to significantly affect task performance. Office lighting also influences user-health because it affects circadian rhythm regulating sleepiness, physical and psychological states of humans [10][11][12][13]. ...
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