Density, Inmate Assaults, and Direct Supervision Jails
Researchers have completed several studies on the effects of density on violence in prisons and jails, but little work has been done on density's impact on direct supervision jails. Direct supervision facilities, also known as new generation jails, were created by the Federal Bureau of Prisons with the goal of reducing violence, suicide and disorder. Given the crowded conditions in most jails across the country, it is important to determine the impact, if any, that density has on the operations of these jails. The current study involves an analysis of density on assaults in nearly 150 direct supervision jails. The results indicate that neither spatial nor social density are predictors of violence in these jails. Several direct supervision jail characteristics are also included in the analysis, but they are not associated with reported assaults. The racial composition of inmates, location of the jail, and number of inmates each officer is permitted to supervise predicted assaults.
Available from: Moshe Bensimon
- "The research findings, which revealed high levels of noise between 74 and 94 dB, led Gusten to conclude that high levels of noise correlate to high levels of anger among incarcerated populations (Gusten, 1977). Finally, Lahm (2008) and Tartaro and Levy (2007), who analyzed inmate-on-inmate assaults, inmate-on-staff assaults, and overall levels of violence and misconduct in prison, and Chemtob, Novaco, Hamada, Gross, and Smith (1997) and Novaco and Chemtob (1998), who analyzed escalation of negative behaviors such as aggression and criminality in prison, found correlations between these behaviors and levels of anger. 1 "
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ABSTRACT: Listening to relaxing music was found to reduce state anxiety and state anger among various populations. Nonetheless, the impact of relaxing music in prisons has not yet been studied. The current study examines the impact of relaxing music on levels of state anxiety and state anger among a random sample of 48 criminal prisoners. Main findings are as follows: (a) level of state anxiety decreased among the treatment group compared with the comparison group and (b) level of state anger decreased among the treatment group compared with the comparison group. Findings are discussed in light of other studies that have shown positive effects of exposure to relaxing music on levels of anxiety and anger among other populations. The final part of the study provides practical recommendations for prison administrators regarding implementation of programs of relaxing music in various prison facilities.
Available from: digitalcommons.library.unlv.edu
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ABSTRACT: Despite concerns whether supermaximum security prisons violate human rights or prove effective, these facilities have proliferated in America over the past 25 years. This punishment—aimed at the “worst of the worst” inmates and involving 23-hr-per-day single-cell confinement with few privileges or services—has emerged despite little evidence that the public supports it. Based on public opinion survey data, this study identified the extent to which support exists for supermax prisons and so tested three interrelated hypotheses about variation in public views. The focal contention is that support can be linked to groups that are most concerned with symbolic threats, to those most embracing of a belief in individual agency, and to those who have had negative contacts with offenders. The article concludes with a discussion on implications for theory, research, and policy.
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