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Breed-typical behaviour in dogs—Historical remnants or recent constructs?

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Abstract

Dogs show considerable variation in morphology, genetics and behaviour caused by long periods of artificial selection. This is evident in the large number of breeds we have today. Behavioural differences among breeds have often been regarded as remnants from past selection during the breeds’ origin. However, the selection in many breeds has, during the last decades, gone through great changes, which could have influenced breed-typical behaviour. In order to investigate this, breed differences were studied using data from a standardized behavioural test from 13,097 dogs of 31 breeds from the Swedish dog population. Based on the test results, breed scores were calculated for four behavioural traits: playfulness, curiosity/fearlessness, sociability and aggressiveness. These traits have previously been found to be stable and valid, and hence regarded as personality traits in the dog. The present results suggested large differences between breeds in all of the investigated traits, even though there were within-breed variations. No relationships between breed-characteristic behaviour and function in the breeds’ origins were found. Instead, there were correlations between breed scores and current use of the breeding stocks, which suggest that selection in the recent past has affected breed-typical behaviour. The breeds’ use in dog shows, the dominating use in general, was negatively correlated with all investigated traits, both in sires and in dams. In contrast, use in Working dog trials was positively correlated with playfulness and aggressiveness in sires. Thus, these results suggest that selection for dog show use is positively correlated with social and non-social fearfulness, and negatively with playfulness, curiosity in potentially threatening situations and aggressiveness, whereas selection for Working dog use is positively correlated with playfulness and aggressiveness. Furthermore, correlation analyses show that popular breeds have higher sociability and playfulness scores than less popular breeds, suggesting that a positive attitude towards strangers is an important characteristic of a functional pet dog and desirable by dog owners. This indicates that selection towards use in dog shows may be in conflict with pet dog selection. Furthermore, these results suggest that basic dimensions of dog behaviour can be changed when selection pressure changes, and that the domestication of the dog still is in progress. A standardized behavioural test, like the one used in this study, is suggested to be highly useful as a tool in dog breeding programs.

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... Bold dogs (compared to shy dogs) had better resistance to diseases in a dog shelter, which is a stressful and very infectious environment. 26 As boldness and sociability differ between different breeds, [27][28][29] could it also be interpreted that some breeds are more resilient in facing adversities compared to others? The Labrador is among the boldest and most social (extraversion) dog breeds studied 12 and is also the most popular dog breed as a family pet in several countries, as well as highly used also as a working dog. ...
... 81 Although this probably needs further investigation, also Svartberg (2005) found evidence that breed's recent selection (and not the past historical selection) was associated with personality traits that are important for resilience (N > 13 000 dogs). 27 Selection for dog shows (breeding for conformation), was associated with increased social and non-social fearfulness, and negatively associated with aggressiveness, playfulness and curiosity. 27 Instead, working trial merits were positively correlated with playfulness and aggressiveness. ...
... 27 Selection for dog shows (breeding for conformation), was associated with increased social and non-social fearfulness, and negatively associated with aggressiveness, playfulness and curiosity. 27 Instead, working trial merits were positively correlated with playfulness and aggressiveness. 27 Epigenetics Early experiences often have a profound impact on individuals' functioning across their life span; however, the effect of these experiences does not necessary end there but continues across several generations. ...
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Katriina Tiira1,2 1SmartDOG, Riihimäki 11130, Finland; 2Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, FinlandCorrespondence: Katriina TiiraDepartment of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, University of Helsinki, PO Box 57, Helsinki FI-00014, FinlandEmail Katriina.tiira@helsinki.fiAbstract: What are the key factors of psychological resilience in dogs? Why do some individuals recover swiftly from neglect, abuse or several years of harsh kennel environments, while some seem to be permanently traumatized by much milder adverse experiences? Resilience is a concept seldom discussed in canine studies; however, many studies have identified risk factors (both environmental and genetic) for developing anxieties, aggression or other behavioral problems. These studies also indicate several factors that may act as protective agents against life adversities. In this paper, I will present some of the most commonly identified key factors of resilience in other species and discuss what has been found in dogs. This paper is an attempt to raise focus on the positive key factors in a dog’s life that are important for dog welfare, a healthy psychological outcome and are also important building blocks of a happy and well-behaving pet.Keywords: resilience, dog, stress
... This could have been particularly important in working breeds, where accentuated human-directed play behaviour may have been an important training tool that also strengthened the social bond between for instance a hunter and its hunting dog (e.g. [9,13]). However, until now, no broad-scale analysis exists on human-directed play behaviour evolution in the domestic dog in light of recent insights into the genetic relationships between different dog breeds (e.g. ...
... The association between functional group type and human-directed play behaviour supports that artificial selection of specific breed qualities has also affected humandirected play behaviour. This result differs from a previous study by Svartberg [13] that did not detect differences in playfulness among different breed types. We suggest that the smaller sample size and the lack of control for shared ancestry in the previous study explain this difference. ...
Article
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Human-directed play behaviour is a distinct behavioural feature of domestic dogs. But the role that artificial selection for contemporary dog breeds has played for human-directed play behaviour remains elusive. Here, we investigate how human-directed play behaviour has evolved in relation to the selection for different functions, considering processes of shared ancestry and gene flow among the different breeds. We use the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed group categorization to reflect the major functional differences and combine this with observational data on human-directed play behaviour for over 132 breeds across 89 352 individuals from the Swedish Dog Mentality Assessment project. Our analyses demonstrate that ancestor dogs already showed intermediate levels of human-directed play behaviour, levels that are shared with several modern breed types. Herding and Sporting breeds display higher levels of human-directed play behaviour, statistically distinguishable from Non-sporting and Toy breeds. Our results suggest that human-directed play behaviour played a role in the early domestication of dogs and that subsequent artificial selection for function has been important for contemporary variation in a behavioural phenotype mediating the social bond with humans.
... Ancient breeds are a small group of dog breeds originating more than 500 years ago, characterized by detectable genetic admixture with wolves and represent an early stage of dog domestication 31 . Modern breeds, which represent the vast majority of the more than 400 present day dog breeds, originated from stringent breeding efforts taking place only over the last 200 years 31,33 , creating strong, breedspecific selection pressures on behavioural and morphological traits [34][35][36][37][38] . These modern breeds are highly divergent from both the ancient breeds and wolves, with no detectable wolf admixture 31 . ...
... A trained test leader walks the owner through all steps of the tests and verifies their correct execution, while a trained observer, not familiar with the dog, assesses the dog's behavioural reaction on an intensity scale from 1 (low intensity) to 5 (high intensity). Previous studies have used all 33 behavioural reactions to uncover possible personality traits in dogs, their stability and broader application 35,48,49,61,62 . For this study we had a clear a priori hypothesis regarding how specific behaviours should change together as a consequence of domestication. ...
Article
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Domestication is hypothesized to drive correlated responses in animal morphology, physiology and behaviour, a phenomenon known as the domestication syndrome. However, we currently lack quantitative confirmation that suites of behaviours are correlated during domestication. Here we evaluate the strength and direction of behavioural correlations among key prosocial (sociability, playfulness) and reactive (fearfulness, aggression) behaviours implicated in the domestication syndrome in 76,158 dogs representing 78 registered breeds. Consistent with the domestication syndrome hypothesis, behavioural correlations within prosocial and reactive categories demonstrated the expected direction-specificity across dogs. However, correlational strength varied between dog breeds representing early (ancient) and late (modern) stages of domestication, with ancient breeds exhibiting exaggerated correlations compared to modern breeds across prosocial and reactive behaviours. Our results suggest that suites of correlated behaviours have been temporally decoupled during dog domestication and that recent shifts in selection pressures in modern dog breeds affect the expression of domestication-related behaviours independently.
... Svartberg (96) found breed differences in the behavioural traits among 31 different breeds. For example, the extremes for the different traits were: playfulness, Malinois (highest) and Swiss mountain dog (lowest); curiosity, Labrador and collie; sociability, flat-coated retriever and Groenendael; aggressiveness, Malinois and Leonberger. ...
... It has been discussed whether breed differences in general behaviour stems from historical function or if they are rather linked to recent selection. In Svartberg (2006), none of the behavioural traits studied could be related to breeds' historical function. Contrarily, Turcsán, et al. (102) could trace boldness and trainability to historical function. ...
... Estimates suggest that the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has been associated with humans since 9,000-30,000 years ago (Bollen and Horowitz, 2008). Since these early associations, dogs have become an established part of daily life (Marinelli et al., 2007), with the current world population of domestic dogs estimated as 500 million, a number which does not include free-roaming populations (Svartberg, 2005). With our lifestyles changing dramatically since our early associations with dogs, pet dogs are increasingly required to be trained and suitably controlled by their owners in order to behave acceptably within human society (Vigne, 2011). ...
... Compared to utility dogs, pastoral, terrier, and working dogs were more likely to be reported for aggressive behaviour. This is similar to previous studies which found that the most common breeds reported for aggressive behaviour were German Shepherds (pastoral), Rottweilers (working), Bull Terriers and Jack Russell Terriers (both terriers) (Duffy et al., 2008;Hsu and Sun, 2010;Svartberg, 2005). These results make sense as these groups were originally bred with some degree of assertiveness required for protection, herding and hunting (KennelClub UK, 2017). ...
Article
This study aimed to identify the risk factors for aggressive behaviour in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) in Mainland China. This information has never been estimated before for owned dogs in China, therefore, there has been a lack of information to help guide veterinarians and dog behaviourists when giving advice to owners of dogs considered to have such behaviour problems. In order to establish this information, questionnaires were completed in electronic and paper format by dog owners: 2575 completed questionnaires were received. The majority of owners (2215, 86 %) reported that their dogs exhibited at least one behaviour they considered a problem: the main behaviour problem categories reported by owners were barking (871, 33.8 %), lunging and biting other dogs or people (586, 22.7 %), urinating inappropriately (566, 22 %), being destructive (537, 21.9 %), and eating non-food items (354, 13.7 %). When asked specifically about aggressive (any of growling, baring teeth, snarling, snapping or biting) and biting behaviours, 1578 owners (61 %) reported their dogs regularly being aggressive to other dogs or people, and 883 (34 %) reported that their dog had bitten other dogs or people. By using binomial logistic regression analyses, significant risk and protective factors were found for aggressive (X²(24, N = 2575) = 112.613, Nagelkerke R² = .058, p < 0.001) and biting (X²(24, N = 2575) = 101.087, Nagelkerke R² = .053, p < 0.001) behaviour. Variable categories with the largest odds ratios (>2.5) for being reported for aggressive behaviour include: terriers; and little time spent with the owner. Variable categories with the largest odds ratios (>2.00) for being reported for biting include: living with children older than 10 years of age; and being acquired from ‘other types’ of sources (compared to e.g. being found as a stray, which was protective). These results are very similar to those found in other geographical areas, for example in the USA, Sweden and Taiwan. The investigation of risk factors for aggressive behaviour will help veterinarians and dog behaviourists provide more appropriate advice to owners regarding their dogs’ aggressive behaviour, which will in turn improve dog welfare and public safety in China.
... With dogs, it is widely accepted that behavior differs between breeds, with empirical evidence to support this [e.g., (105)(106)(107)]. For example, through secondary analysis of existing data from the Swedish Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), an assessment composed of various test batteries, Svartberg (105) found that Golden Retrievers ranked relatively low in aggression (#22/31), low in curiosity/fearlessness (#26/31), and relatively high in sociability and playfulness (#5 and 12 respectively) compared to other breeds tested such as the Belgian Malinois, Australian Shepherd, American Staffordshire Terrier, Parson Russell Terrier, or Great Swiss Mountain Dog (all of which ranked in the top 5 for aggression). ...
... With dogs, it is widely accepted that behavior differs between breeds, with empirical evidence to support this [e.g., (105)(106)(107)]. For example, through secondary analysis of existing data from the Swedish Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), an assessment composed of various test batteries, Svartberg (105) found that Golden Retrievers ranked relatively low in aggression (#22/31), low in curiosity/fearlessness (#26/31), and relatively high in sociability and playfulness (#5 and 12 respectively) compared to other breeds tested such as the Belgian Malinois, Australian Shepherd, American Staffordshire Terrier, Parson Russell Terrier, or Great Swiss Mountain Dog (all of which ranked in the top 5 for aggression). ...
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To date, investigations of the welfare of therapy dogs have focused largely on examining physiological and behavioral measures that could indicate if the animal is experiencing stress or distress. However, this approach does not fully address the definition of welfare which is often described as existing on a continuum from negative (or stressful) to positive . With therapy dogs, it would be worth addressing if they experience positive emotional affect while working since the quality and efficacy of animal-assisted interventions for the human recipient is likely to be influenced by the animal's emotional state during the interaction. The purpose of this review is to articulate how objective measurements of the HPA axis and measurements of behavioral observations and standardized questions can be used to evaluate positive welfare in therapy dogs. A potentially relevant indicator of positive welfare is the peripheral concentration of the neurohormone oxytocin, which has been found to increase in systemic circulation within a variety of species during positive social and affiliative contexts, including during human-dog interaction. Oxytocin is also a negative-feedback regulator of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis, which culminates with the production of the stress hormone cortisol. Cortisol is widely used as a physiological indicator to assess negative welfare states in animals, including therapy dogs. Observable behavior during interactions with humans that may convey enjoyment could provide indicators of positive welfare in dogs such as engagement in play, or human-directed affiliative behaviors including leaning against, nudging, or licking the patient. However, in assessing positive welfare, it is also critical to consider that all animal behavioral displays and physiological responses are dependent on the dog's individual (and breed) temperament. Temperament directly drives how the animal copes and responds to its current physical and social environment, including during stressful situations such as when therapy dogs interact with unfamiliar humans in novel healthcare settings. Coupled with both positive and negative physiological and behavioral welfare indicators, questionnaire data can provide further context to, and enhance interpretations of, therapy dog welfare assessment results. Overall, to date, no studies have measured all of these factors to assess therapy dog welfare.
... size, Sutter et al., 2007) and purposes (Wayne et al., 2006). Besides the vast differences in their physical appearancewhat is also unique to this specieshuman efforts to select the most suitable working dogs caused remarkable differences also in particular canine behaviours (Svartberg, 2006), which in some cases is even detectable during the puppyhood (e.g.: Lenkei et al., 2019;Morrow et al., 2015). In spite of the growing interest towards breed-specific and breed-related behavioural patterns in dogs, there is a surprising lack of knowledge about the possible effect of breed selection on the attachment behaviour. ...
... Results of breed-related behavioural studies should always be interpreted with caution because of two main reasons. First, in some cases within-breed behavioural differences can also be considerably high (Svartberg, 2006). To tackle this problem to a given extent, we included several different breeds to both test groups and we did not test more than six subjects from one breed. ...
Article
Adult dogs show similar behaviour pattern towards their owners as human infants towards their caregivers among experimental conditions, where the attachment behaviour is activated because of the moderately stressful situation. Meanwhile the capacity to form attachment towards the owner is considered as part of the domestication history of dogs, in more recent times dogs were selected for often very different work-related behavioural phenotypes. For instance, ‘cooperative’ dog breeds, like shepherd dogs, typically work in visual contact with the handler, while the ‘independent’ breeds, such as the hounds or sled dogs, work independently. We investigated whether cooperative and non-cooperative working dogs would also show different patterns in their attachment behaviour. We tested independent (N = 29) and cooperative (N = 28) dogs from various working breeds in the Strange Situation Test. To describe the subjects’ behaviour, we used a scoring system with three main factors (Attachment, Acceptance, Anxiety). We did not find any significant between-group difference in the attachment pattern of the two main working dog types (Attachment: P = 0.499; Anxiety P = 0.200; Acceptance P = 0.339). Within-breed differences may be stronger than between-breed differences in this situation, while it is also possible that owners of different breeds handle their dogs differently. Our results support the theory that attachment to the owner is a fundamentally similar feature in socialized dogs, and subsequent functional breed selection may rather influence the more specific behavioural phenotypes of dogs.
... Los componentes que se contemplan en los párrafos anteriores, aclaran la personalidad del perro, y también establecen las conductas que deben medirse en diferentes enfoques educativos (Svartberg, 2006). Al buscar en muchos casos, el establecimiento de la cercanía y reciprocidad del canino hacía el humano (Ley, Bennett & Coleman, 2008); con el fin de ajustar los términos y estandarizar las diferentes pruebas propuestas en este trabajo. ...
... In contrast, Labrador Retrievers were seldomly fearful. These results are in agreement with previous studies, ranking mixed breed dogs high in fearfulness 9,13,35,40 and Labrador Retrievers and Staffordshire Bull Terriers low in fearfulness 35,41,45,46 . Fear of surfaces and heights was the most often observed in Rough Collie and mixed breed dogs. ...
Article
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Behaviour problems and anxieties in dogs decrease their quality of life and may lead to relinquishment or euthanasia. Considering the large number of pet dogs and the commonness of these problematic behaviours, a better understanding of the epidemiology and related molecular and environmental factors is needed. We have here studied the prevalence, comorbidity, and breed specificity of seven canine anxiety-like traits: noise sensitivity, fearfulness, fear of surfaces and heights, inattention/impulsivity, compulsion, separation related behaviour and aggression with an online behaviour questionnaire answered by dog owners. Our results show that noise sensitivity is the most common anxiety-related trait with a prevalence of 32% in 13,700 Finnish pet dogs. Due to the high prevalence of noise sensitivity and fear, they were the most common comorbidities. However, when comparing the relative risk, the largest risk ratios were seen between hyperactivity/inattention, separation related behaviour and compulsion, and between fear and aggression. Furthermore, dog breeds showed large differences in prevalence of all anxiety-related traits, suggesting a strong genetic contribution. As a result, selective breeding focusing on behaviour may reduce the prevalence of canine anxieties. Anxious animals may suffer from chronic stress and thus, modified breeding policies could improve the welfare of our companion dogs.
... Variation in dog behaviour is similar to what is observed in human populations. E.g. dogs show differences in personality and temperament (Svartberg & Forkman 2002;Svartberg et al. 2005), for review see (Jones & Gosling 2005;Mehrkam & Wynne 2014), aggression (Svartberg 2006;van den Berg et al. 2003) and anxiety (Tiira et al. 2016). ...
... The dog (Canis familiaris), which was domesticated from the gray wolf (Canis lupus) at least 15,000 years ago (Driscoll et al., 2009), shows extreme phenotypic variation as a species. Present-day dogs are bred for highly breed-specific requirements for behavior and morphology (Svartberg, 2006;Mehrkam and Wynne, 2014), and although a large amount of the resulting variation is believed to originate from standing genetic variation in ancestral populations (Ostrander and Wayne, 2005), novel mutations have had a significant impact during breed formation . For instance, black coat color (Candille et al., 2007;Anderson et al., 2009), chondrodysplasia (foreshortened limbs, Parker et al., 2009, and brachycephaly (pathologically short muzzle, Schoenebeck et al., 2012) are traits that have occurred in modern dogs through novel mutations. ...
Article
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Domestication dramatically alters phenotypes across animal species. Standing variation among ances-tral populations often drives phenotypic change during domestication, but some changes are causedby novel mutations. In dogs (Canis familiaris) specifically, it has been suggested that the ability tointerpret social-communicative behavior expressed by humans originated post-domestication andthis behavior is thus not expected to occur in wolves (Canis lupus). Here we report the observationof three 8-week-old wolf puppies spontaneously responding to social-communicative behaviorsfrom an unfamiliar person by retrieving a ball. This behavioral expression in wolves has significant im-plications for our understanding and expectations of the genetic foundations of dog behavior. Impor-tantly, our observations indicate that behavioral responses to human social-communicative cues arenot unique to dogs. This suggests that, although probably rare, standing variation in the expressionof human-directed behavior in ancestral populations could have been an important target for earlyselective pressures exerted during dog domestication.
... By extension, the breed ancestry of an individual dog is assumed to be predictive of temperament and behavior (21), with dog DNA tests marketed as tools for learning about a dog's personality and training needs (22). Studies, however, found that withinbreed behavioral variation approaches levels similar to the variation between breeds (23,24), suggesting that such predictions are error prone even in purebred dogs. ...
Article
Behavioral genetics in dogs has focused on modern breeds, which are isolated subgroups with distinctive physical and, purportedly, behavioral characteristics. We interrogated breed stereotypes by surveying owners of 18,385 purebred and mixed-breed dogs and genotyping 2155 dogs. Most behavioral traits are heritable [heritability (h2) > 25%], and admixture patterns in mixed-breed dogs reveal breed propensities. Breed explains just 9% of behavioral variation in individuals. Genome-wide association analyses identify 11 loci that are significantly associated with behavior, and characteristic breed behaviors exhibit genetic complexity. Behavioral loci are not unusually differentiated in breeds, but breed propensities align, albeit weakly, with ancestral function. We propose that behaviors perceived as characteristic of modern breeds derive from thousands of years of polygenic adaptation that predates breed formation, with modern breeds distinguished primarily by aesthetic traits.
... Esta situación se encuentra limitada por el número de compradores que entienden la importancia de tener un perro entrenado(Gómez, Atehortua & Orozco, 2007), el número de cachorros que presenta una camada, la sobrevivencia de la misma, la oferta y demanda según la raza y la necesidad del dueño de que el perro optimice sus características físicas, psíquicas y técnico-tácticas(Pellegrino, et al.;.Se debe prestar atención a la presencia de 23 razas que se comercializan en el país, desde razas grandes, medianas y pequeñas(Case, Carey & Hirakawa, 1997), siendo la raza pastor alemán, la que más se cría en el país. Es de esperar, debido a que por el proceso de domesticación que sufrieron los perros, es la especie que presenta una mayor selección artificial atraves del tiempo, que resulto en variedad de morfologías, genes y adaptación de ambientes(Svartberg, 2006). Sumado a los diferentes papeles o actividades que esta mascota cumpliría como animal de compañía(Cekavicius & Pajarskaite, 2012).En cuanto a las características de los caniles, el 61,5% de los criaderos visitados cuentan con dimensiones adecuadas, en donde la regla general fue de 1,5 m por 4 m. ...
Article
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Introducción: Los criaderos de perros son establecimientos dedicados a la reproducción, cría y venta de una o más razas, de forma ocasional o permanente. Objetivo: Pretendemos analizar las actividades que se realizan en criaderos registrados, para entender el funcionamiento de los criaderos en la Gran Área Metropolitana en Costa Rica. Metodos: Procedimos a contactar al Servicio Nacional de Salud Animal (SENASA) y tres asociaciones privadas relacionadas con la actividad de la cría y venta de caninos en el país, durante los años 2017 y 2018. Mediante un instrumento tipo encuesta, recolectamos la información relacionada al manejo de los animales, alimentación, higiene, reproducción, sanidad, instalaciones y manejo de desechos. Resultados: Determinamos un total de 111 sistemas de producción dedicados a la crianza de perros en todo el territorio nacional según las listas de los cuatro entes visitados, de los cuales solo el 26,13% se encuentran registrados ante el ente regulador, SENASA. De los 26 criaderos vistados en el GAM, se crían y manejan 23 razas y los precios de venta de estos animales, fluctúan entre $500 hasta un máximo de $3 500. En el caso del manejo alimenticio encontramos el uso de suplementos alimenticios adicionales al uso del alimento balanceado, para mejorar el aporte de nutrimentos en la dieta, los cuales podrían provocar un aporte que sobrepase los requerimientos nutricionales. En la reproducción, sobresale el uso de ultrasonidos y exámenes de progesterona para determinar el momento de la monta. Para el manejo de desechos y limpieza de caniles, el manejo presenta similitud entre sistemas, donde los productores se hacen cargo o reciben apoyo de una persona externa. Conclusión: Los criaderos de perros en la gran área metropolitana en Costa Rica presentan estrategias de manejo propias de cada sistema, las cuales se asocian a la experiencia y procesos de apoyo técnico que reciben o recibieron los encargados de los sistemas.
... Among domesticates, the dog has been argued to be the only species expressing the full DS (Sánchez-Villagra et al. 2016). Dogs have been bred for highly breed-specific morphological and behavioral traits (Svartberg 2006;Mehrkam and Wynne 2014), which is illustrated by the extreme phenotypic variation expressed among the more than 400 present day dog breeds (Lindblad-Toh et al. 2005;Parker et al. 2017). Although key DS traits of behavior and morphology do not qualitatively appear to occur simultaneously across breeds (Sánchez-Villagra et al. 2016), this has never been tested quantitatively. ...
Article
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Domesticated animals display suites of altered morphological, behavioral, and physiological traits compared to their wild ancestors, a phenomenon known as the domestication syndrome (DS). Because these alterations are observed to co‐occur across a wide range of present day domesticates, the traits within the DS are assumed to covary within species and a single developmental mechanism has been hypothesized to cause the observed co‐occurrence. However, due to the lack of formal testing it is currently not well‐resolved if the traits within DS actually covary. Here, we test the hypothesis that the presence of the classic morphological domestication traits white pigmentation, floppy ears, and curly tails predict the strength of behavioral correlations in support of the DS in 78 dog breeds. Contrary to the expectations of covariation among DS traits, we found that morphological traits did not covary among themselves, nor did they predict the strength of behavioral correlations among dog breeds. Further, the number of morphological traits in a breed did not predict the strength of behavioral correlations. Our results thus contrast with the hypothesis that the DS arises due to a shared underlying mechanism, but more importantly, questions if the morphological traits embedded in the DS are actual domestication traits or postdomestication improvement traits. For dogs, it seems highly likely that strong selection for breed specific morphological traits only happened recently and in relation to breed formation. Present day dogs therefore have limited bearing of the initial selection pressures applied during domestication and we should reevaluate our expectations of the DS accordingly.
... There are over 400 breeds of dogs displaying a high level of diversity in behaviour and morphology (Bradshaw et al. 1996;Svartberg 2006;Serpell & Duffy 2014). Of these dog breeds, few are chosen to become working detection dogs. ...
Thesis
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Detection dog success is dependent on the selected individuals. Thus, to investigate factors important to dog and handler selection, I trained 12 dogs from three breeds at detection work, experimentally assessing their training times and odour discrimination ability. My research determined there are multiple traits that create a successful dog-handler team, which are not specific to a certain breed or personality type. The dog-handler relationship was also significant in impacting team success and welfare. It is therefore crucial to continue challenging and advancing best practises, not only for animal welfare but also for the success of the working dog industry.
... Wright and Nesselrote, 1987;Storengen and Lingaas, 2015); or even an abnormality (Podberscek and Serpell, 1996). There is evidence that the selection for particular working tasks resulted in such behavioural traits that reliably characterize certain dog breeds (Svartberg, 2006). Obviously, the apparent general behavioural characteristics of dog breeds consist of a much wider selection of traits than the strictly purpose-related behaviours (e.g. ...
Article
The domestication of dogs resulted in several fundamental behavioural changes as compared to their closest wild living relative, the wolf. While these characteristics are considered to be fairly robust across dogs, dog breeds themselves manifest apparently strong behavioural differences. Thus far the functional roots of breed-specific behaviours are still less understood and supported by empirical research. We hypothesized that historical selection for the level of working interaction intimacy with their handlers, may have resulted in the fundamental differences between the main working dog types and their behavioural reactions when separated from their owner. In our study, dogs from breeds that were originally selected for either cooperative or independent work tasks, were tested in a short outdoor separation test. We included dogs with and without owner-reported separation-related disorder (SRD) to both groups. We found that SRD-status and the breed type were in significant association with various stress related behaviours during separation from the owner. Dogs from cooperative working breeds with SRD barked more frequently, meanwhile barking was less prevalent in independent breeds and also in cooperative breeds without owner-reported SRD symptoms. General movement (showing the dogs’ intention to follow or find the disappearing, then absent owner) was uniformly strongest in cooperative dogs with SRD. Whining appeared most frequently in dogs with SRD, regardless to the breed type. These are the first results that support a functional evolutionary framework behind the association of particular dog breeds with the extent of their stressful reactions to separation from their owner.
... Furthermore, various dog breeds such as Poodle (Feddersen-Petersen, 1991), Alaskan Malamute (Frank and Frank, 1985) and German Shepherd, Siberian Husky, Alaskan Malamute, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog (Hansen Wheat et al., 2018) as well as mixed breeds Marshall-Pescini et al., 2017) have been used to uncover the behavioral implications of domestication from wolves. However, with dogs being bred to fulfill highly specialized behavioral niches (Coppinger and Coppinger, 2001;Svartberg, 2006;Mehrkam and Wynne, 2014), results will inevitably vary across studies (Scott and Fuller, 1965;Morrow et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Selection of behavioral traits holds a prominent role in the domestication of animals, and domesticated species are generally assumed to express reduced fear and reactivity toward novel stimuli compared to their ancestral species. However, very few studies have explicitly tested this proposed link between domestication and reduced fear responses. Of the limited number of studies experimentally addressing the alterations of fear during domestication, the majority has been done on canids. These studies on foxes, wolves, and dogs suggest that decreased expression of fear in domesticated animals is linked to a domestication-driven delay in the first onset of fearful behavior during early ontogeny. Thus, wolves are expected to express exaggerated fearfulness earlier during ontogeny compared to dogs. However, while adult dogs are less fearful toward novelty than adult wolves and wolf-dog hybrids, consensus is lacking on when differences in fear expression arise in wolves and dogs. Here we present the first extended examination of fear development in hand-raised dogs and European gray wolves, using repeated novel object tests from 6 to 26 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, we found no evidence in support of an increase in fearfulness in wolves with age or a delayed onset of fear response in dogs compared to wolves. Instead, we found that dogs strongly reduced their fear response in the period between 6 and 26 weeks of age, resulting in a significant species difference in fear expression toward novelty from the age of 18 weeks. Critically, as wolves did not differ in their fear response toward novelty over time, the detected species difference was caused solely by a progressive reduced fear response in dogs. Our results thereby suggest that species differences in fear of novelty between wolves and dogs are not caused by a domestication-driven shift in the first onset of fear response. Instead, we suggest that a loss of sensitivity toward novelty with age in dogs causes the difference in fear expression toward novelty in wolves and dogs.
... The dog (Canis familiaris), which was domesticated from the grey wolf (Canis lupus) at least 46 15,000 years ago [2], show extreme phenotypic variation as a species. Present day dogs are 47 bred for highly breed-specific requirements for behaviour and morphology [9,10], and while a 48 significant amount of the resulting variation is believed to originate from standing genetic 49 variation in ancestral populations [11], novel mutations have had a significant impact during 50 3 of 14 breed formation [4]. For instance, black coat colour [12,13], chondrodysplasia (foreshortened 51 limbs [5]) and brachycephaly (pathologically short muzzle [14]) are traits that have occurred 52 in modern dogs through novel mutations. ...
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Domestication dramatically alters phenotypes. Standing variation among ancestral populations often drives phenotypic change during domestication, but some changes are caused by novel mutations. Dogs (Canis familiaris) engage in interspecific play with humans and it has specifically been suggested that the ability to interpret social-communicative behaviour expressed by humans is a novel dog-specific skill. Thus, wolves (Canis lupus) are not expected to engage in interspecific play with a human based on social-communicative cues. Here we report the observation of three eight week-old wolf puppies spontaneously responding to social-communicative behaviours from a stranger by retrieving a ball. This unexpected and novel observation has significant implications for our understanding and expectations of the genetic foundations of dog behaviour. Importantly, our observations indicate that behavioural responses to human social-communicative cues are not unique to dogs. This suggests that, while probably rare, standing variation in the expression of human-directed behaviour in ancestral populations could have been an important target for early selective pressures exerted during dog domestication.
... However, the situations presented in these two tests were rather different and the results of the hold and pet test may indicate greater tolerance of Labradors for being restrained, as suggested by their tendency to remain close to the experimenter after being released. This interpretation is also supported by the findings of Svartberg (2006) showing that Labrador puppies obtained higher scores in sociability compared to German Shepherd puppies. Based on the origin of the breed, it is reasonable to assume that CSW puppies behave more similarly to German Shepherds than Labrador puppies during social interactions. ...
Article
Introduction: Most of the studies investigating the effect of early rearing environment in dogs used laboratory dogs and reported that early experiences markedly affect the puppies' behavior. However, the subjects of these experiments cannot be considered as representatives of family dogs. Methods: In this study, we investigated whether different raising conditions shape social behavior toward humans in 8-week-old family dog puppies of two breeds, Labrador and Czechoslovakian wolf dog. The puppies were tested in a series of tests that represented typical situations of family dogs. Results: We found that Czechoslovakian wolf dog puppies were more active than Labrador puppies in general, as they were more likely to explore the environment and the objects and spent more time doing so. Tendency to gaze at humans also varied between breeds, but in a context-specific way. Additionally, puppies housed separately from their mother interacted more with toys, puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay closer to the experimenter than puppies raised in the house, and puppies housed in a kennel tended to stay in the proximity of the experimenter more than puppies raised in the house. Conclusions: Our results provide evidence for early keeping conditions influencing social behavior and also highlight breed differences in puppies' behavior. Whether these differences are due to different developmental patterns and/or behavioral predispositions remains to be explored.
... Molossoid dogs, by contrast, were originally selected for guarding and attending to strangers. Various studies of dogs' personality have found that guarding breeds, including molossoids, are the boldest breed group (Turcsán et al. 2011;Starling et al. 2013), and are notably bolder than shepherd dogs (Svartberg 2006;Duffy et al. 2008). Molossoid dogs were selected to respond independently to novel and unusual situations (Starling et al. 2013), whereas shepherd dogs were expected to be more focused on their owners and less interested in unfamiliar people than other breeds (Vas et al. 2005;Passalacqua et al. 2011;. ...
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Humans show greater affiliation with people who are behaviorally synchronized with them but little is known about the impact of synchronization at an interspecific level. We, therefore, explored whether the synchronization of humans with dogs affects dogs’ human preferences. Pet dogs were exposed to two unfamiliar persons: one synchronized her walking behavior with them and one walked randomly. In a preference test, molossoids exhibited a clear social preference for the synchronized person, unlike shepherds. We conclude that pet dogs show a greater affiliation with humans who mimic their walking behavior, although genetic selection modulates this propensity. Behavioral synchronization, therefore, acts as a social glue in dogs too. It is the first time that such a human-like ability has been highlighted in domesticated canids at an interspecific level. Implications for the evolution of behavioral synchronization are discussed.
... Our questionnaire, while largely modelled on C-BARQ did differ in that all traits were scored according to frequency of behaviours. It is also possible that differences in the reported behaviours of Labradors may be affected by their geographic region, or may be affected by the purposes for which they are bred [13]. The within-breed genetic variation of Labradors in the past has been associated with both the role of the dog (working, show, pet) and coat colour [14]. ...
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Background: Making assumptions regarding temperament and intelligence based on the physical appearance of dogs can be a conscious or unconscious human act. Labrador retrievers with chocolate-coloured coats are anecdotally considered to be less trainable and more hyperactive and aggressive than their black or yellow peers. To test these assertions, we analysed the owner-reported behavioural traits of Labradors in relation to both their observable coat colour, and their TYRP1 and MC1R genotypes. Results: We used the results of an owner-based questionnaire to determine scores for 21 behavioural traits and test whether these scores varied with coat colour (n = 225). Familiar dog aggression was the only trait that was found to vary significantly with coat colour (P = 0.013). Yellow Labradors had a higher score than chocolate Labradors, even when corrected for multiple testing (P = 0.021).We repeated the analyses for a subset of 63 Labradors with available genotyping data for the genes (MC1R and TYRP1) that are known to determine the primary coat colours in Labradors. Familiar dog aggression scores varied with both the observed coat colour and MC1R genotype. Dogs homozygous for MC1R recessive allele (with yellow coat colour) scored higher for familiar dog aggression than either black or chocolate Labradors. However, no association maintained significance when incorporating Bonferroni correction. Dog trainability scores decreased additively as the number of recessive brown alleles for TYRP1 increased. This allelic association was independent of the observable coat colour. Dogs homozygous for the brown allele were considered less trainable than dogs with no brown alleles (P = 0.030). Conclusions: Our results do not support that chocolate-coloured Labradors are more hyperactive or aggressive than either black or yellow Labradors. Trainability scores varied with TYRP1 genotype but not the observable coat colour. Further validation is required.
... There are two additional considerations to handling suitability. Within historically domesticated species, breed plays an important role in behaviour (Serpell, McCune, Gee & Griffin, 2017;Svartberg, 2006). Dogs and horses especially are bred for a variety of roles -to run fast, pull heavy equipment, defend property, herd sheep -which of course dictate the temperament of that breed. ...
Article
https://www.celcis.org/files/6615/4506/0074/2018_Vol_17_No_4_Wilson_V_Human-Animal_Interactions.pdf
... However, other works found differences between the two. For instance, Labradors had a higher score in curiosity/fearlessness compared to Goldens (Svartberg, 2006), and Goldens exhibited more indicators of distress than Labradors during the Strange Situation Test (Fallani et al., 2007). These differences across studies may be related to the particular characteristics of the tasks featured in them. ...
Article
Oxytocin is a neurohormone involved in domestic dogs’ socio-cognitive abilities which appears to be key in the display of gazing behavior as a communicative signal. However, differential effects of oxytocin have been reported in various tasks according to the dogs’ breed. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of the intranasal administration of oxytocin on gazing towards the human face in Golden and Labrador Retrievers. This was assessed during a learning task in which dogs had to gaze at the human face in order to received food that was visible but inaccessible. Results indicate that only intact dogs who received oxytocin exhibited an increase in gazing behavior, while no differences were observed for neutered dogs. This effect could be related to an interaction between oxytocin and steroid hormones in intact dogs. These findings highlight the importance of including modulating factors, such as breed and neutered status, when studying the mechanisms of oxytocin.
... Another aspect for consideration is breed-associated risk for behavior problems, as it may be associated with the breed prevalence and popularity in the area (Reisner et al., 2005;Svartberg, 2006). Statistics from the Brazilian Cynophilia Confederation (CBKC) reveals that Shih Tzu ranks third in number of dogs registered in 2017, so it is a popular breed in Brazil and could lead to popular sire effects (CBKC, 2017). ...
... Covariates influenced all personality traits and unwanted behavioral traits. Not surprisingly, breed mean score significantly explained variation in personality and unwanted behaviors, indicating that breed indeed influences a dog's behavior, as discovered in many earlier studies as well [44,47,56,59,63,65,[74][75][76][77][78]. Puppyhood socialization also influenced behavior, with more socialized dogs being less insecure but more sociable and trainable. ...
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Personality traits, especially neuroticism, strongly predict psychopathology. The domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris Linnaeus, 1758) is used as a natural model for psychiatric disorders, but the similarity between dog and human personality and the association between dog personality and unwanted behavioral traits, such as fearfulness, aggressiveness, and impulsivity/inattention, remain unknown. This study utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) with survey data of 11,360 dogs to examine the associations and correlations between seven personality and ten unwanted behavioral traits. Personality traits included insecurity, energy, training focus, aggressiveness/dominance, human sociability, dog sociability, and perseverance. Unwanted behavioral traits included fearfulness, noise sensitivity, fear of surfaces/heights, separation anxiety, barking, stranger-directed aggression, owner-directed aggression, dog-directed aggression, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and inattention. We first fitted confirmatory factor models for the unwanted behavioral traits and the best model grouped unwanted behaviors into four latent traits: fear-related behavior, fear-aggression, aggression, and impulsivity/inattention and used this structure in the subsequent SEM model. Especially, insecurity, which resembles the human neuroticism trait, was strongly associated with unwanted behavior, paralleling the association between neuroticism and psychopathology. Similarly, training focus, resembling conscientiousness, was negatively related to impulsivity/inattention, and aggressiveness/dominance was associated with aggressive behaviors, resembling associations of conscientiousness and agreeableness with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and aggression-related psychopathology, respectively. These results indicate that dog personality traits resemble human personality traits, suggesting that their neurological and genetic basis may also be similar and making the dog a suitable animal model for human behavior and psychiatric disorders.
... Therefore, our results suggest that human-directed play behavior may have been selected for as an individual behavioral trait in the domestication of the dog. Contrary to previous reported findings (Coppinger & Coppinger, 2001;Lord, Coppinger, & Coppinger, 2013;Scott & Fuller, 1965;Serpell & Duffy, 2014;Svartberg, 2006), our results are not affected by breed differences, but driven solely by differences between dogs and wolf hybrids. In addition, we also found that hybrids showed overall increased fearfulness compared with dogs, suggesting that selection for reduced fear responses was imposed during the domestication of wolves to dogs. ...
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The domestication of animals and plants offers an exceptional opportunity to study evolutionary adaptations. In particular, domesticated animals display several behavioral alterations, including increased sociability and decreased fearfulness and aggression, when compared with their wild ancestors. However, studies quantifying simultaneous changes in multiple behaviors during domestication are lacking. Moreover, the role of human-directed play behavior has been largely neglected when studying the domestication process. Here we address these issues by examining behavioral changes during the domestication of the dog ( Canis familiaris ) from the gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) using a standardized behavioral test applied to wolf hybrids and several dog breeds. Contrary to expectations, our study provides little support for collective behavioral alterations. Specifically, although we found that wolf hybrids were less playful and overall more fearful than dogs, we did not detect any differences in sociability or aggression between wolf hybrids and dog breeds. Instead, our results suggest that behavioral alterations during domestication do not necessarily occur in concert and point to an important, but previously overlooked, role of selection on play behavior directed at humans during the domestication of dogs.
... To ensure the combination of these qualities, dogs are selected on genetic and behavioural criteria (Serpell and Hsu, 2001;Svartberg, 2006). Unfortunately, approximately 40% of the dogs intended for this work do not become guide dogs, considering also the reforms due to physical ailments or genetic diseases (Mengoli et al., 2017). ...
Article
In some guide dog organisations, future guide dogs for blind individuals are required to undergo separation from their foster family from Monday to Friday as part of their training. These separations and the constantly changing environment may induce stress, thus impacting the welfare of these dogs and their performance. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate this stress through physiological and behavioural measures. The results showed a significant increase in salivary cortisol levels at the time of separation (GLMM; DF = 2; F = 10.31; p < 0.0001). Additionally, the dogs were more passive on Friday than on other days (GLMM; DF = 2; F = 7.53; p = 0.0090), and “head movements” were expressed less frequently on Fridays (GLMM; DF = 2; F = 5.12; p = 0.0141). Performance increased across weeks, despite a lower “focused” score on Mondays (GLMM; DF = 2; F = 4.39; p = 0.0243). These results showed both adaptation to life in the kennel and that the dogs need to readapt to the situation each week. The increase in serotonin levels during the 3 weeks of testing (GLMM; DF = 2; F = 4.87; p = 0.0224) may also indicate that the dogs can adapt to the kennel environment. Therefore, this study questions the relevance of noncontinuous training programmes. In future research, it would be interesting to compare these results with those of a group of dogs staying at school on weekends.
... We analyzed hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention in more than 20 different breeds and found considerable differences. Cairn Terrier, Jack Russell Terrier, German Shepherd Dog, Staffordshire Bull Terrier and Smooth Collie had the highest hyperactivity/ [57,58]. For example, in some working dog breeds, such as German Shepherd Dog and Border Collie, high activity, impulsivity and attention are favoured. ...
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Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder impairing the quality of life of the affected individuals. The domestic dog can spontaneously manifest high hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention which are components of human ADHD. Therefore, a better understanding of demographic, environmental and behavioural factors influencing canine hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention could benefit both humans and dogs. We collected comprehensive behavioural survey data from over 11,000 Finnish pet dogs and quantified their level of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention. We performed generalised linear model analyses to identify factors associated with these behavioural traits. Our results indicated that high levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention were more common in dogs that are young, male and spend more time alone at home. Additionally, we showed several breed differences suggesting a substantial genetic basis for these traits. Furthermore, hyperactivity/impulsivity and inattention had strong comorbidities with compulsive behaviour, aggressiveness and fearfulness. Multiple of these associations have also been identified in humans, strengthening the role of the dog as an animal model for ADHD.
... In the competition of courage and sharpness, the Welsh Terrier scored one of the lowest results, in contrast to the tests carried out on various utility types, including terriers [27]. In the test of the North American Versatile Hunting Dog Association, the highest score was achieved by the German Short-haired Pointer (3.32) and the Pudelpointer (3.25), and the lowest by the Griffon (2.85) [28]. ...
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Boarhounds are hunting dogs bred for hunting wild boar, including terriers, dachshunds, and hounds. Hunt trials evaluate the individual hunting potential and trainability of the boarhounds in ten different competitions. The aim of this study was to determine the factors influencing the hunt trials for boarhounds in a large cohort of hunting dogs. The analysis was conducted based on the results of hunt trials for boarhounds conducted in 2005–2015. The database contained 1867 individuals belonging to 39 breeds. Effects of sex, age, breed group, and breed were estimated by non-parametric analysis of variance. Sex influenced (p < 0.01) the total score, and in almost all competitions dogs performed better than bitches. Age affected (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) all competitions, indicating that the dogs perform better with age. The results analyzed by the breed group showed that the dachshunds performed better in courage (p < 0.01) and searching (p < 0.05). Breed influenced (p < 0.01) almost all scores except obedience and tracking on the lead. The best performing breed was Alpine Dachsbracke. In conclusion, all analyzed factors influenced the results of the hunt trials. The factors with the largest impact were breed and age, which reflect both the hunting potential and the level of training of the boarhounds.
... 45 For example, MWDs and detection dogs are typically selected for higher energy levels and strong motivational drives to enable working over long periods of time and in harsh conditions with infrequent reinforcement, 38,46,47 whereas assistance and guide dogs tend to exhibit much calmer and docile temperaments more compatible with assimilation into anthropocentric environments. 20,45,48,49 The relationship between arousal and performance is expressed as a bell-shaped curve, known as the Yerkes-Dodson law, where performance improves as arousal increases up to a certain point and then declines when arousal becomes too high. 50 For working dogs, effects of increased arousal vary across different types of working dogs as a function of baseline level. ...
Article
Individual differences in behavior lead to wide variability in working dog suitability, and are the primary reason for rejection or early release. Behavioral suitability of a working dog is shaped by interactions with its environment during early development and specialized training. Understanding how aspects of development and training affect a working dog's performance is critical for practitioners to effectively evaluate and treat behavioral concerns in working dogs. This article provides an overview of critical aspects of puppy development that influence future behavior, and reviews important features of training that influence a dog's ability to learn and perform its designated task.
... .individual variation in C-BARQ scores within breeds are often as great or greater than the differences between breeds, and this limits our ability to talk about breed-specific or breed-typical personality traits based on these kinds of measures." A similar finding was reported by Svartberg [53] using direct behavioral testing with the Swedish Dog Mentality Assessment on 13,097 dogs from 31 breeds. He reported that temperamental traits varied between groups of dog breeds but also noted ". . ...
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Previous research in animal shelters has determined the breeds of dogs living in shelters by their visual appearance; however the genetic breed testing of such dogs is seldom conducted, and few studies have compared the breed labels assigned by shelter staff to the results of this testing. In the largest sampling of shelter dogs’ breed identities to-date, 459 dogs at Arizona Animal Welfare League & SPCA (AAWL) in Phoenix, Arizona, and 460 dogs at San Diego Humane Society & SPCA (SDHS) in San Diego, California, were genetically tested using a commercially available product to determine their breed heritage. In our sample, genetic analyses identified 125 distinct breeds with 91 breeds present at both shelters, and 4.9% of the dogs identified as purebreds. The three most common breed signatures, in order of prevalence, American Staffordshire Terrier, Chihuahua, and Poodle, accounted for 42.5% or all breed identifications at the great grandparent level. During their stay at the shelter, dogs with pit bull-type ancestries waited longer to be adopted than other dogs. When we compared shelter breed assignment as determined by visual appearance to that of genetic testing, staff at SDHS was able to successfully match at least one breed in the genetic heritage of 67.7% of dogs tested; however their agreement fell to 10.4% when asked to identify more than one breed. Lastly, we found that as the number of pit bull-type relatives in a dog’s heritage increased, so did the shelter’s ability to match the results of DNA analysis. In total when we consider the complexity of shelter dog breed heritage and the failure to identify multiple breeds based on visual identification coupled with our inability to predict how these breeds then interact within an individual dog, we believe that focusing resources on communicating the physical and behavioral characteristics of shelter dogs would best support adoption efforts.
... For our experimental sample, we chose Labradors and Golden retrievers because they are the most popular family dog breeds allowing us to obtain a decent sample size. Furthermore, they are among the most sociable, curious and bold breeds [12,13], thus eliminating any problem related to pre-selection of individuals. Volunteers were recruited from our personal database, direct contacts and via the Internet. ...
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Simple Summary: The aim of this study was to test whether ovariectomy in dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) could impair a female's ability in a socio-cognitive task. Forty pet dogs (18 intact females (IF) and 22 gonadectomized females (GF)) were tested in the object choice task paradigm using a human proximal pointing gesture. For the analysis, the frequency of correct, wrong and no-choices was collected; moreover, the latency of the correct choices was also considered. The IF group followed the pointing gestures more often than the GF group and with a lower latency whereas a significantly higher no-choice frequency was recorded for the GF group. Abstract: Recent studies have underlined the effect of ovariectomy on the spatial cognition of female dogs, with ovariectomized dogs showing a clear preference for an egocentric rather than an allocentric navigation strategy whereas intact females did not show preferences. Intact females had better performances than gonadectomized females in solving a learning task in a maze. Ovariectomy also affects socio-cognitive abilities, reducing the dog's level of attention on the owner. We tested dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) in the object choice task paradigm to assess whether an ovariectomy could impair females' ability to follow human signals. Forty pet dogs (18 intact females (IF) and 22 gonadectomized females (GF)) were tested in the object choice task paradigm using the human proximal pointing gesture. For the analysis, the frequency of correct, wrong and no-choices was collected; moreover, the latency of the correct choices was also considered. The IF group followed the pointing gestures more often than the GF group and with a lower latency, whereas a significantly higher no-choice frequency was recorded for the GF group. These results show a detrimental effect of ovariectomy on dogs' socio-cognitive skills related to the responsiveness to human pointing gestures.
... Contemporary dog breeds date to the middle of the 19th century, when breed clubs began to formalize standards for the respective breeds (Parker et al. 2004). The managed reproduction of dogs has led to 112 J. Koster discrete breeds that exhibit distinct phenotypes, both morphologically and behaviorally (Svartberg 2006). These breeds are commonly recognizable in many societies, and approximately half of the owned dogs in the United States are considered purebred dogs (Turcs an et al. 2017; see also Herzog et al. 2004). ...
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Studies of dogs have proliferated among canine scientists, aided in part by the logistical convenience of working with owned animals whose care is handled by others. These pet dogs are unlike most dogs that have lived in contemporary or prehistoric settings. In particular, many of the dogs studied by canine scientists are NATIVE dogs: (1) Neutered, (2) Alimented, (3) Trained, (4) Isolated, (5) Vaccinated, and (6) Engineered. The distinct genotypes and unusual environments of NATIVE dogs stand in contrast to the characteristics of dogs who have adapted to lives in other human communities and settings. For a holistic perspective on the evolution of dogs, it is helpful to study dogs in environments that share features of the settings in which dogs evolved.
... Shepherd, Siberian Husky, Alaskan Malamute, Czechoslovakian Wolfdog (Hansen Wheat et 548 al. 2018) as well as mixed breeds ( Range et al. 2015) have been used to uncover the 549 behavioural implications of domestication from wolves, and with dogs being bred to fulfil 550 highly specialized behavioural niches (Coppinger and Coppinger 2001;Mehrkam and Wynne 551 2014;Svartberg 2006), results will inevitably vary across studies ( Morrow et al. 2015;Scott 552 and Fuller 1965). However, detection of differences between wolves and dogs, no matter the 553 breed of dog or subspecies of wolf, is of great importance to the continued discussion of the 554 paradigm of domestication driven changes in behaviour. ...
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Selection on behavioural traits holds a prominent role in the domestication of animals. Specifically, a reduction of the fear response is considered a key component, with domesticated animals expressing lower levels of fear towards novelty than their wild counterparts. Previous work has suggested that this is caused by a delay in the onset of fearful behaviour during early ontogeny in domesticated canids. However, it remains unclear how the developmental timing of initial fear expression affects fearfulness later in development. Here we present the first extended examination of the development of fear behaviour in wolves and dogs, using repeated novel object tests between six and 26 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, fear of novelty did not change in wolves with age, but dogs expressed decreased latency to approach a novel object with age, resulting in a species difference at the end of the measured period. Our results thereby suggest that differences in fear of novelty between wolves and dogs are not caused by a domestication driven shift in the first onset of fear response. Instead we suggest that differences in fear expression between wolves and dogs are caused by a loss of sensitivity towards novelty with age in dogs.
... If the dog is left without care or basic training, it will be attacking any animal and even the guardian. They are known for spectacular escapes, often jumping over a high fence (Svatberg 2006). ...
... When comparing the results of study III and IV to previous studies, many breed differences were similar. The results agree on breed differences in all traits: noise sensitivity (Blackwell et al., 2013;Col et al., 2016;Storengen & Lingaas, 2015;Tiira et al., 2016), fearfulness (Bamberger & Houpt, 2006;Dinwoodie et al., 2019;Edwards et al., 2019;Serpell & Duffy, 2016;Starling, Branson, Thomson, & McGreevy, 2013;Svartberg, 2006;Temesi, Turcsán, & Miklósi, 2014), inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (Lit, Schweitzer, Iosif, & Oberbauer, 2010;Wright, Mills, & Pollux, 2011), abnormal repetitive behaviour (Col et al., 2016), aggression (Bamberger & Houpt, 2006;Dinwoodie et al., 2019;Flint et al., 2017;Hsu & Sun, 2010;McGreevy et al., 2013;Serpell & Duffy, 2016;Takeuchi, Ogata, Houpt, & Scarlett, 2001;Tiira et al., 2016), and separation-related behaviour (Takeuchi et al., 2001). However, some differences were also observed between these two studies of this thesis and previous studies. ...
Thesis
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Behavioural traits are complex, influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors and they can also affect the health and welfare of individuals. Behaviour is equally important for companion animals, cats and dogs. Furthermore, some of their behavioural traits resemble human psychiatric diseases. Despite behaviour’s importance, its biological background is still poorly known in these animals. This thesis examines the complexity of behaviour by studying the genetic and environmental factors influencing behaviour, as well as behavioural intercorrelations simultaneously in two companion animal species: the dog and the cat. This comparative perspective may reveal insights into the background of behaviour that could also be generalized to human behaviour. Specifically, this thesis aims to study 1) breed differences of dogs and cats and heritability of behaviour in cats, 2) behaviour correlations in both species, and 3) environmental factors influencing aggression in dogs and multiple behavioural traits in cats. Behavioural and background data was collected from the dog and cat owners through online questionnaires. In both species, the frequency of fear, aggression, and abnormal repetitive behaviour was examined. Sociability and level of activity was also examined in cats and impulsivity/inattention in dogs. Large datasets of 13 715 dogs and 5726 cats were collected and analysed with different methods, including multiple logistic regression for the environmental factors of behaviour and Bayesian multivariate model for heritability analyses. The results of this thesis show that both dog and cat breeds differ in behaviour, that behaviour is heritable, that many behavioural traits are correlated, and that many environmental factors are associated with behavioural traits. Heritability estimates varied between 0.40 and 0.53 for all behavioural traits and breeds. Especially fear and aggression correlated strongly and these traits were also associated with abnormal repetitive behaviour in both species. Social environment in both early life and at the time of answering was associated with lower incidence of aggression and abnormal repetitive behaviour. The results closely paralleled in both companion animal species and showed some parallels to human psychiatry as well. This finding indicates that the biological background of behaviour is similar in dogs and cats, and likely in humans as well. The findings of this thesis had great scientific and practical impact, as, for example, regulations for separating a kitten from its mother was adapted accordingly.
... Esta situación es particularmente llamativa, dado que conocer las tendencias conductuales de los perros podría contribuir a la selección temprana de individuos apropiados para su posterior entrenamiento y cría. Por otro lado, para optimizar la calidad de vida de los animales sería importante conocer cómo los individuos difieren en sus necesidades y habilidades para afrontar los desafíos ambientales (Svartberg, 2006). ...
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Los perros mantienen un estrecho vínculo con las personas; y algunos rasgos, como la sociabilidad y la velocidad de aprendizaje, podrían modular la comunicación entre ambas especies. El objetivo del presente estudio fue indagar la existencia de correlaciones entre la sociabilidad, durabilidad de la mirada espontánea a la cara humana cuando la comida no esta disponible y una tarea de aprendizaje inhibitorio consistente en inhibir una conducta no social (acercarse a una fuente de comida) para desplegar una respuesta social (acudir al llamado de una persona desconocida). Para ello, previamente se validó la prueba utilizada para medir sociabilidad, evaluando la estabilidad de dicho rasgo a través de una evaluación-reevaluación de los sujetos. Los resultados sugieren la estabilidad de la sociabilidad a través del tiempo. A su vez, se hallaron correlaciones significativas entre la sociabilidad y la mirada como respuesta comunicativa, pero no con la tarea de aprendizaje inhibitorio. Tanto la sociabilidad como la respuesta de mirada son fundamentales para el desarrollo de diversas clases de entrenamiento.
Article
The success of the dog as a companion animal has undeniably led to a shift in dog breeding practices. While effects of inbreeding or large-scale breeding have given rise to numerous studies about potentially related health issues, it remains unclear to what extent behavioural development of dogs is influenced. By investigating the environment of puppies while at the breeder, the authors aimed to make an inventory of current practices regarding management, socialisation and environmental learning and subsequently to identify potential differences between breeder types. The cross-sectional study, conducted during 2016, revealed considerable variability in environment among dog breeders. Small-scale breeders, and especially occasional breeders (less than 10 adult dogs on-site) provided most enrichment, both social and non-social, by, for instance, providing more outdoor access for pregnant dams and puppies or by providing access to visitors more freely. Environmental stimuli were less controlled in occasional breeders, raising the debate about quantity versus quality of stimuli at a young age. Large-scale breeders declared to screen potential owners less intensely and time to advise them was limited. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that compares a large number of environmental factors between the different dog breeding categories.
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While there has been increasing interest in the human-animal leisure intersection in recent times, leisure still largely remains human-centric or focussed. Much remains to be explored in seeking to understand animal leisure, and the intersection of animal leisure with human leisure. Spring boarding from Franklin’s argument that understanding cross species involvement calls for intense, reflective analyses that can begin in our own human lives and experiences we use an ethnographic approach to explore the intersection of human and animal leisure’s. Use is made of Stebbins’ Serious Leisure Perspective (SLP) categorisation to present observations, analyses and learnings as to the leisure lives of the 5 dogs that share our (the authors) very different multi-species leisure lives. Our explorations demonstrate that multi-species leisure cannot be presumed; and that experiences of leisure per se intersect with individual animal preferences and personalities. We also identify the potential to see some animal leisure as Serious-Amateur and even Devotee Work when incorporating ‘instinct’ (the outcome of generational human control of some species fertility) into considerations, and briefly explore the extension of human parenting and leisure moralising to the rising profile of fur-parenting.
Article
The purpose of this study was to estimate the frequency of noise reactivity in two dog breeds, standard poodles and Irish soft-coated wheaten terriers, and investigate how fear of noises is influenced by sex and age, and fear in other situations. Owners were initially contacted by telephone, and later answered a follow up web-based survey. In this study, both breeds have a high frequency of noise reactivity to both loud noises and fireworks, the soft-coated wheaten terrier more so than the standard poodle. There was a positive correlation between noise reactivity and age. The frequency of fear-related behaviors displayed when exposed to fireworks/loud noises is higher in the most fearful individuals. An association is found between fear in everyday situations and noise reactivity. Dogs in households with other dogs have a lower frequency of fear of fireworks. The validity of the survey, interviewer effect and differences between the different dog owners’ assessment are considered. The study finds excellent test-retest reliability, showing that web-based surveys may be a reliable and cost-efficient tool to study noise reactivity and identify dogs to collect DNA samples for genetic studies.
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Cat domestication and selective breeding have resulted in tens of breeds with major morphological differences. These breeds may also show distinctive behaviour differences; which, however, have been poorly studied. To improve the understanding of feline behaviour, we examined whether behavioural differences exist among cat breeds and whether behaviour is heritable. For these aims, we utilized our extensive health and behaviour questionnaire directed to cat owners and collected a survey data of 5726 cats. Firstly, for studying breed differences, we utilized logistic regression models with multiple environmental factors and discovered behaviour differences in 19 breeds and breed groups in ten different behaviour traits. Secondly, the studied cat breeds grouped into four clusters, with the Turkish Van and Angora cats alone forming one of them. These findings indicate that cat breeds have diverged not only morphologically but also behaviourally. Thirdly, we estimated heritability in three breeds and obtained moderate heritability estimates in seven studied traits, varying from 0.4 to 0.53, as well as phenotypic and genetic correlations for several trait pairs. Our results show that it is possible to partition the observed variation in behaviour traits into genetic and environmental components, and that substantial genetic variation exists within breed populations.
Article
Classification plays a pivotal role in our attempts to develop an understanding and expectation of animal behavior. The hypothesis underpinning traditional breed group classification of domestic dogs is that behavioral differences among breeds may be explained by selection to perform particular roles. Consequently, breed group membership may provide an explanation of differences in performance in problem-solving tests. This study examined owner-reported performance of 8,063 pedigree dogs of three problem-solving tests designed to assess performance of different aspects of animal cognition. We asked (1) whether there are significant differences in problem-solving performance between members of breed groups in their performance of 3 cognitive tests and (2) the utility of breed group profiles in providing an explanation for the highest performing breeds. Results indicate that counter to popular perception of breeds as distinct populations manifesting differing and predictable “breed-group typical” cognitive abilities, the findings revealed no such differences in problem-solving performances between breed groups although there was variation between breeds. High-performing breeds could not be explained by a particular morphology type or original breed origin function as reflected in Kennel Club classifications. It is suggested that breed group classifications are inadequate in yielding useful explanations of problem-solving performance. The results caution against an overreliance on such classifications for understanding dog behavior.
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The purpose of the study was to attempt to identify personality traits in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and to evaluate a range of tools, suitable for use in a shelter setting, that can be used to measure personality traits. A literature review highlighted limited evaluation of reliability and validity in rabbit personality research published to date. Additionally, there is a lack of clarity on what is being measured by some behaviour tests that are currently employed in animal personality research and there are limited tools available to measure domestic rabbit responses to humans. Chapter three highlights several uses of rabbit behaviour and personality data in United Kingdom (UK) shelters. Shelter staff reported uses for understanding the behaviour of an individual rabbit to support the management of the individual while at the shelter and to match the rabbit to the most suitable future home. Challenges facing shelter staff to collect behavioural data for their rabbits centred around a lack of resources, specifically time available for collecting behavioural data. An additional challenge reported by shelter staff was inaccurate information being reported by the person handing the rabbit into the shelter. To ensure any personality assessment tool could be integrated into shelter routines, the tools would need to be relatively quick to complete and should ideally include a range of data collection methods so that a full picture can be available. In Chapter four, the results of a behaviour rating survey that was distributed to a selfselected pool of rabbit owners or those that worked with rabbits, using social media are reported. The survey was also completed by animal care technicians for rabbits taking part in direct behavioural observations, including a suite of behaviour tests and observations within the home cage. The use of an online survey enabled a large number of participants to take part. Following examination of the reliability of the data (interrater) and dimension reduction statistics, three components were retained that included 15 of the initial 47 items and accounted for 60.6% of the variance in the data (n=1,234). However, sufficient thresholds for inter-rater reliability were not achieved. As intended in the selection of survey items, the retained components accounted for intraspecific social behaviour, human-rabbit interactions (avoidance of humans) and boldness in relation to the environment. However, only the human-rabbit interaction component had sufficient distribution of scores across the sample population to consider this a personality trait. Behavioural tests are commonly used as measures of an individual animal’s personality; however, several tests have conflicting interpretations of the underlying traits that may drive behaviour in these tests. In Chapter 5, a suite of tests were used, reflecting three commonly used test paradigms for domestic rabbits; the open field test, novel object test and a new human interaction test. Five human-interaction items measured were reliable between raters and between tests and two items, location during subtest 3 where the handler was sat inside the door of the enclosure and a combined outcome score for subtest 3, 4 (stroke rabbit) and 5 (pick up rabbit) were retained to create component 2 on the final solution of the principal component analysis. From two variations of both the open field and novel object tests, two components were also derived, reflecting exploration and curiosity in rabbits. These three components were reliable between raters and between tests and accounted for 75.2% of the cumulative variance in the data. The component labelled ‘exploration’ comprising variables of activity in the open field tests were found to negatively correlate with component 2 from the behaviour rating scale, reflecting avoidance of humans. This is similar to past research in young rabbits where resistance to handling was correlated with activity in the open field. The use of behavioural observations in the home cage environment is rarely performed for personality assessment in domestic animals due to how time consuming such observations can be. As a requirement for the tools was to be able to be utilised by shelter staff, where time constraints are an important factor, home cage behavioural observations were designed to be quick to complete. Following a pilot test including three hours of observations over the day, it was possible to determine the behaviours that could be observed using video cameras positioned adjacent to or above rabbit enclosures. Additionally, this pilot test revealed that within the times of day available for testing, none were preferable over any other in terms of the range of behaviours observed in 12 rabbits. The main study therefore utilised three five-minute sampling points across the day with the refined ethogram and 30 second focal sampling. It was not possible to complete dimension reductive statistics on the sample of 16 rabbits used for this part of the study, although the behaviours observed in the relatively short time frame did represent activity patterns observed in past research. Two tools, the behaviour rating survey and suite of behaviour tests, are proposed to be retained for future examination of the utility of these tests in a shelter setting to measure rabbit behaviour and personality. These retained tests would provide information on an individual rabbit’s social behaviour (intraspecific), response to humans, boldness in relation to the environment, exploration and curiosity. Future research is recommended to determine the suitability of these tests for use in shelters, and to understand the predictive validity of these tools. That is to understand the usefulness of rabbit personality assessments to identify aspects of behaviour that are stable between different environmental contexts, such as between a shelter setting and within a home following being rehomed. http://nectar.northampton.ac.uk/13599/
Article
Experimental assessments can be useful in the study of individual differences among dogs. One example of such assessment is the Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA), in which stable traits, referred to as personality traits, have been detected. Due to limited access to the DMA for dogs of non-working breeds, a new experimental assessment named Behaviour and Personality Assessment in Dogs (BPH) was developed in 2012 with the DMA as a model. In this study, behavioural ratings from 12,117 dogs assessed with the BPH were analysed in two steps: first, a hierarchical factor analysis procedure was carried out, and second, the construct validity of the extracted factors was studied. Two measures of validity were used: correlations with subjective ratings during the assessment (internal construct validity (ICV)) and correlations with data from a web-based questionnaire regarding everyday behaviour (external construct validity (ECV)). The ECV was also used to investigate on which level of the factor hierarchy everyday behaviour was best predicted. The approach revealed a hierarchy of factors, from one general factor at the top to 28 specific factors at the bottom, with generally high ICV. The first factor, Boldness, is related to six of the eight subtests and is associated with a positive attitude towards unfamiliar persons, interest for object play, low fear, and high degree of exploration. Most of the specific factors stem from the factors Sociability, Playfulness and Non-social fearfulness at the third level in the hierarchy, factors with high or at least moderate ECV. Sociability seems to be the best predictor for attitude towards unknown persons and dogs outside the assessment situation, including positive interest, fear, and aggression. The broader factors at the first levels correspond well to a range of everyday behaviours but for some behavioural tendencies more specific factors appearing at lower levels in the hierarchy were of greater importance. For example, noise-related fear was predicted first by a factor from the 12th factor level. The results from the ECV analysis indicate consistency between contexts and suggest that the BPH can reveal dog personality traits. The information from the assessment may give indications regarding welfare as well as potential problem-causing and preferred behaviour. Given a genetic basis for the traits, the most promising application is in dog breeding, where a combination of broad and narrow factors, relevant for the breed in question, may be used as measures in breeding objectives.
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Previously, we found that dogs belonging to the herding breed group, selected for human cooperation, synchronise their long-term stress levels with their owners. The aim of the current study was to investigate features that could influence long-term stress levels in ancient dog breeds, genetically closer to wolves, and dogs specifically selected to work independently of their owner. Twenty-four ancient breed dogs and 18 solitary hunting dogs were recruited and hair samples were obtained from both dogs and owners from which hair cortisol concentration (HCC) was analysed. Additionally, the owners completed lifestyle surveys, the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) on human–dog relationship, and both dog and owner personality questionnaires (Dog Personality questionnaire and Big Five Inventory survey). The results from the MDORS indicate that the subscale Perceived cost correlated to the dog HCC of tested breed groups: solitary hunting breeds (χ2 = 4.95, P = 0.026, β = 0.055), ancient breeds (χ2 = 2.74, P = 0.098, β = 0.027), and herding dogs included from a previous study (χ2 = 6.82, P = 0.009, β = − 0.061). The HCC of the solitary hunting dogs was also related to the owner personality traits Agreeableness (χ2 = 12.30, P < 0.001, β = − 0.060) and Openness (χ2 = 9.56, P = 0.002, β = 0.048) suggesting a more substantial influence of the owner on the solitary hunting dog’s HCC compared to the ancient breeds. No effect of owner HCC on dog HCC was found in either ancient or in solitary hunting breeds. Hence, the long-term stress synchronisation is likely to be a trait in breeds selected for human cooperation. In conclusion, dog HCC is often related to the owners’ personality, but is primarily influenced by the owner-dog relationship.
Chapter
Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is highly heterogeneous at many levels, for example with regards to the setting itself, recipients of the intervention, species involved as therapy animals and their therapeutic potential. Dogs are the most commonly involved species in this work, and there may be good reasons for this beyond their availability. Some specific characteristics such as their cognitive and emotional capacities and biases, their evolutionary connection with humans, as well as a natural attraction and emotional connection between both species make dogs particularly suitable for AAT and many other forms of AAI. In this chapter, we elaborate on the significance of these characteristics and discuss the attributes required of an ideal dog working in this sort of context. Furthermore, we provide suggestions for strategies and approaches to optimally prepare, help, and support therapy dogs for and during their work in order to minimise risks, maximise therapeutic potential, and secure the well-being of all involved parties.
Chapter
A concentrated and intentional effort to develop more acceptable mechanisms and procedures that assess and support the well-being of therapy animals is needed in the field of AAI. Attention is initially given to discussing the field’s moral and ethical obligations to ensure the welfare of therapy animals. The authors then highlight numerous takeaway points for the readers to consider that recognize how good welfare is critical for successful relationships. It is not only the correct thing to do from a moral standpoint, but it is also the sustainable thing to do to empower a relationship that is so firmly supported on a strong human–animal bond. Numerous topics are integrated including conceptualizing, considering, and implementing a cost-benefit formula, assessing the impact of therapy work on the animal, documenting best practices in the field, bridging science to best practices, as well as training future practitioners to become more aware of animal welfare tenets. An important consideration in this regard, is that the animals’ perspective is the most relevant and it always needs to be taken into consideration and improved. The impact that our interactions have on the animals’ mental and emotional state of mind must be optimized for those interactions to be acceptable. Achieving this will result in a positive development of the animals’ welfare.
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As with juvenile wolves or coyotes, adult livestock conducting dogs displayed the first-half segment of a functional predatory system of motor patterns and did not express play or social bonding toward sheep; whereas, like wolf or coyote pups, adult livestock protecting dogs displayed sequences of mixed social, submissive, play and investigatory motor patterns and rarely expressed during ontogeny (even when fully adult) predatory behaviors. The most parsimonious explanation of our findings is that behavioral differences in the two types of livestock dogs are a case of selected differential retardation (neoteny) of ancestral motor pattern development.
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Breed behavior profiles were obtained by a method that was quantitative and free of personal biases. The profiles concerned 13 traits, eg, excitability, snapping at children, watchdog barking, and affection demand, which are of interest to people wanting dogs as pets. Authorities for the development of the profiles were 48 small animal veterinarians and 48 obedience judges, randomly selected from directories so as to represent equally men and women, and eastern, central, and western geographic regions of the United States. Each authority was asked to rank on each of the behavioral traits a list of 7 breeds chosen randomly from a list of 56 breeds. The data were analyzed in a custom-designed computer program that pooled the data and then ranked all 56 breeds on the basis of the 13 traits. The results indicated that some behavioral traits discriminate between breeds better than others. An examination of sample profiles indicated the feasibility of developing a statistically meaningful behavioral profile that integrates comparative rankings of several authorities balanced as to representation of geographic location, sex, and type of experience with dogs.
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When running free in open fields, domestic dogs occasionally display predatory behaviour towards domestic sheep. This has not yet been studied scientifically. The aim of the present study was to investigate the inclination to chase sheep in three breed groups of hunting dogs that are most frequently used in areas with grazing sheep. We studied 41 elkhounds, 29 hare hunting dogs and 68 English setters. Behaviours indicative of motivation for chasing or attacking sheep were examined in three different ways. A path test examined functional traits such as hunting ability, contact willingness, reactivity to sudden noise, and response towards a lone sheep. In a sheep confrontation test, loose-leashed dogs were observed in a fenced enclosure with sheep and given electric shocks through an electronic dog collar if within 1-2m from the sheep. A questionnaire to the dog owners supplied information on their dog's previous experience with sheep and behavioural responses to various types of novel stimuli. No significant sex differences were found. The elkhounds showed the highest interest in a lone sheep in the path test, and displayed the highest initial hunting motivation, the highest percentage of dogs starting a sheep attack, the highest attack severity, and were most frequently given el. shocks. The hare hunting dogs were intermediate, while setters showed the lowest values for these variables. Dogs reported as showing low fearfulness more frequently acted as potential sheep chasers in the tests. Dogs up to 3 years of age showed a more pronounced initial hunting motivation and more frequent attacks than older dogs, although there were no age differences in the number of el. shocks given in the test. The latter may be related to the more frequent abruption of attacks among younger dogs. The main factors predicting a high hunting motivation and attack severity were lack of previous opportunity to chase sheep, low fearfulness towards gunshots and unfamiliar people, and general interest in sheep shown when encountering them. Probability of sheep chasing differed between dog breeds and age groups. Previous experience and certain character traits were indicative of a high predatory motivation towards sheep.
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The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding events, as well as where and when these occurred, is not known. To address these questions, we examined the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variation among 654 domestic dogs representing all major dog populations worldwide. Although our data indicate several maternal origins from wolf, >95% of all sequences belonged to three phylogenetic groups universally represented at similar frequencies, suggesting a common origin from a single gene pool for all dog populations. A larger genetic variation in East Asia than in other regions and the pattern of phylogeographic variation suggest an East Asian origin for the domestic dog, ∼15,000 years ago.
Article
The evolutionary continuity between humans and other animals suggests that some dimensions of personality may be common across a wide range of species. Unfortunately, there is no unified body of research on animal personality; studies are dispersed across multiple disciplines and diverse journals. To review 19 studies of personality factors in 12 nonhuman species, we used the human Five-Factor Model plus Dominance and Activity as a preliminary framework. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness showed the strongest cross-species generality, followed by Openness; a separate Conscientiousness dimension appeared only in chimpanzees, humans' closest relatives. Cross-species evidence was modest for a separate Dominance dimension but scant for Activity. The comparative approach taken here offers a fresh perspective on human personality and should facilitate hypothesis-driven research on the social and biological bases of personality.
Article
The behaviour of house cats Felis silvestris catus from nine litters was recorded at 4 months, 1 year and 2 years of age, in their home environment immediately after meals fed by their owners. We extracted by principal components analysis four elements of 'behavioural style' that were consistent from one age to another: based upon behaviour patterns that were most heavily loaded on each component, these were labelled as Staying Indoors, Rubbing, Investigative and Boldness elements. The Staying Indoors and Rubbing elements are similar to two aspects of behavioural style identified in a previous study of adult cats; the Boldness element, possibly coupled with the Investigative element, may be similar to the shy/bold continuum identified in controlled studies of cats and other species. Four-month-old male cats were the most likely to Stay Indoors; the Rubbing element increased with age in the majority of individuals, both male and female. Littermates tended to be similar to one another in Rubbing (at 4 months) and Boldness (up to 1 year). A positive effect of handling received during the first 8 weeks of life was detected for Boldness at 4 months of age.
Article
The problem at the South African Police Service Dog Breeding Centre was that most of their progenies were unsuitable as police dogs. Behaviour tests were developed specifically for police dogs to predict their efficiency as adults. Puppies from the age of 8 weeks were exposed to situations that they probably would encounter in their work as police dogs. These experiences included crossing of obstacles, retrieval of objects, startle stimuli and aggression. In the longitudinal study of 2 years it was found that all the tests had statistical significance to a greater or lesser extent, except the gunshot test. The most significant tests were retrieval at 8 weeks and aggression at 9 months. These tests thus enable selection for suitable dogs as early as 8 weeks of age, but not later than 9 months. The conclusion is that reliable tests can predict adult police dog efficiency and in doing so, save unnecessary training and other costs on unsuccessful dogs.
Article
Between 4 weeks and 6 months of age, dogs were subjected to a battery of behavioural tests. The ability of these tests to predict fearfulness, activity and learning ability of the dogs when adult was assessed. Consistent individual differences in fearfulness were apparent at about 8 weeks of age, and the ability to predict adult fearfulness increased with age. The most useful tests involved responses to a strange person, a strange dog, a strange place and certain unusual objects. There appears to be genetic variation between dogs in fearfulness when young, but genetic selection against fearfulness would be more accurate if carried out in adult dogs rather than in young dogs. Consistent individual differences in activity from 4 weeks of age were found, but this behaviour correlated poorly with the activity of the dogs when adult. Puppies responded to fear by inhibiting movement. None of the tests used predicted the dogs' performance on specific learning tasks.
Article
The evolutionary continuity between humans and other animals suggests that some dimensions of personality may be common across a wide range of species. Unfortunately, there is no unified body of research on animal personality; studies are dispersed across multiple disciplines and diverse journals. To review 19 studies of personality factors in 12 nonhuman species, we used the human Five-Factor Model plus Dominance and Activity as a preliminary framework. Extraversion, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness showed the strongest cross-species generality, followed by Openness; a separate Conscientiousness dimension appeared only in chimpanzees, humans' closest relatives. Cross-species evidence was modest for a separate Dominance dimension but scant for Activity. The comparative approach taken here offers a fresh perspective on human personality and should facilitate hypothesis-driven research on the social and biological bases of personality.
Article
This study investigates if there are relationships between personality and performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in working dog trials. Data from 2655 dogs of the two breeds German Shepherd dog (GSD) and Belgian Tervuren (BT) were used. The breeds were chosen because of indications of differences in personality between these breeds, and because both breeds are commonly trained for working dog trials. All dogs were tested in a personality test between 12 and 18 months of age. Using a factor analysis, five factors were extracted: “Playfulness”, “Curiosity/Fearlessness”, “Chase-proneness”, “Sociability”, and “Aggressiveness”. Further analyses showed that these factors, with the exception of Aggressiveness, were all related to one higher-order factor, which was interpreted as a shyness–boldness dimension. Because of the risk of confounding variables, the influence of the owners’ previous experience was tested. This showed that owner experience was related to performance, as well as to the shyness–boldness score. Therefore, only data from dogs with inexperienced owners were used in the later analyses. According to their success in working dog trials, the dogs could be categorised as low, middle, or high performing. The results show that the shyness–boldness score is related to the level of performance: high-performing dogs have higher scores (i.e. are bolder) compared to low-performing dogs. This difference was significant in Belgian Tervurens of both sexes, and in female German Shepherds. In general, German Shepherds scored higher than Belgian Tervurens, and males scored higher than females. However, in well-performing dogs there were no breed or sex differences. This indicates a threshold effect; to reach high levels in working dog trials the dog, independent of breed or sex, should have a certain level of boldness. These results imply that a lower proportion of dogs of shyer breeds are able to reach higher performance levels, compared to dogs of breeds that in general score higher on the shyness–boldness axis. In German Shepherds, a relationship was also found between personality and age of success; bolder dogs reached success at a younger age. There were no differences in Boldness score between dogs succeeding in different types of working dog trials (tracking, searching, delivering messages, handler protection), suggesting that the personality dimension predisposes trainability in general. The results might be applied to the selection of breeding dogs in working breeds and in selecting suitable working and service dogs. A test like the one used in this study can give a description of an individual dog’s personality, which also can help matching the dog with adequate training.
Article
The development and changes in size, conformation and skull shape of the dog in Britain from the Mesolithic to the end of the eleventh century AD are described and factors are derived for the estimation of shoulder height from long bone lengths.The Mesolithic dog is represented by not more than four animals of about 60 cm shoulder height. In both the Neolithic and the Bronze Age the available evidence indicates a single population showing little variation. The observed range of estimated shoulder height was the same, 43–62 cm, but the mean values for each long bone length were a little higher in the later period.In the Iron Age there is again a single population but the larger dogs in it were either more common or better represented. An overall reduction in height is apparent, the range being 29–58 cm.The cardinal feature of the Romano-British dog is variability, apparent in height, build and skull shape. The height range is 23–72 cm. There were definitely two, possibly three, distinct populations and what were almost certainly house dogs were seen for the first time.The mean size of the dog in Anglo-Saxon times was greater than that in any previous period and there is evidence for two distinct populations. The range in shoulder height is 23–71 cm but overall the variation is reduced.Evidence is presented that the dog was probably used as a food animal.
Article
As a part of a Nordic project “Selection for more confident foxes” selection experiments with blue foxes lasting 4 years were arranged in Finland and Norway. In Finland, the study was carried out on a private farm with closed selection and production lines. In Norway, the experiment was done on seven farms composing a fox circle where a breeding goal for increased confidence and a traditional one were compared. Low to moderate heritabilities existed in confidence (h2=0.20 in Finland versus h2=0.12 in Norway). The corresponding repeatabilities were 0.23 versus 0.32. Within 3 years of selection, genetic response for confidence was achieved in both experiments. In the Finnish study, cumulative response of 0.25 points compared to control (a two-point scale) was estimated, while in the Norwegian one, a priority of 0.38 points (a six-point scale) was received in the group bred for increased confidence compared to the traditional one. Higher selection differentials existed in males than females. Predicted responses (ΔG=0.15 points in Finland versus ΔG=0.37 points in Norway) were lower or similar compared to the estimated ones. These studies with different designs verify that it is possible to improve confidence of blue foxes towards humans using selection.
Article
Many of the structural modifications of modern breeds of domestic dog,Canis familiariscan be explained by changes in the rate of development, during domestication from the wolf,C.lupusThese changes have been dominated by paedomorphosis, or underdevelopment, so that the adult passes through fewer growth stages and resembles a juvenile stage of its ancestor. In this paper the effects of these processes on the signalling ability of 10 breeds selected for their degree of physical dissimilarity to the wolf are examined. The number of ancestral dominant and submissive behaviour patterns used during signalling within single-breed groups ranged from two (Cavalier King Charles spaniel) to 15 (Siberian husky), and this correlated positively with the degree to which the breed physically resembles the wolf, as assessed by a panel of 14 dog behaviour counsellors. When the signals displayed by each breed were grouped according to the stage of wolf development in which they first appear, those breeds with the smallest repertoires were found to draw most of their signals from those appearing before 20 days of age in the wolf, suggesting that physical paedomorphism has been accompanied by behavioural paedomorphism.
Article
Individual differences in response to a number of animate and inanimate moving and non-moving stimuli were studied in 18 wolf cubs from four litters. Social rank was closely correlated with reactivity, exploratory behavior and prey-killing ability. A wide range of variability in test scores was found in all litters. It is proposed that pack integration and coordination of activities is enhanced by intra-specific socialization, social facilitation, and leader-follower relationships between subordinates and the more exploratory alpha individual. The evolutionary advantages of selection for individual differences or behavioral polymorphism within litters are discussed and inferences drawn for significance in pack formation. This hypothesis is supported by contrasting evidence of greater behavioral homogeneity in less social canids, where intra-specific aggression and mutual proximity intolerance prevents pack formation and leads to dispersal of the litter.
Article
The behavioural effects of a puppy socialisation training program were evaluated in 58 purebred and 10 crossbreed puppies. Each subject was randomly allocated to one of five groups: Socialisation plus Training (S & T, n=12), Socialisation (n=10), Training (n=13), Feeding (n=12) and Control (n=11). The S & T group received a full training program which included both operant training for commands (come, sit, stay, drop and heel) and social interaction with other puppies during four, weekly 1 h sessions. Subjects in the training or socialisation groups received either the commands or socialisation aspects of the program. The feeding group received food items equivalent in amount to those given to the previous three groups during weekly attendance at the training centre. The control group only attended the centre for rating. A series of rating scales assessed the puppies' responses to novel, social, handling and commands stimuli. All puppies were tested prior to the program (baseline), after the second and fourth sessions, and 4 to 6 months after completion of the program. No groups differed significantly at baseline on any of the scales. Puppies in the S & T and training groups received significantly higher ratings for their responses to commands at 2 and 4 weeks. There were no significant group effects on any of the other scales. Although the program was successful in training the puppies on commands, experiencing additional social interaction (play) with other puppies did not lead to significant changes in responses to social stimuli as assessed by the rating scales. Additionally, the exposure to novel or handling stimuli in the context of the program did not significantly improve responses in comparison to animals without such exposure. The data suggest that socialisation and training programs may be useful as a starting point for assessing possible problematic behaviour in puppies and are effective in producing well trained dogs.
Article
The Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training series provides a coherent and integrated approach to understanding and controlling dog behavior. In Volume 3, various themes introduced in Volumes 1 and 2 are expanded upon, especially causally significant social, biological, and behavioral influences that impact on the etiology of behavior problems and their treatment. Ethological observations, relevant behavioral and neurobiological research, and dog behavior clinical findings are reviewed and critiqued in detail. Many of the training concepts, procedures, and protocols described have not been previously published, making this book a unique contribution to dog behavior and training literature.
Article
Over one year, 206 dog owners were questioned in a veterinary clinic. The survey included two groups: 151 owners who visited the clinic because of an injury to their dog caused by another dog and 55 people who owned dogs that caused injuries to others. The questioning served to compare aggressors and victims of dog fights. The form contained 43 questions concerning the dog, the owner, and the incident of intraspecific aggression.The results reveal that both groups, victim and aggressor, showed regularities regarding the breeds, gender, and process of the fight. Important factors include housing conditions, criteria concerning the selection of a dog, and the dog's training. Significant differences were found comparing the owners of aggressors and their victims, including the owner's gender, profession, age, his/her attitude towards dogs, the selection of a specific breed, training methods, the purpose of keeping a dog, and previous experiences owning a dog.Further conclusions were drawn regarding the time and location of the incidents. Their influence on a potential solution to the problem caused by aggressive dogs is discussed.
Article
The study was concerned with measuring patterns of approach and withdrawal in four breeds of dogs; namely: beagles, wire-haired fox terriers, basenjis and Shetland sheep-dogs. Each dog was exposed to a variety of stimuli including : a black rubber snake, a bone, a life-sized head of a clown, a mirror, a live puppy, etc. Behaviors of approach or withdrawal in relation to each stimulus were rated, and in addition, contact time, gridcrossings, latency and urinations were also recorded. Marked breed and sex differences were found on almost all measures. The beagles appeared to withdraw the most and the terriers were the most active and approachful. Most of the measures were found to show high retest reliability. The data support the view that temperamental differences may be determined to a considerable degree by hereditary factors, and that multiple measures are necessary for unambiguously assessing the behavior of organisms.
Article
We investigated the consistency of behaviour over repeated tests in dogs, Canis familiaris. Dogs were tested three times, with an average of 30 and 35 days between tests. The behavioural test used in the study included 10 subtests that exposed dogs to various situations, such as the appearance of an unfamiliar person, play, preylike objects, metallic noise and a suddenly appearing dummy. Studies using the same test with many dogs have revealed five specific personality traits, labelled Playfulness, Chase-proneness, Curiosity/Fearlessness, Sociability and Aggressiveness, and one higher-order, broader dimension, interpreted as a shyness-boldness continuum. We used these traits in the present study. We found significant correlations over the test series in all the specific traits as well as in the Boldness dimension. The magnitude of trait scores for Playfulness, Chase-proneness and Sociability, as well as for the Boldness dimension, was stable between tests. The scores for Aggressiveness and Curiosity/Fe
Article
The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) has been subjected to a huge range of selection pressures during domestication that has resulted in a considerable diversity in morphology and behaviour. This, together with the many uses the dog is put to in our society, makes the dog an interesting model for studies of animal personality. However, only a few attempts have been done to study individual differences in dogs. In this study, behavioural data from 15,329 dogs of 164 different breeds were used to investigate the existence of personality traits in dogs. The data were collected at a personality test that tested the dogs' reactions to strangers, ''fleeing'' prey-like objects, and several potential fear-and aggression-eliciting stimuli. Factor analyses revealed the existence of five narrow traits: ''Playfulness'', ''Curiosity/Fearlessness'', ''Chase-proneness'', ''Sociability'' and ''Aggressive-ness''. Higher-order factor analyses showed that all factors except ''Aggressiveness'' were related to each other, creating a broad factor that influences behaviour in a range of situations. Both narrow and broad factors were found in a dataset including data from a large number of breeds, as well as within eight of Fédération Cynologique Internationale's (FCI's) 10 breed groups. This indicates that the personality dimensions found in the study are general for the dog as a species. The finding of a major behavioural dimension in different groups of dog breeds, together with comparable results previously found for wolves (Canis lupus), suggests that the dimension is evolutionarily stable and has survived the varied selection pressures encountered during domestication. The broad factor is comparable to the shyness–boldness axis previously found in both humans and animals, and to human ''supertraits'' (a combination of Extraversion and Neuroticism). The results of this study can be used to describe and compare individual dogs, as well as breeds. This, in turn, can be used in applications like selection of service dogs and breeding animals, as well as predicting behaviour problems in pet dogs. # 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
Article
Six specific personality traits – playfulness, chase-proneness, curiosity/fearlessness, sociability, aggressiveness, and distance-playfulness – and a broad boldness dimension have been suggested for dogs in previous studies based on data collected in a standardized behavioural test (''dog mentality assessment'', DMA). In the present study I investigated the validity of the specific traits for predicting typical behaviour in everyday life. A questionnaire with items describing the dog's typical behaviour in a range of situations was sent to owners of dogs that had carried out the DMA behavioural test 1–2 years earlier. Of the questionnaires that were sent out 697 were returned, corresponding to a response rate of 73.3%. Based on factor analyses on the questionnaire data, behavioural factors in everyday life were suggested to correspond to the specific personality traits from the DMA. Correlation analyses suggested construct validity for the traits playfulness, curiosity/ fearlessness, sociability, and distance-playfulness. Chase-proneness, which I expected to be related to predatory behaviour in everyday life, was instead related to human-directed play interest and non-social fear. Aggressiveness was the only trait from the DMA with low association to all of the behavioural factors from the questionnaire. The results suggest that three components of dog personality are measured in the DMA: (1) interest in playing with humans; (2) attitude towards strangers (interest in, fear of, and aggression towards); and (3) non-social fearfulness. These three components correspond to the traits playfulness, sociability, and curiosity/fearlessness, respectively, all of which were found to be related to a higher-order shyness–boldness dimension.
Article
The aim of this study was to study genetic (co)variation of broader behavioural traits in German shepherd dogs and to test whether there is maternal and litter influence on these traits. Data were extracted from the Swedish Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA) from 1989 to 2001 on 5959 German shepherd dogs. Based on previous results, personality traits were created from the 15 behavioural variables extracted from the test. These personality traits were (1) Playfulness, (2) Chase-proneness, (3) Curiosity/Fearlessness, and (4) Aggressiveness. A trait Boldness was constructed from all behaviour variables except those included in Aggressiveness. Mixed linear models with fixed effects of sex, test type, test year, test month, age, and judge were used. Models with all combinations of random effects of animal (direct genetic), genetic and non-genetic maternal, and litter were tested. The best model included effects of animal and litter. Direct heritability estimates were between 0.09 and 0.23, highest for Playfulness and Curiosity/Fearlessness. Maternal heritabilities were all low (0.01–0.08), lowest and not significant if litter or non-genetic maternal effects were included in the model. Additive genetic correlations among Playfulness, Chase-proneness, and Curiosity/Fearlessness were higher (0.54–0.74) than genetic correlations with Aggressiveness (0.29–0.40). Litter variance ratios (c2) were larger than the maternal heritabilities (0.03–0.10). Boldness had a direct heritability estimate of 0.27 and a direct genetic correlation with Aggressiveness of 0.37. We conclude that there is substantial additive genetic variation, that the mother has rather little influence (both genetically and environmentally) and that the litter seems to have a larger influence than the mother for these personality traits. Genetic improvement in these behaviour traits is thus possible.
Article
The classic study of dog behavior gathered into one volume. Based on twenty years of research at the Jackson Laboratory, this is the single most important and comprehensive reference work on the behavior of dogs ever complied. "Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog is one of the most important texts on canine behavior published to date. Anyone interested in breeding, training, or canine behavior must own this book."—Wayne Hunthausen, D.V.M., Director of Animal Behavior Consultations "This pioneering research on dog behavioral genetics is a timeless classic for all serious students of ethology and canine behavior."—Dr. Michael Fox, Senior Advisor to the President, The Humane Society of the United States "A major authoritative work. . . . Immensely rewarding reading for anyone concerned with dog-breeding."—Times Literary Supplement "The last comprehensive study [of dog behavior] was concluded more than thirty years ago, when John Paul Scott and John L. Fuller published their seminal work Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog."—Mark Derr, The Atlantic Monthly "Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog is essential reading for anyone involved in the breeding of dogs. No breeder can afford to ignore the principles of proper socialization first discovered and articulated in this landmark study."-The Monks of New Skete, authors of How to Be Your Dog's Best Friend and the video series Raising Your Dog with the Monks of New Skete.
Article
The Division of Behavior Studies of the Roscoe B. Jackson Memorial Laboratory has been conducting a long-range program on the relationship between genetics and behavior in mammals (especially dogs). The dog project is being carried out in three basic stages: (a) test development, (b) factorial analyses of the basic data, and (c) genetic analyzes. The sample of this study consists of 53 pedigreed dogs distributed as follows: 8 Basenjis, 6 beagles, 12 cocker spaniels, 5 Scotch terriers, 8 Shetland sheep dogs, 14 wire-haired fox terriers. The following conclusions were tentatively suggested: (a) Apparently experimentally dependent variables involving simultaneous recording of two different levels of observation (i.e., psychological and physiological) do not necessarily identify incidental common factors, (b) Apparently experimentally dependent variables that are repeated with long intervening periods of time do not necessarily identify incidental common factors, (c) Apparently experimentally dependent variables that are repeated with short intervening periods of time demonstrate partial experimental dependence, (d) Apparently experimentally dependent variables that involve a "critical" period in the development of the organism do not necessarily identify incidental common factors, (e) None of the apparently experimentally dependent variables of this study showed complete experimental dependence.
Article
Mössbauer absorption spectra have been observed for Fe2B from 290 to 1175 °K. A change in the electric quadrupole interaction was observed from 460 to 480 °K and interpreted as a result of the rotation of the easy axis of magnetization as a function of temperature. The effective magnetic hyperfine field as a function of temperature is found to be described by (1−TTC)β in the range defined by 1.2×10−3≤1−TTC≤7×10−1 for β=0.32±0.01. A discontinuity in the isomer shift of 0.018 ± 0.010 mm/sec was found across the ferromagnetic transition.
Article
The initial behavioral reaction to unfamiliar events is a distinctive source of intraspecific variation in humans and other animals. Two longitudinal studies of 2-year-old children who were extreme in the display of either behavioral restraint or spontaneity in unfamiliar contexts revealed that by 7 years of age a majority of the restrained group were quiet and socially avoidant with unfamiliar children and adults whereas a majority of the more spontaneous children were talkative and interactive. The group differences in peripheral physiological reactions suggest that inherited variation in the threshold of arousal in selected limbic sites may contribute to shyness in childhood and even extreme degrees of social avoidance in adults.
Article
If individual dogs are classified in groups according to behavioral measures, do those groupings correspond to the grouping by breed characteristics? A total of 101 dogs of five different breeds were measured on 42 behavioral and somatic variables, and these were reduced to 16 factors. By using the 15 behavioral factors in the Taxonome program, a separation roughly corresponding to the different breeds was achieved. It is argued that a genetic determination of this sample of behavior variables is indicated. The mean profile for each breed is set out.
Article
To clarify some effects of inheritance on abnormal behavior we have maintained by line breeding and selective matingnervous (E) andstable (A) strains within the pointer breed of dogs. We now have comparable measures on behavioral tests of brief activity, startle reactions to a 122-decibel hom, and reactions to humans (Effect of Person) at ages 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, for the two strains as well as for 26 crossbred offspring. In spite of the small crossbred (AE) sample size and limitations of a general nature, the offspring performances are surprisingly like the nervous side of their ancestry, suggesting dominant inheritance.
Article
Analysis of the behavioral traits of 56 breeds of dog produced three factors with some similarities to the popular five-factor model of human personality: (a) reactivity--surgency, (b) aggression--disagreeableness, and (c) trainability--openness. Canine and human personality similarities are argued to have their origin in biogenetic factors stemming from common evolutionary sources and from canine breeding for human compatibility and assistance with human tasks. Each of the three canine factors was shown to have a highly visible morphological indicator between breeds of dog. Reactivity--surgency was related to overall size, aggression--disagreeableness was related to having pointed ears, and trainability--openness was related to the ponderal index.
Article
One-hundred-and-twelve small animal veterinarians and 56 dog care professionals were asked to rate the behavioural characteristics of 49 breeds of dog, and to compare males and females by means of a 13-point questionnaire. From their replies, factor analysis was used to extract three underlying traits, labelled aggressivity, reactivity and immaturity. On the basis of these traits, eight groups of breeds were derived. Membership of these groups did not correspond exactly with any of the four existing breed classification systems (Mégnin, the Fédération Cynologique International, ancient breeds and Kennel Club of Great Britain), but significant differences between Kennel Club groups were found on all three traits. Male dogs were rated higher than females on both aggressivity and immaturity; the components of reactivity were also rated higher in males, apart from the demand for affection which was rated higher in females. Females were also considered easier to train than males.
Article
The questionnaire survey of Hart and Hart (1985,Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association186, 1811–1815) ranked the 56 most popular breeds of dog in theon 13 behavioural traits and is compared here with results of a similar survey conducted on the 49 most popular breeds in the. Of the 36 breeds in common between the studies, 24 were similar for the traits aggressivity, reactivity and ease of housetraining between the two countries. However, the characteristics of nine breeds (Airedale Terrier, Old English Sheepdog, Welsh Corgi, Irish Setter, Standard Poodle, Beagle, Samoyed, Boxer, Dalmatian) differed markedly between the two countries, and a further three (Chihuahua, Scottish Terrier, Standard Dachshund) showed smaller, but probably meaningful, shifts. These differences should be recognised when giving advice to prospective owners, and when treating unwanted behaviour in these breeds.
Article
Comparative analysis of mammalian genomes provides important insight into the structure and function of genes. However, the comparative analysis of gene sequences from individuals of the same and different species also provides insight into the evolution of genes, populations, and species. We exemplify these two uses of genomic information. First, we document the evolutionary relationships of the domestic dog to other carnivores by using a variety of DNA-based information. A phylogenetic comparison of mitochondrial DNA sequences in dogs and gray wolves shows that dogs may have originated from multiple wolf populations at a time much earlier than suggested by the archaeologic record. We discuss previous theories about dog development and evolution in light of the new genetic data. Second, we review recent progress in dog genetic mapping due to the development of hypervariable markers and specific chromosome paints. Extensive genetic homology in gene order and function between humans and dogs has been discovered. The dog promises to be a valuable model for identifying genes that control morphologic differences between mammals as well as understanding genetically based disease.
Article
The behaviour of house cats Felis silvestris catus from nine litters was recorded at 4 months, 1 year and 2 years of age, in their home environment immediately after meals fed by their owners. We extracted by principal components analysis four elements of 'behavioural style' that were consistent from one age to another: based upon behaviour patterns that were most heavily loaded on each component, these were labelled as Staying Indoors, Rubbing, Investigative and Boldness elements. The Staying Indoors and Rubbing elements are similar to two aspects of behavioural style identified in a previous study of adult cats; the Boldness element, possibly coupled with the Investigative element, may be similar to the shy/bold continuum identified in controlled studies of cats and other species. Four-month-old male cats were the most likely to Stay Indoors; the Rubbing element increased with age in the majority of individuals, both male and female. Littermates tended to be similar to one another in Rubbing (at 4 months) and Boldness (up to 1 year). A positive effect of handling received during the first 8 weeks of life was detected for Boldness at 4 months of age. Copyright 2001 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Article
Dogs of 10 breeds were raised in homes and under restricted conditions, and their responses to 5 objects in a standard test situation was determined, in order to study the interaction of constitutional and experimental determinants of behavior. There were significant differences between breeds in "no response," "teasing," "approach-avoidance," "wariness," and "avoidance," but not in "curiosity." Kennel-reared dogs showed more avoidance responses, and cage-restricted dogs in addition exhibited "diffuse-excitement."
Article
This paper is a review of the results of the authors obtained in a long-term experiment on fox domestication. Debatable issues of dog evolution are discussed in light of these results. It is demonstrated that genetic physiological mechanisms of the behavior transformation during selection and the nature of the arising phenotypic changes are associated with retarded development of corresponding ontogenetic processes. As a result of this retardation, the adult animals retain juvenile traits of behavior and morphology (the phenomenon of neoteny). The role of hormonal changes caused by domestication in the evolutionary origin of neoteny is discussed.
Dogs of the Last Hundred Years at the British Museum
  • K Dennis-Bryan
  • Clutton
  • J Brock
Dennis-Bryan, K., Clutton-Brock, J., 1988. Dogs of the Last Hundred Years at the British Museum (Natural History). British Museum (Natural History), London
Personalitytraitsinthedomesticdog(Canisfamilaris)
  • K Svartberg
  • B Forkman
Svartberg,K.,Forkman,B.,2002.Personalitytraitsinthedomesticdog(Canisfamilaris).Appl.Anim.Behav.Sci. 79, 133–155
The distribution of curiosity/fearlessness scores (males and females pooled) in the highest ranked breed— Labrador Retriever (shaded bars), and the lowest ranked breed—Collie
  • Fig
Fig. 1. The distribution of curiosity/fearlessness scores (males and females pooled) in the highest ranked breed— Labrador Retriever (shaded bars), and the lowest ranked breed—Collie (white bars).
Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog Early prediction of adult police dog efficiency—a longitudinal study
  • J P Scott
  • J L Fuller
Scott, J.P., Fuller, J.L., 1965. Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Slabbert, J.M., Odendaal, J.S.J., 1999. Early prediction of adult police dog efficiency—a longitudinal study. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 64, 269–288.
Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds
  • E H Hart
Hart, E.H., 1975. Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. TFH Publications, Neptune City.