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International training and management development: Theory and reality

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Abstract

Purpose This article aims to outline the theoretical perspectives of international training and development and examine how theoretical frameworks have been implemented by practitioners. Design/methodology/approach Literature review. Findings There appears to be a considerable gap between academic theories and multinational enterprises’ (MNEs’) practices. MNEs pay little attention to international training and management development. Ineffective international training and management development have a considerably adverse impact on MNEs. Practical implications In order to succeed in a globally competitive environment MNEs need to effectively train expatriates and their spouses, host‐country nationals (HCNs) and third‐country nationals (TCNs), and develop and nurture a truly global management team. Originality/value This paper systematically reviews the existing literature and reveals a considerable gap between academic theories and MNEs’ practices.

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... Moreover, one of IHRM's most crucial activities is the international training and development that there are many potential benefits. The effective international training and management development is managerial requirement of MNEs to achieve *Lecturer, Faculty of Business Administration , Sripatum University, Chonburi Campus **Lecturer, Faculty of Logistics & Supply Chain Management , Sripatum University, Chonburi Campus their goals (Shen, 2005). The quality and relevance of training programs concerns employees mainly that it can help expatriate's operational performance (Zheng et al., 2007). ...
... International management development is very significance for MNEs because it is the central role in integrating international operations and developing a cross-national corporate culture (Shen, 2005). 234 Moreover, there is the research evidence that MNEs provide training for expatriates. ...
... Cultural, physical and interpersonal adjustments to the new host environment affect to professional effectiveness in business responsibilities of expatriate's achievement. Thus, cross-cultural training programs focus on improving knowledge, abilities and skill of expatriates need (Shen, 2005). Moreover, there is a study of cross-cultural training practices and policies in terms of the level of rigor, provision of delivery that the different cross-cultural training affects to the expatriates' working effective in Australian MNEs (Shen and Lang, 2009). ...
Article
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Currently, training and management development is a key significant management skill for Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) to succeed in the global competition. MNEs need to train expatriates and their spouses effectively in host-country nationals (HCN) and third-country nationals (TCNs) and develop the international human resource management (IHRM) team. The quality of training programs concern employees to help the expatriate's operational performance to achieve MNEs' goals. Coaches, executives and organisations should enable to understand the international training and development clearly. Thus, this paper is a literature review is to study the international training and development in MNEs. It reveals the training and development on IHRM practices in countries. The findings of this paper represent the countries that provide international training and management development effective. In addition, there are some recommendations for trainers, MNE's human resource manager to prepare the higher quality of training programs in the last section.
... Jie Shen (2005) states that absence of empirical studies on development and international training create difficulties to know exactly how MNE implement better international training and development. This research gap is unique and need further research. ...
... There several researches that explain the relationship between variables in this research. Research of Shen (2005) explains that training and management development are very needed by SMEs. More researches are needed to improve this findings. ...
... It also can be used to test research hypotheses and interpreting the relationship. It is consistent with the method used by Shen (2005) and Rajani (2008) that SPSS program can be used to explain the effect independent variables to dependent variable. ...
Article
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This study aim is to analyze the effect of training and competence on motivation of women entrepreneurs with mediation of organizational culture which has been rarely studied. This research will fill this gap by conducting research on women entrepreneurs in Indonesia. The uniqueness of this study is the first study to examine micro and small women entrepreneurs in East Java, Indonesia. The samples are 100 respondents. Data was collected by questionnaire that measured by 5-point Likert scale. The data obtained is analyzedby path analysis with SPSS version 21 software.The results showed that the training and competence directly have positive and significant effects on organizational culture. The results also indicate that training, competencies and organizational culture directly have positive and significant effects on motivation of female entrepreneurs.The calculation of the indirect effect indicate that organizational culture mediates the effect of training and competence on motivation of female entrepreneurs
... Finally, some corporate work experiences provide more global experience, which is a critical part of the corporate work experience personal attribute. In fact, lacking long-term strategic considerations, GLD programs are weak overall as they neglect one's previous global working experience (Shen, 2005). ...
... As an example, Coca-Cola assesses performance impact and global mindset development before repatriation (Novicevic & Harvey, 2004 There is also a high failure rate of expatriate assignments. There is a negative correlation between a company's selection and development functions' effectiveness, and its expatriate failure rate (Shen, 2005). The use of more rigorous training programs could significantly improve the expatriate's performance in an overseas environment, thus minimizing the incidence of failure. ...
... A GLD program requires alignment and integration of the talent management functions that it impacts: recruiting, succession planning, career development, and learning and development. The holy grail of HR's talent management is a systematic, comprehensive solution integrating recruiting and succession planning, career development, and continuous learning and development (Black & Gregersen, 2000;"Colgate-Palmolive", 2004) in order to attract, identify, select, develop and retain the pipeline of high-performance, high-potential future global leadership talent (Schein & Kramer, 2005;Shen, 2005). ...
Article
As our world "shrinks" and globalization increases, companies are changing strategies and operational procedures, which are dependent on leaders to deploy and implement. As companies evolve from domestic companies towards international, multinational and global companies, developing future global leaders becomes an essential component for successfully carrying out corporate global strategies. Because of this, there is an increasing need for global leaders; yet, they are not prepared, causing a significant shortage of global leaders, which is a critical issue for human resource departments. Thus, global leadership development (GLD) programs are urgently needed to address the gap between global leadership needs and the capacity shortage, and should be a major focus of HR's talent management. Even though GLD significantly impacts company performance, current GLD programs offered by practitioners are deficient and there is disjointed research on the topic by scholars. However, there is a growing consensus around global leadership attributes (personality, values, cultural background and corporate work experience) used for the recruiting and succession planning talent management functions, global leadership competencies (engagement in personal transformation, knowledge, networking skills, social judgment skills, self awareness, and self regulation) used for the career development talent management function, and learning and development methods (expatriate assignment, global teams, experiential learning, coaching, intercultural training, assessment and reflection) used for the learning and development talent management function. The research findings indicate several implications for practitioners to address when building a global leadership development program. First, personality traits and global leadership competencies are primarily idiosyncratic to job function, but not to company type. Second, while leadership competencies are the same for domestic and global leaders, certain competencies are more critical for global leaders and the proficiency level typically increases. Third, the list of competencies must be manageable, clearly defined and comprehensive. And fourth, the learning and development method and corresponding budget prioritization is very dependent on the global leadership competency to be developed.
... One major area of the Human Resource Management function of particular relevance to the effective use of human resources is training and development [11]. Few people these days would argue against the importance of training as a major influence on the success of an organization. ...
... Managing human resources is one of the key elements in the coordination and management of work organizations. Shen (2004) defines Human Resource Management as the involvement of all management decisions and actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and its employees-the human resources. According to Shen generally management make important decisions daily that affect this relationship [11]. ...
... Shen (2004) defines Human Resource Management as the involvement of all management decisions and actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and its employees-the human resources. According to Shen generally management make important decisions daily that affect this relationship [11]. ...
Article
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The focus of this study was to determine the impact of training and development on the employees' performance and effectiveness at District Five Administration Office, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. In this study we employed cross sectional institutional based quantitative research method. Data were collected using Likert's scale tool from 100 employees after selecting participants using systematic random sampling technique. Ninety-four complete questionnaires with a response rate of 94% were considered during analysis. Training and development had positively correlated and claimed statistically significant relationship with employee performance and effectiveness. It is recommended that District Five Administration Office shall maintain providing employee training and development activities and ensure the participation of employees in planning, need or skill deficit identification and evaluation of training and development programs.
... Shen and Darby (2006) found, however, that only limited or ad-hoc training is provided to Chinese expatriates. The provided training tends to focus on cross-cultural issues (Shen 2005), but lacks a long-term management development planning and formal and systematic management processes; in particular, pre-departure and post-departure cross-cultural training programmes are essential for Chinese expatriates in Europe. ...
... Nevertheless, many private companies are characterised by short-term oriented business goals (Cooke 2005). Being especially more pragmatic and flexible regarding human resource management practices, private companies lack long-term human resource planning, a commitment to training and development and employee involvement and participation (Shen 2005). Chinese private companies typically do not implement a systematic training scheme due to financial and time resources (Shen and Darby 2006). ...
Chapter
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Since joining the World Trade Organisation in 2001, Chinese overseas investment has shown a significant and consistent increase despite the global financial crisis. The rise of Chinese OFDI in Europe is particular interesting. By investing in Europe, China partly aims to catch up with global market leaders, tapping into foreign markets for high-value brand assets, technological competencies and other intangibles. This chapter provides an overview of the findings of academic research on international management in Chinese firms. The knowledge of managerial behaviour of Chinese investors in Europe is limited and the impact of their investment unclear. Three important themes emerge from the reviewed literature on Chinese management: First, in contrast to Western MNCs, Chinese companies take a ‘light-touch approach’ with their European subsidiaries. The second theme is that Chinese MNCs tend to send abroad a large number of Chinese expatriates who tend to be inexperienced internationally. This international inexperience of Chinese managers causes unintended home-country effects. A third theme is that Chinese companies are very diverse, depending on sector, size, geographical origin, and ownership type.
... Board effectiveness An effective board requires non-executive directors to both support executives in their leadership of the business and to monitor and control their conduct (Shen, 2005). The key antecedents of non-executive directors" effectiveness are: ...
...  the degree of independence (Monks and Minow, 2004),  the level of knowledge and skills,  The economic incentives to behave properly (Shen, 2005). Creating board effectiveness and accountability is to bridge the gap between the myths about board role expectations and the realities of actual board task performance (Huse, 2005). ...
Article
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Manuscript Type: Review Research Question / Issue: The review focuses on board failure especially in the developing world, and in particular, Zimbabwe. The review asks pertinent questions: Why are boards failing? How are boards populated? What are the characteristics that determine selection to the board? Who selects directors? Research Findings / Insights: The review establishes that there is need for a corporate governance code and awareness of corporate governance practices in Zimbabwe. Directors are usually selected through the influence of the CEO and such directors have weak oversight on the performance of the CEO. Some characteristics that determine director selection are gender, age, educational qualifications, experience and financial expertise. Theoretical / Academic Implications: Directors are stewards who have to be accountable to all stakeholders. Practitioner / Policy Implications: There is need to establish how directors are selected in light of the high rate of company and board failures. That directors are also chosen by the CEO is worrying. The selection process should yield capable, independent and diverse directors who can satisfy the expectations of a wide spectrum of stakeholders.
... It bridges the gap between current and desired standards of performance. Training allows organisations to make the best use of human resources for gaining a competitive advantage (Jie, 2005). According to David (2006), training sharpens employees' thinking ability and creativity to take better decisions in time and in a productive manner. ...
... In general, training programs not only develop the skills and digital skills of employees, but also motivate an organization to make greater use of its human resources in order to gain a competitive advantage. Therefore, it appears mandatory for the company to design effective training programs for its executives, in order to enhance their knowledge and capabilities, in an environment where knowledge is constantly changing and enriched with innovations (Jie, 2005). Corporate executives who are properly trained to meet customer requirements receive greater satisfaction in performing their job duties (Tsai et al., 2007). ...
Conference Paper
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The main goal of the paper is to theoretically identify the values that result from the principles of selected classical management approach theories based on the cultural background of their authors. Theoretically, three selected classic theories were analysed: scientific management, administrative theory, and bureaucracy. The results of the theoretical research show that cultural values (organisational culture) manifested in mentioned theories are influenced by the cultural background of its authors (national culture). At the same time, each considered their approach the most appropriate in a given cultural context. Thus, these approaches cannot be considered good or bad but functional or dysfunctional, similar to cultures.
... Training programs not only develop employees but also help an organization to make the best use of its human resources in favor of gaining a competitive advantage. Therefore, it seems mandatory for the firm to plan for such a training program for its employees to enhance their abilities and competencies that are needed at the workplace, (Jie, 2005). ...
... 1. Understanding the role of innovation in training and development programs of Uzbekistan banks 2. Exploring the difference between soft and hard skills 3. Offering recommendations for bank managers to re-estimate their training courses Literature Review Human Resource Management is believed to be major constituent in the coordination and management of work processes and workers in the company. Organization-employee relationships depend on decisions and performance of HRM [3]. As stated by McDowall, understanding the significance of training as of late has been greatly impacted by the intensification of rivalry and the relative achievement of organizations, as investment in workers training and development is broadly underlined [4]. ...
Article
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Recently, the importance of training and development as a part of Human Resource Management has developed significantly. Numerous companies concur that training and development is fundamental to organizational improvement and success cycle. On the other hand, the impact of training and development is thought little of in Central-Asian countries.Many companies in Uzbekistan have been putting center on hard skills of workers amid training and development sessions and dismissing the significance of soft skills. This article finds the value of soft skills of bank supervisors and officers and endeavors to suggest the usage of soft skills such as communication skills, emotional intelligence, time management and teamwork. Keywords: Human resource management, training and development, soft skills, hard skills, as communication skills, emotional intelligence, time management, teamwork, banks
... Development is defined as organizational actions and activities and managers have partial control over these actions and activities (Shen, 2005). Development considers as an importance function in human resource management, it provides an excellent opportunity to individuals to enhance their level of performance standards and to clarify organizations' future directions (Hameed, 2011). ...
... The study by Templer (11) showed that job knowledge and technical skills is by no means a sufficient criterion and organizational decision makers should not only focus on technical expertise when selecting and training expatriates. Shen (58) asserted that lack of technical skills is seldom a cause of expatriate failure. Robles (55) suggested that soft skills are just as good an indicator of job performance as traditional job qualifications (hard skills). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of self-motivation and competencies towards job performance of expatriates working within the ICT sector in Malaysia. Additionally, this study examines the mediating effect of cultural adjustment. A survey strategy associated with a quantitative method using a self-administered questionnaire was carried out. Data was collected through simple random sampling from a sample of 301 expatriates. The AMOS software developed for analyzing the Structure Equation Modeling (SEM) was utilized. Emotional and job related competencies were found to have a significant effect on expatriate job performance. However, the impact of self-motivation on job performance was found to be not significant. The findings also supported the role of cultural adjustment as a mediator. The theoretical framework emerging from this study support the results from some earlier studies and also brings out several new ideas such as the importance of competencies and cultural adjustment. The findings have significantly contributed to the advancement of knowledge as it is evident that expatriate emotional and job related competencies facilitate job performance and cultural adjustment. By investigating self-motivation and competencies, this study informs organizations on ways they can implement improvements in the areas of expatriate hiring, training and support practices. It is recommended that organizations consider both emotional and job related competencies and implement suitable HR policies when selecting, training and motivating the right candidate.
... In the modern age, public and private organizations made efforts to improve the worth of the persons appointed, or on raising the abilities and competencies of current employees, or on both type of employees so that the organization achieve the optimum level of employee performance. Shen (2004), defines HRM as the contribution of entire management assessments and activities that have emotional impact the natural surroundings of the association amongst the organization and its employees. In general, the practices of human resource management can be carried out as a tool implemented by an organization that helps, motivate and sustain it through effective practice, policy and philosophy (Singh & Jain, 2014). ...
... International training and development are identified as key activities of international human resources management [8]. Their impact on business performance depends primarily on the characteristics of individuals, the organizational climate that supports learning, transfer of knowledge and skills, but also from the evaluation of these activities in order to change and improve them through corrective measures [9]. Guerrero and Barraud-Didier [10] found a positive influence of training and development of employees on general organizational performance and financial performance on a sample of 180 French companies. ...
... In the modern age, public and private organizations made efforts to improve the worth of the persons appointed, or on raising the abilities and competencies of current employees, or on both type of employees so that the organization achieve the optimum level of employee performance. Shen (2004), defines HRM as the contribution of entire management assessments and activities that have emotional impact the natural surroundings of the association amongst the organization and its employees. In general, the practices of human resource management can be carried out as a tool implemented by an organization that helps, motivate and sustain it through effective practice, policy and philosophy (Singh & Jain, 2014). ...
Thesis
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The current aims of study is to examine the impact of HRM practices i.e recruitment & selection, training & development and performance appraisal on employee performance with mediating role of HR outcomes and moderating role of Islamic Work Ethics in Judiciary of Punjab, Pakistan. This study was carried on stratified sample of 193 (176 males and 17 females) staff members, study was quantitative in nature and primary data was collected through questionnaire from 193 staff members (Assistant, Senior Clerk, Junior Clerk) of Lahore High Court(Principal seat and its allied Benches-Rawalpindi, Multan and Bahawalpur). Data was investigated by descriptive statistics, correlation, alpha, linear regression and Hayes process (for mediating and moderating variables) through SPSS. Result supported the conceptual model by showing significant impact of HRM practices on employee performance. Correlation, linear regression and Hayes process analysis were used to refine and increase the accuracy of three dimensions of independent variable HRM practices, one mediating variable HR outcomes, one moderating variable IWE conforming to their relationship and impact on dependent variable employee performance. Results demonstrates that recruitment & selection and training & development has negative impact on employee performance while performance appraisal has positive impact on employee performance. There is no mediation of HR outcomes (competence, motivation and role clarity) between HRM practices (recruitment & selection, training & development, performance appraisal) and employee performance. Moderation of IWE found on employee performance without the relationship of HRM practices (recruitment & selection, training & development and performance appraisal).The study provide recommendations that management of LHC can adopt a fair recruitment & selection procedure, provide off-the-job training and evaluate the performance of employees before and after the training which enables employees to contribute for the success of the organization meaningfully.
... Sometimes there are limits drawn between training and development, with broader development in coverage and focusing on individuals to achieve new capabilities that are useful both for their current and future work. [3], [5]. ...
Conference Paper
Research study in the productivity has been revealed many years. The company or industry is a form of organized association or organization whose purpose is to make the product or serve the consumer with profit in return. In this paper, the authors will focus on discussing about the literature review of work environment, training and health safety as factors affecting productivity in a company. The result can be proposed to give a clear specification of the intervention factors that mostly used, the outcomes about the company frequently studied, the type of research mostly used and also for further research on work environment, training and health safety programmes in a company.This article is only limited to English articles and it is conducted by using the certain password. The result of the research which is obtained is that the dominant variable that influences the work productivity is the work environment and the work training, which uses an analysis which is often used by SEM (Structural Equation Modeling).
... Development is defined as organizational actions and activities and managers have partial control over these actions and activities (Shen, 2005). Development considers as an importance function in human resource management, it provides an excellent opportunity to individuals to enhance their level of performance standards and to clarify organizations' future directions (Hameed, 2011). ...
... A Deloitte survey (2012) found that in 64% of the 77 organizations surveyed, less than half of assignments terminate prematurely, with employee adaptation problems being causal for 28% of the early terminations. 1 Early terminations not only cause direct (up to US$ 1 million per expatriate failure; for an overview see Vögel et al., 2008) but also indirect costs (e.g., damaged relations to the host country's customers, loss of business opportunities; Shen, 2005;Kataria and Sethi, 2013) for organizations. ...
... A Deloitte survey (2012) found that in 64% of the 77 organizations surveyed, less than half of assignments terminate prematurely, with employee adaptation problems being causal for 28% of the early terminations. 1 Early terminations not only cause direct (up to US$ 1 million per expatriate failure; for an overview see Vögel et al., 2008) but also indirect costs (e.g., damaged relations to the host country's customers, loss of business opportunities; Shen, 2005;Kataria and Sethi, 2013) for organizations. ...
Article
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Expatriates need to deal with numerous stimuli resulting from new environmental and cultural influences abroad, contributing to stress and high rates of failure and turnover. Based on conservation-of-resources theory, this study aims to explore the role of resources (including sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) and social capital) in explaining expatriates' perceived stress and turnover intention. This is the first study to examine the personality trait SPS in the field of expatriate management. High-SPS individuals tend to be easily overwhelmed by novel stimuli. Based on a dataset of 311 expatriates, structural equation model (SEM) and mediation analyses proved full mediation of the positive relation between SPS and turnover intention through perceived stress. Moreover, stress fully mediated the negative relation between bonding social capital and turnover intention. While 20% of the domestic population are assumed to show high SPS, we found a 26.4% ratio in our expatriate sample. Implications for both management and research are derived. Open access through: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/emre.12120
... Cultural training is necessary for recruitment and selection process for the organization in order to evaluate and confirm the candidates' aptitude for expatriation, and even to take into consideration their families (Haslberger and Brewster, 2008). Nevertheless multinational companies are not implementing cultural training extensively in their expatriation management (Shen, 2005), because the connection between such training and expatriate performance remains hard to confirm (Puck, Kittler and Wright, 2008). ...
Article
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Background and Purpose: The multinational companies require different approach of human resource management to achieve their goals. The reason is in employees who are working abroad, so-called expatriates. The purpose of the research is to investigate perceptions and experience of the expatriates working in one of the Slovenian multinational company. Design/Methodology/Approach: The online survey was performed among all expatriates working for the pharmaceutical company. The questionnaire was randomly sent and delivered in an electronic form, structured in an online program named 1ka (https://www.1ka.si). A total of all 12 questionnaires were completed fully and properly. Results: Results indicate that there are several reasons that expatriates went to work abroad, but none of them did not completely fulfilled the expectations of the expatriates. There are no differences between those expatriates who are working abroad up to 12 months and those who are working more than 12 months in their fulfilment of expectations working abroad for this company. Conclusion: Based on the findings, the study shows the expatriates importance factors for their contribution of working abroad for the company and fulfilment of their expectations. The results are useful for the employees that will be in the future involved in the expatriation process in this company.
... Development is defined as organizational actions and activities and managers have partial control over these actions and activities (Shen, 2005). Development considers as an importance function in human resource management, it provides an excellent opportunity to individuals to enhance their level of performance standards and to clarify organizations' future directions (Hameed, 2011). ...
Article
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Human resources capacity is one of the very important decision points of a management. In this case efficiency plays a strategic role. On the other hand, customer satisfaction also must be considered when optimizing the human resources capacity. In this research, human resources capacity of a call center was calculated regarding to arrival of calls to the center and optimized by using waiting lines method. As a result it was seen that queuing theory worked and efficiency of the call center was increased.
... Managing human resources is one of the key elements in the coordination and management of work organizations. Shen (2004), figured out that almost in all hierarchical levels of an organisation Human Resource Management has a particular involvement in all management decisions and actions that affect the nature of the relationship between the organization and its employees. ...
... Providing training and development is one of the many roles of human resource management. This central role has been recognized by many research studies, for instance [6] stressed that employees are a crucial and expensive resource and in order to sustain effective performance, it is important to optimize their contribution to the aims and goals of the organizations. He also went on to say that one major area of the human resource management function of particular relevance to the effective use of human resources is training and development. ...
Article
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ABSTRACT The Success or failure of modern business organizations depends on the quality of their human resources. Well trained and highly developed employees are considered as corner stone for such success. Hence the purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between training , development, training and development and employees performance and productivity in selected Jordanian Private Sector transportation companies located in the Southern region of Jordan. The study was based on set of hypotheses that HOs: hypothesized no relationships between variables, while H1-H6 hypothesized the existence of relationships between stated variables. A quantitative approach is used Relevant data was collected through structured questionnaire. Subjects for the study consisted of 254 employees which constituted 60% of the total target population of 420 people. 254 structured questionnaire were distributed to employees on job location, 212 questionnaires were returned and only 188 were suitable for statistical analysis. SPSS version 16 has been used to for data analysis. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. The statistical tools were aligned with the objective of the research. For this purpose, frequency tables, percentages, means and standard deviations were computed and substantively interpreted. Inferential statistics like Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) and linear regression were used to determine if there is a significant positive relationship existed between the independent variables (training and development) and dependent variables (performance and productivity). The findings indicated that training and development were positively correlated and claimed statistically significant relationship with employee performance and productivity. Analysis and interpretations were made at 0.05 level of significance. The study concluded that training and development have important impact on employee performance and productivity. Therefore, it was recommended that effective training programs and carefully set development plans should be provided to all employees to enable them to enhance their skills and upgrade their knowledge. Finally, foreseeable future research can be conducted to cover other variables like (capabilities, involvement so on) which might affect performance and productivity. Keywords: Training, Development, Employees, Performance, Productivity, Transportation Companies.
... A Deloitte survey (2012) found that in 64% of the 77 organizations surveyed, less than half of assignments terminate prematurely, with employee adaptation problems being causal for 28% of the early terminations. 1 Early terminations not only cause direct (up to US$ 1 million per expatriate failure; for an overview see Vögel et al., 2008) but also indirect costs (e.g., damaged relations to the host country's customers, loss of business opportunities; Shen, 2005;Kataria and Sethi, 2013) for organizations. ...
Presentation
Expatriates need to deal with numerous stimuli resulting from new environmental and cultural influences abroad, contributing to stress and high rates of failure and turnover. Based on conservation‐of‐resources theory, this study aims to explore the role of resources (including sensory processing sensitivity (SPS) and social capital,) in explaining expatriates’ perceived stress and turnover intention. This is the first study to examine the personality trait SPS in the field of expatriate management. High-SPS individuals tend to be easily overwhelmed by novel stimuli. Based on a dataset of 311 expatriates, SEM and mediation analyses proved full mediation of the positive relation between SPS and turnover intention through perceived stress. Moreover, stress fully mediated the negative relation between bonding social capital and turnover intention. While 20 percent of the domestic population show high SPS, we found a 26.4 percent ratio in our expatriate sample. Implications for both management and research are derived.
... Since the blossom of cross-cultural training studies in the 1980's several researchers have reviewed the literature to summarize the theories and practices of crosscultural training (Bhagat and Prien 1996;Bhawuk and Brislin 2000;Black and Mendenhall 1990;Blake, Heslin, and Curtis 1996;Mendenhall et al. 2004;Shen 2004;Strubler, Park, and Agarwal 2011). Many others have evaluate its effectiveness (Alberico 1999;Bean 2006;Bhawuk and Brislin 2000;Black and Mendenhall 1990;Blake, Heslin, and Curtis 1996;Brewster and Pickard 1994;Chen 1994;Kealey and Protheroe 1996;Kirkpatrick 1967;Littrell and Salas 2005;O'Reilly 1990;Pollock 1995;Pruegger 1991;Strubler, Park, and Agarwal 2011;Wu Lee 2005;Youtcheff 1985). ...
Thesis
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This dissertation, based on social anthropology, examined the impact of raising awareness of the participants’ default culture to see if this knowledge impacts the way in which they interact with their team. This was done by using an application of Mary Douglas’ (1970, 1978, 1999, 2005b, 2005a) and Thompson Ellis and Wildavsky’s (1990) Cultural Theory to measuring the changes in the multicultural team member’s preferences for their non-preferred ways of making decisions and their self-reported responses about the levels of conflict and safety on their team. This qualitative research uses a mixed qualitative quasi-experimental study that uses a pre-test and posttest design with a control group overall research design. It evaluated whether or not a teamwork-training program, which, teaches differing decision-making processes, and argumentation logic can stretch a multicultural team member’s tolerance for rival regimes and lower the level of destructive conflict on the team. The researcher conducted two stages of fieldwork in Cambodia and Myanmar. In the first stage, she administered the pretest instruments and facilitated three multicultural team-building workshops in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap, Cambodia, and Yangon, Myanmar to 80 participants from 22 countries. During these workshops, she utilized participant observation and unstructured interviews. The second stage carried out 6-8 weeks after the first, involved 31 semi-structured interviews and administering the posttest instruments to 56 multicultural team members in seven teams. This study also uses a critical incident survey to investigate cultural bias. The findings show that event based, multicultural teambuilding training did not have a significant effect on a team’s level of stress or conflict. However, it did have a positive effect on the levels of psychological security in teams that did not know each other well. In addition, the treatment teams show changes in their perception of and preferences for how their team works, indicating increased levels of tolerance for each. This dissertation then discusses the impact of cultural bias on training events. It concludes with an overview of how viewing multicultural training as ‘Wicked Problem” can suggest ways in which team leaders can build “Clumsy” training solutions. Mentor: Dr. Sherwood G. Lingenfelter 344 Words
Article
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The shortage of global leaders has become a significant constraint for many organizations in the global arena. The need of developing global leaders with adequate intercultural competencies has become obvious. Many studies provide the cross-cultural competency taxonomies, rather a theory to conceptualize intercultural competencies for developing global leaders. The problem remains unsolved and becomes more complex. In the present paper, it is proposed that social constructivism is a useful theoretical foundation to develop intercultural competencies for developing global leaders.
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Employee and organizational performance have utmost importance for the sake of improving productivity. The study attempts to find out employees and organizational performance. The study adopted a descriptive research design. A sample size of 103 participants is used for the study. The study revealed that most of the respondents representing were informed through the company’s orientation program. Training and development method used by organizations can be categorized as either on-the-job or off-the-job. Most of the training received by respondents was on; Team leadership, fire management, harvesting, planting, safety/PPE, and training company’s protocols. The majority of the respondents received training as a compulsory requirement for all employees. Employees were trained through (demonstration, discussion, presentation, lecture, and then seminars). All employees recognized the need for further training to enhance their specific job role development. The major challenges of the employee in the performance of their duties were inadequate training logistics, inadequate/ unsuitable time allocated for training, inconsistencies in training on the same subject, irregularity of training, no training incentives, and non-identification of training needs. The study revealed that the impact of training and development on employee’s performance and productivity were: adhering to protocols, broadened scope, enhanced knowledge/skills in the area of work, enhanced leadership skills, enhanced productivity, and innovativeness, respecting other people’s opinions, safe operations among others. The study recommended that basic training materials especially audio-visual aids should be acquired to make training more effective.
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There is a considerable gap in academic theoretical literature about the international training of expatriates in multinational enterprises (MNEs). While the majority of research has focused on developed (Western) multinationals operating in developing countries, very limited research has been conducted on emerging multinational enterprises (EMNEs) operating in developed countries and the expatriates who work in them. In this study, we explore the international training of expatriates in Indian MNEs from the information technology industry operating in Australia to examine how they provide training to their expatriate staff who are sent on international assignments. We collected qualitative data in the form of multiple case studies via interviews with senior executives based in the Australian subsidiaries. Our findings reveal that Indian IT MNEs provide a variety of centralised training programmes for their managerial and technical expatriates and use training as a key instrument to leverage and transfer home country knowledge to their Australian subsidiaries. We also found that each stakeholder involved in the training process plays a distinct role in the knowledge transfer process, which allows Indian EMNEs to integrate the training with their people-centred business model to deliver IT services in host countries.
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The second largest contributor to Indian GDP is the construction industry. It is the largest employing industry having huge economic potential which was valued over $126 billion in 2016 and it continues on a steady growth path. It is expected that the value of the real estate and construction market will increase seven-fold by 2028. Growth is likely to be underpinned by stable government support for infrastructure development, as well as through expanded private sector involvement. However, the industry suffers from inefficiencies that result in time and cost overrun in their projects. Some of the potential causes of inefficiencies originate from the underdeveloped labour market and poor organizational structures that operate in the industry. An exhaustive list of factors found to drive the industry to its inefficient operation resulting invariably to failures. If we put all these factors in one basket, they reduce to one single word; “lack of training of workforce and poor management”, whether it refers to the skilled, semi-skilled or unskilled labour force and/or the poor project management from the organizational side of the project. The present study extensively reviews problems of construction company that originate from the labour market.
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Although the need to develop global leaders with adequate intercultural competencies has become obvious (Morrison, 2000; Suutari, 2002), global leadership, as an emerging field, has not received a great deal of attention (Morrison, 2000). Literature of developing global leadership has been focused on partial evidence to generate simple universality with an American bias (Dickson, Hartog, & Mitchelson, 2003). This chapter attempts to propose an integrative Intercultural Effectiveness (ICE) model for Human Resource Development (HRD) professionals. The model evolves a theoretical conceptualization to link ICE and global leadership with the theory of transformative learning and the process of cross-cultural learning. It provides a series of process guidelines for HRD professionals in designing, developing, and conducting HRD programs for the development of global leadership.
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Organizations must be constantly kept up to date through effective training and development programs to grow and achieve what they have dreamed for. For industries like hotels employee training and development is pivotal to address the changing customer needs. Having this in mind, the study has been conducted in star rated hotels to assess employee training and development practices. This research, therefore, aimed to explore the practices and problems that are encountered during the process of training and development within star rated hotels. Additionally, this study was aimed to investigate the problems and challenges that face training and development activities and searches for practical suggestions to improve the effectiveness of these activities. The data were gathered through questionnaire from employees and semi-structured interviews from top or HRM which was selected purposely from the organization who have had better knowledge and more experience about the organization. The gathered data was analyzed through quantitative and qualitative. The finding of the study depicted that the need assessment of formal training and development, forms and methods of training and development, and evaluation of training and development porgramme and outcomes are poor and practically full of inconsistent. Concurrent with it, Inaccurate training needs analysis, lack of long-term plan for developing human resource, poor quality of training programmes, lack of private training centers, discrepancy between the provided training and development and job skills, lack of motivation among employees, absence of professional in the training and development department, and Insufficient time and budget to execute training programmes are found as the top of problems for training and development practices. The main conclusions were that training and development need to be given to employees based on the need analysis, training and development porgramme and outcomes has to monitored and evaluated regularly. Keywords: Hotel, Training, Development, Human Resource, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
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Globalization has increased the need to understand the nature of work-related adult learning and development across national boundaries. It is driving the demand for the workforce that possesses knowledge of other countries and cultures and affecting those who are responsible for developing international learning activities. The author of this chapter calls for adult education and Human Resource Development (HRD) professionals to learn how to apply adult learning theories in cross-cultural learning to help individuals with different cultural backgrounds. This would help these professionals acquire intercultural competence and become successful in international assignments.
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Background: Decades have passed since trailing spouses were first identified as the primary causes of expatriate failure. This has led to numerous studies to determine how best to avoid such failures. In particular, it was determined that through the preparation, training and support of trailing spouses multinational enterprises (MNEs) can not only assist with their adjustment to the host country, but also reduce the likelihood of expatriate failure. Aim: With the impact of the trailing spouse still being a major concern for the success of an international assignment decades after it was first identified as such, this research aimed to determine the preparation, training and support requirements of trailing spouses prior to, and during an international assignment. Setting: The article includes the responses from trailing spouses who at the time of the study were on assignment in 52 countries on six continents. Methods: Both non-probability judgement sampling and snowball sampling were used to identify the 218 respondents who completed a self-administered questionnaire which respondents were able to access online. The data was then analysed using exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach’s alpha, a t-test and paired t-test. Results: Statistically significant differences were found between the preparation, training and support required by trailing spouses and what was offered to them by MNEs for all the specific forms of preparation, training and support measured in this study. Conclusion: MNEs are still falling short of the preparation, training and support needs of trailing spouses. In particular, MNEs seem to focus on some operational aspects of spousal adjustment while the social aspects are still not sufficiently addressed.
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Scores of studies highlight the significance of human resource development in Africa. However, this study is one of the first that combines human capital development and innovation and its impact on international competitiveness in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Thus, many questions about economic and business competitiveness in SSA have remained unanswered. This chapter, therefore, provides insights into how multinational corporations (MNCs) operating in SSA can acquire and develop their human capital to innovate and enhance their international competitiveness and that of the SSA region. The study reveals that Africa’s long-term growth prospect hinges on developing their human capital. The sustainability of SSA’s competitiveness in the world requires that education and on-the-job training center on the skills most needed in today’s global marketplace. Research and practical implications are discussed.
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This chapter explores international training and management development, an under-researched topic in the IHRM literature. The sample South Korean MNEs provided expatriates with extensive language training prior to departure and following arrival, but inadequate and low-rigor cross-cultural training. Limited training was provided to HCN production and office workers. The sample MNEs paid little attention to management development to both expatriates and HCNs, which had a negative effect on employee organizational commitment and retention. South Korean MNEs tended to adopt an integrated approach to HCNs’ training and development. This finding provides some support to the national cultural view and relative strength theory.
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Many international hotel chains (IHCs) have sent their employees, their expatriates, overseas to maintain corporate standards, fill skills gaps, and transfer technology and corporate culture in their worldwide properties. The workforce is the backbone of any organization, and IHCs should pay careful attention to trends as well as published research to reduce failures that will ultimately affect its financial state as well as the organization as a whole. This chapter will be on the hotel industry in China. Hence, the focus of this chapter is on the matter that when IHCs are selecting expatriates to send to China, IHRM and IHCs need to identify and assess these expatriates’ other characteristics (O). These O characteristics are: (1) desire to prematurely terminate an expatriate’s assignment; (2) stable competencies; and (3) intercultural/international business communication.
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The German chemical industry is internationally oriented although it consists mainly of small and medium-sized enterprises. Taking this industry as an example we analyse to what extent international assignments are important in international activities. They are in fact much rarer than one would assume in view of the large number of scientific articles dealing with this topic. Regarding the selection of expatriates, companies often do not follow the scientific recommendations for successful employee selection. This does not however lead to an increased risk of international assignment failure, the reason being that expatriate selection is often based on the self-selection of potential candidates so that the expatriates' motivation, an important factor for the success of international assignments, is assured. Therefore it is by no means irrational if enterprises dispense with the complex and costly procedures of staff selection.
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Globalization has increased the need to understand the nature of work-related adult learning and development across national boundaries. It is driving the demand for the workforce that possesses knowledge of other countries and cultures and affecting those who are responsible for developing international learning activities. The author of this chapter calls for adult education and Human Resource Development (HRD) professionals to learn how to apply adult learning theories in cross-cultural learning to help individuals with different cultural backgrounds. This would help these professionals acquire intercultural competence and become successful in international assignments.
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Although the need to develop global leaders with adequate intercultural competencies has become obvious (Morrison, 2000; Suutari, 2002), global leadership, as an emerging field, has not received a great deal of attention (Morrison, 2000). Literature of developing global leadership has been focused on partial evidence to generate simple universality with an American bias (Dickson, Hartog, & Mitchelson, 2003). This chapter attempts to propose an integrative Intercultural Effectiveness (ICE) model for Human Resource Development (HRD) professionals. The model evolves a theoretical conceptualization to link ICE and global leadership with the theory of transformative learning and the process of cross-cultural learning. It provides a series of process guidelines for HRD professionals in designing, developing, and conducting HRD programs for the development of global leadership.
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Purpose: This paper seeks to examine and understand how country institutional environments differently determine the Human Resource Management (HRM) of Multinational Companies (MNCs) from developed countries operating in developing countries, as well as MNCs from developing countries operating in more advanced market economies.
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This study explores the extents to which expatriates adjust and perform in a new environment in multinational corporations (MNCs). The main idea is to find out the challenges that expatriate face during adjustment stage which influences both positively and negatively on expatriate job performance in MNCs. Hence, for achieving appointed goals, we present a five-stage process model. Than we make some measurements from literature review about how the progression of each stage-as training, cross cultural motivation, subsidiary support and spouse adjustment influence the effectiveness of expatriate work adjustment and job performance in MNCs.
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The policies and practices of U.S., West European, and Japanese multinationals differ with respect to the procedures used for selecting personnel to fill positions overseas and the training programs used to prepare candidates.
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Transnational firms need transnational human resource management systems. This article recommends global human resource changes at two levels: individual and systemic. First, it presents a set of skills needed by individual managers to be globally competent, highlighting those which transcend the historic competencies required of expatriate managers. Second, it suggests a framework for assessing the global competence of firms' human resource systems. Based on a survey of fifty major North American firms, the authors find today's human resource strategies to be significantly less global than firms' business strategies. To overcome this gap, they identify a series of illusions preventing firms from creating human resource systems which are sufficiently global to support transnational business strategies.
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This paper discusses how human resource management (HRM) has traveled long ahead of its functional approach, how managing human resource is now being viewed as part of strategic management, and the HR roles that are likely to become important focus areas of smart companies on a large scale in the coming decades. Since these companies seek to build and work high-performance work systems in a competitive sense, they have to resort to strategic management of critical people issues so as to add value to organizational working. In this regard, six issues have been identified and analyzed, which include: promoting changed mindsets; proactively facilitating the architecture of intangibles; leadership development; leading change; supporting learning and innovation; and HR measurement.
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A review of empirical studies that directly investigated the overseas adjustment of expatriate managers revealed four dimensions that were related to successful expatriate acculturation: (1) the "self-oriented" dimension; (2) the "others-oriented" dimension; (3) the "perceptual" dimension; and (4) the "cultural-toughness" dimension. The study's implications for expatriate selection and training procedures in multinational corporations are discussed.
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Increased internationalization in the economic, political, and social arenas has led to greater interpersonal cross-cultural contact. Because much of this contact has not been successful, cross-cultural training has been proposed by many scholars as a means of facilitating more effective interaction. A review of the cross-cultural training literature is presented, and it is determined that cross-cultural training in general is effective. The article also offers a theoretical framework based on social learning theory for understanding past research and for guiding future research; this is important because in this context variables seem to operate differently in international versus domestic areas.
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Conventional wisdom says that companies from the periphery of the global market can't compete against established global giants from Europe, Japan, and the United States. Companies from developing countries have entered the game too late; they don't have the resources. But Christopher Bartlett and Sumantra Ghoshal disagree. The problem for most aspiring multinationals from peripheral countries, say the authors, is that they enter the global marketplace in low-margin businesses at the bottom of the value curve, and they stay there. But it doesn't have to be that way. They studied 12 emerging multinationals based in such countries-from emerging markets like Brazil to relatively more prosperous yet still peripheral nations like Australia to developing countries like the Philippines. These companies now enjoy global success because they treated global competition as an opportunity to build capabilities and move into more profitable segments of their industry. The path to globalization isn't easy, but the authors show that it is possible. Each company in the study overcame the same core challenges. They broke out of the mind-set that they were unable to compete successfully on the global stage. They adopted strategies that made being a late mover a source of competitive advantage. They developed a culture of continual cross-border learning. And they all had leaders who drove them relentlessly up the value curve. The companies discussed in this article are models for the thousands of marginal companies in peripheral economies that have the potential to become legitimate global players.
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Scholars have argued that the adjustment of the expatriate's spouse is an important factor in the success or failure of expatriates in overseas assignments; however, they have not empirically examined which factors are related to spouse adjustment. This study is the first to systematically examine the antecedents of spouse cross-cultural adjustment to interacting with host country nationals and to coping with the general, foreign environment. The results indicate that firms seeking the spouse's opinion about the international assignment, the spouse's self-initiated predeparture training, and social support from family and host country nationals during the overseas assignment have a positive relationship with spouse interaction adjustment. Additionally, firms' seeking the spouse's opinion about the international assignment and standard of living have a positive relationship with spouse general adjustment, while firm-provided training and culture novelty have negative relationships with spouse general adjustment. Several important research and practical implications are explored.© 1991 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1991) 22, 461–477
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The cross-cultural adjustment research literature has largely been conducted from an atheoretical perspective. When a theoretical framework is imposed, the U-Curve adjustment theory has been the one most commonly used. The lack of a comprehensive review of the empirical literature on the U-Curve adjustment theory has allowed scholars to accept or dismiss the theory on grounds other than that of empirical evidence. This paper reviews the empirical literature and proposes a theoretical framework and research agenda for future research on cross-cultural adjustment.© 1991 JIBS. Journal of International Business Studies (1991) 22, 225–247
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There has been considerable research on the issues of board-level representation by personnel/HR directors and senior HR managers' involvement in strategic decision making. Since the early 1990s there has been a growing interest in international HRM, reflecting the growing recognition that the effective management of human resources internationally is a major determinant of success or failure in international business. There is also evidence that HR constraints often limit the effective implementation of international business strategies. More recently, it has been argued that the more rapid pace of internationalization and globalization leads to a more strategic role for HRM as well as changes in the content of HRM. Yet, while there have been some attempts to integrate international corporate strategy and human resource strategy, surprisingly, the role of the corporate human resources function has been neglected, particularly in the context of the international firm. This article seeks to redress the balance. The question addressed is: what is the role of the corporate HR function in the international firm? To answer these questions empirical research was conducted in thirty UK international firms. We found an emerging agenda for corporate HR in international firms which focuses on senior management development, succession planning and developing a cadre of international managers. We conceptualize this as a strategic concern with developing the core management competences of the organization, and argue that it can be usefully analysed from the perspective of the learning organization.
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This paper assesses the extent of which British and German multinational companies have moved on a continuum between nationally embedded MNCs and globally oriented TNCs. Degree of national embeddedness and implantation into national economic and policy networks is held to influence the internationalization strategy of companies - the degree of FDI undertaken, the kind of competitive advantage they seek to derive from it and the way in which they combine nationally based and globally focused activities. It is shown that the different national business systems of Britain and Germany influence the responses of MNCs in their management of the tensions between pressures for globalization and established, nationally shaped business strategies and patterns of activities. In both cases, however, exaggerated claims about globalization of company activities and assets are shown to be misguided. But the paper also recognizes that some more globalized structures and strategies have begun to emerge in the second half of the 1990s. The study is based on a small number of case studies of British and German companies, complemented by official statistics and secondary data.
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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study,has only,been,made,possible by,the time,given,and,interest shown,by,the many,executives,in the international departments,of the companies,consulted. Their help and support,is greatly appreciated. The study was financed,by Cranfield School of Management.
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Companies with European operations will have to weigh various international compensation approaches to cope with changes in Europe in 1992 and to ensure equitable pay treatments for locals, third party nationals, and U.S. expatriates.
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This article explores HRM issues in Chinese multinational enterprises (MNEs), in particular, the recruitment, selection and repatriation of expatriate management in ten Chinese MNEs. Owing to the rapid growth of internationalization of Chinese firms, IHRM in the Chinese context has been attracting both academic and practitioners' interest. The approach of Chinese MNEs to IHRM has become an urgent area of management study. This article represents one part of the results of a recent study of Chinese IHRM. It concludes that, even though recruitment and selection policies and practices in Chinese MNEs are more progressive in adopting modern HRM concepts than is the case in domestic Chinese firms, current practices are still divergent from those of major Western MNEs.
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Discusses research in the literature about the expatriate manager as a unit of resource. The research to date has largely addressed concerns for the high failure rate and costs of expatriate assignments, suggestions for improving methods of personnel selection; comparative studies of expatriate and local managers; and recommendations for improving expatriate success. Notes that rarely are the problems of expatriate personnel addressed collectively, particularly with a focus on Asia. Discusses effectiveness of expatriate assignments within the totality of four distinctive phases: selection; preparation; acculturation; and repatriation. Provides a valuable foundation for providing organizational recommendations to enhance the success of future expatriate placements.
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This study examines two alternative views--universal and contingency--of the human resources (HR)-performance relationship in manufacturing settings. Results from a survey of 97 plants primarily support a contingency approach to human resource management (HRM). An HR system focused on human capital enhancement was directly related to multiple dimensions of operational performance (i.e., employee productivity, machine efficiency, and customer alignment), but subsequent analysis revealed that this main effect was predominately the result of linking human-capital-enhancing HR systems with a quality manufacturing strategy. Other manufacturing strategies also moderated the HR-performance relationship.
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As multinational enterprises increasingly globalize their operations, managing international human resources strategically becomes a critical factor contributing to overall organizational performance. The strategic management of international human resources has received extensive attention, focusing on staffing issues related to expatriate assignments. However, empirical findings indicate limited success of expatriation as an effective method for managing the breadth of international human resource opportunities. As market opportunities increasingly shift to countries with high cultural distance from the parent organization and as organizations evolve their strategic orientation from multinational to global activities, it appears that an exclusive reliance on expatriation-based staffing will impede effective management of international human resources staffing. The objective of this article is to review and clarify a theory base that can support a range of international human resource staffing systems that might be implemented in a global environment. This discussion uses the combined perspective of agency and expectancy theories and discusses conditions under which specific strategic staffing choices might be most effective.
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Global business today requires leaders to be like explorers, guiding their organizations through unfamiliar and turbulent environments. With markets, suppliers, competitors, technology, and customers around the world constantly shifting, traditional leadership models no longer work. The authors' three-year study across Europe, North America, and Asia indicates that companies seek more global leaders and desire future global leaders of higher caliber and quality. To achieve these goals, organizations must understand the characteristics of global leaders and what they can do to develop these leaders, The research results reveal that every global leader needs certain core qualities: exhibiting character or the capacity to build relationships with people from different backgrounds and to act with high ethical standards; embracing duality, or knowing when and whether to act and initiate change, depending on country or region; and demonstrating savvy, or recognizing worldwide marker opportunities and understanding firm capabilities. Underlying each of these characteristics must be inquisitiveness - a Sense of adventure and a desire to experience new things. The authors' research further shows that global readers are born and then made. Four strategies are particularly effective in developing global leaders. foreign travel, with immersion in the country's way of life, the formation of teams in which individuals with diverse backgrounds and perspectives work together closely; training that involves classroom and action learning projects; and overseas assignments, which serve to broaden the outlook of future global leaders.
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The purpose of this paper is to present an argument and some hypotheses to stimulate further research. It is hypothesized that the transfer of managers is used by some multinational organizations to develop a process of control based on socialization. Transfer of managers for socialization is distinguished from transfer of personnel to fill positions in developing countries and for management development. Transfer for socialization is hypothesized to socialize managers and create international, verbal information networks, which combined, permit greater decentralization than the impersonal bureaucratic strategy. Finally, it is suggested that the control processes are not alternatives but cumulative stages of development; one control strategy is added to, not substituted for, previous ones.
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This article argues that the idea of the 'international manager' is largely a myth. A literature spanning twenty years has been built on the assumption that growing numbers of home country nationals (HCNs) were embracing international assignments. It was also suggested that they and their families would become globe-trotting nomads, moving from region to region and back and forth to their countries of origin, becoming in the process a new type of global or international manager. However, for most UK companies, an 'international manager' is little more than a loose description of someone who is potentially or currently abroad on a one-off international assignment, regardless of the nature or duration of this. Their operations may be becoming more international but their staff are not. Similarly, for most employees and their dependants the concept of an 'international manager' is equally meaningless within the context of their own career and life goals. The article goes on to contend that it is in fact psychologically impossible for most people to cope with the dislocation and upheaval that regular international relocations would cause. It demonstrates that long-term international assignments can also have a damaging effect on employee career prospects after they return to their country of origin. It concludes by suggesting how managers can gain international experience without the need for long-term international assignments.
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A move towards the transnational or global corporation is widely canvassed. Rather less attention has been devoted to how the multinational company actually organizes its HR activities or to the conditions which permit a transnational form of organization to emerge and survive. The paper explores these two issues, using case study evidence from two British-owned companies. The model of the transnational suggests that authority is devolved and control is dispersed. The paper shows, however, that central control was greater than is often thought. As for the conditions for transnationality, key immediate influences were the length of time for which the firms had been multinationals and the routes taken to attain this state; these influences were underpinned by differences in market structure. Even where a transnational approach had been developed, future competitive trends suggested that it might be under threat. The implication is that the 'transnational solution' may be attainable only in certain types of firm and that it may prove to be unstable.
Article
This article presents the results of a survey comparing international human resource policies and practices in Japanese, European, and United States multinational companies. The survey focused on the use of expatriates over local nationals in overseas management positions, adoption of nonethnocentric policies, and incidence of international human resource management problems. Regression analysis using the entire sample indicated that ethnocentric staffing and policies are associated with higher incidence of international human resource management problems. Also, Japanese companies as a group are shown to have more ethnocentric staffing practices and policies, and they experience more international human resource management problems than do American and European firms.
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In order to delineate the current state of the art of overseas relocation programs in U.S. multinational corporations, the extant literature was reviewed in the areas of expatriate personnel selection, training and career-pathing. The implications of the study's findings for U.S. MNCs are discussed and recommendations for policy change are offered.
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Expatriate development has become a critical issue for multinational enterprises (MNEs). There is substantial empirical research on expatriate management in the West but little on Asia, and comparative studies are lacking. This article presents findings from an empirical study on the training and development of expatriates from Singapore, Japan, Korea, Germany, and the United States. The study provides significant information on program types, content, duration, delivery mode, and providers. © 2000 by Jossey-Bass, A Publishing Unit of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Article
The efficient operation of a multinational enterprise is contingent upon the availability and effective utilization of numerous strategic resources—technology, capital, know-how, and people. It is my contention that human power is a key ingredient to the successful operation of a multinational, without which all the other aforementioned resources could not be effectively and efficiently utilized or transferred from corporate headquarters to the various subsidiaries in the world; hence the need for multinationals to devote greater attention to the strategic management of human resources as part of the overall planning and control process in a firm. This article identifies the most common pitfalls to human resource planning in U.S. multinationals and offers guidelines for the development of a paradigm for the strategic management of human resources in the multinational enterprise.
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The following article reports on the results of a qualitative, comparative case study of the management of expatriates by four Australian companies. International Human Resource Management (IHRM) is a field in its infancy and the study aims to contribute to theory-building by examining the IHRM activities of selection, predeparture training, compensation and repatriation in the context of the organization in which these activities take place. The purpose was to extend our understanding of IHRM beyond the descriptive studies of earlier research, though existing knowledge in the area was the starting point. Thus, while the initial focus of the investigation was on the IHRM activities, the use of an exploratory qualitative methodological approach allowed the examination of the process of expatriate management. This approach also assisted in identifying underlying relationships, patterns and trends which could be interpreted as linkages or interrelationships between IHRM activities and other organizational factors, such as stage in internationalization, type of industry, strategy and structure. It was possible to identify linkages between the four major IHRM activities, and what were defined as firm-specific and situation-specific variables. These linkages were then conceptualized into a suggested framework.
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Increased internationalization in the economic, political, and social arenas has led to greater interpersonal cross-cultural contact. Because much of this contact has not been successful, cross-cultural training has been proposed by many scholars as a means of facilitating more effective interaction. However, most firms do not utilize cross-cultural training. The cross-cultural training framework proposed in this article is based on both theory and a review of the cross-cultural training literature. The contingency framework proposed provides a practical guide for determining the method and rigor of cross-cultural training most effective in various circumstances.
Article
Sumario: The organizational context -- Recruitment and selection of international employees -- Performance appraisal -- Training and development -- Compensation -- International labor relations -- Future directions and theoretical developments in IHRM -- Research issues in international HRM
Making the move from west to east
  • M Edkins
Training and development of international staff
  • K E E Baumgarten
The Economist Intelligence Unit Global Manager: Recruiting, Developing and Keeping World-Class Executives
  • M Moynihan
Food and drink international
  • H. Scullion
Training and development in Chinese MNEs
  • J Shen
  • R Darby
A study of management development practices in a foreign joint venture in China
  • N Siu
  • R Darby
Living Abroad: Personal Adjustment and Personnel Policy in the Overseas Setting
  • I Torbiorn
Expatriate failure and success: a search for potential predictors”, thesis
  • K E E Baumgarten