Gender-Sensitive Mental Health Care
Objective: The aim of this paper is to examine aspects of mental health and mental health care through a gender lens. Conclusion: Gender differences have an impact on mental health and the experience and course of women's mental illness. Comprehensive gender-sensitive mental health care requires the planning, delivery, monitoring and quality improvement initiatives of mental health care to be informed by a knowledge and understanding of gender differences in women and men and their inter-relationship with respect to childhood and adult life experiences (e.g. violence and abuse); day-to-day social, cultural, and family realities; expression and experience of mental ill health and treatment needs and responses.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examines why men engage less in mental health service use, by studying how gender is performed in interactions, following the doing gender perspective. We hypothesize that seeking help for mental illness may constitute a gendered role conflict among men since help seeking is associated with femininity. Therefore, we expect that men will recommend reliance on self-care options to other men, and in cases in which professional treatment is recommended, they will prefer medication to psychotherapy. We also expect that men will report greater stigmatizing attitudes. The survey Stigma in a Global Context-Belgian Mental Health Study (2009) conducted interviews of a representative sample of the Belgian general population (N = 743). The vignette technique, depicting depressive and schizophrenic symptoms, was used. Multiple linear and logistic models were estimated in SPSS. In male vignettes, self-care is more likely to be recommended, both by male and female respondents. Men are less likely to acknowledge the helpfulness of psychotherapy and women rate psychotherapy as less helpful when judging a man compared to a woman. Men rate tranquilizers as more helpful for other males than that women do for other females. Furthermore, male respondents seem to ascribe more shame and blame to the situation. The gender gap in mental health service use is due not only to men and their negative attitudes toward help seeking, but also to structured social norms that are reconstructed in interactions. Women also contribute to the maintenance of masculinity norms.0Comments 1Citation
- "There are no gender differences in the overall rates of psychopathology , yet men and women differ in types of symptoms. Women are more likely to internalize ; men are more likely to report externalizing disorders . This study therefore will examine why men engage less in the use of mental health services. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite the recent increase of research interest in involuntary treatment and the use of coercive measures, gender differences among coerced schizophrenia patients still remain understudied. It is well recognized that there are gender differences both in biological correlates and clinical presentations in schizophrenia, which is one of the most common diagnoses among patients who are treated against their will. The extent to which these differences may result in a difference in the use of coercive measures for men and women during the acute phase of the disease has not been studied. 291 male and 231 female coerced patients with schizophrenia were included in this study, which utilized data gathered by the EUNOMIA project (European Evaluation of Coercion in Psychiatry and Harmonization of Best Clinical Practice) and was carried out as a multi-centre prospective cohort study at 13 centers in 12 European countries. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, social functioning and aggressive behavior in patients who received any form of coercive measure (seclusion and/or forced medication and/or physical restraint) during their hospital stay were assessed. When compared to the non-coerced inpatient population, there was no difference in sociodemographic or clinical characteristics across either gender. However coerced female patients did show a worse social functioning than their coerced male counterparts, a finding which contrasts with the non-coerced inpatient population. Moreover, patterns of aggressive behavior were different between men and women, such that women exhibited aggressive behavior more frequently, but men committed severe aggressive acts more frequently. Staff used forced medication in women more frequently and physical restraint and seclusion more frequently with men. Results of this study point towards a higher threshold of aggressive behavior the treatment of women with coercive measures. This may be because less serious aggressive actions trigger the application of coercive measures in men. Moreover coerced women showed diminished social functioning, and more importantly more severe symptoms from the "excitement/hostile" cluster in contrast to coerced men. National and international recommendation on coercive treatment practices should include appropriate consideration of the evidence of gender differences in clinical presentation and aggressive behaviors found in inpatient populations.0Comments 3Citations
- "It is well recognized that gender differences have an impact on mental health in many disorders, and in particular on the course of schizophrenia . Neurodevelopmental [9,10] and neuropathological theories [11,12], and the estrogen protection hypothesis [13,14] have all been proposed as explanations for how gender differences develop in schizophrenia. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a common clinical symptom that affects women more than men. However, the association of excessive sleepiness with depressive and anxiety disorders in the broader population is unclear. The aim of this study was, therefore, to examine the association between excessive daytime sleepiness as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and depressive and anxiety disorders in a population-based sample of women. Methods: Using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders (Non-Patient) (SCID-I/NP), 944 women aged 20-97 years (median 49 years, IQR 33-65 years) were assessed for depressive and anxiety disorders as part of the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. EDS was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, cut-off > 10). Lifestyle factors were documented by self-report, height and weight were measured, and socioeconomic status categorised according to the Index of Relative Socio-Economic Advantage and Disadvantage. Results: Overall, 125 (13.2%) of the women were identified with EDS. EDS was associated with an increased likelihood for both current (OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.10-4.06) and lifetime history (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.28-2.97) of depressive disorders, but not anxiety disorders, independent of age and alcohol consumption. These findings were not explained by antidepressant or sedative use, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, or socioeconomic status. Conclusions: These results suggest that excessive daytime sleepiness is associated with current and lifetime depressive, but not anxiety disorders. Clinically, this highlights the need to take into account the possible bidirectional relationship between depressive disorders and excessive sleepiness when assessing mental health issues in patients with EDS.0Comments 16Citations
- "However, interpretation of results may not be generalisable to other populations of women, or to men. Despite this, the current study addresses the need for population-based data, and the growing recognition of a need for a gender-specific approach to mental-health care (Judd et al., 2009). Furthermore, the use of 'gold-standard' clinical interviews to determine the presence of depressive and anxiety disorders , the consideration of several possible confounding factors such as medication use, SES and lifestyle factors, as well as high participant retention, address the limitations of previously conducted research (cf. "