Article

Neighborhood Retail Food Environment and Fruit and Vegetable Intake in a Multiethnic Urban Population

Department of Public Health, Mental Health, and Administrative Nursing, College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL 60612, USA.
American journal of health promotion: AJHP (Impact Factor: 2.37). 03/2009; 23(4):255-64. DOI: 10.4278/ajhp.071204127
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

To examine relationships between the neighborhood food environment and fruit and vegetable intake in a multiethnic urban population.
Analysis of cross-sectional survey and observational data.
One hundred forty-six neighborhoods within three large geographic communities of Detroit, Michigan.
Probability sample of 919 African-American, Latino, and white adults.
The dependent variable was mean daily fruit and vegetable servings, as measured by using a modified Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. Independent variables included the neighborhood food environment: store availability (i.e., large grocery, specialty, convenience, liquor, small grocery), supermarket proximity (i.e., street-network distance to nearest chain grocer), and perceived and observed neighborhood fresh fruit and vegetable supply (i.e., availability, variety, quality, affordability).
Weighted, multilevel regression.
Presence of a large grocery store in the neighborhood was associated with, on average, 0.69 more daily fruit and vegetable servings in the full sample. Relationships between the food environment and fruit and vegetable intake did not differ between whites and African-Americans. However, Latinos, compared with African-Americans, who had a large grocery store in the neighborhood consumed 2.20 more daily servings of fruits and vegetables. Presence of a convenience store in the neighborhood was associated with 1.84 fewer daily fruit and vegetable servings among Latinos than among African-Americans.
The neighborhood food environment influences fruit and vegetable intake, and the size of this relationship may vary for different racial/ethnic subpopulations.

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Available from: Laurie Lachance, May 28, 2015
    • "Studies examining whether the proximity or density of neighborhood supermarkets are associated with the healthfulness of residents' diets have largely focused on associations with fruit and vegetable consumption. Results have been mixed, with some studies reporting positive associations with increased supermarket proximity or density (Morland, Wing, & Diez Roux, 2002; Wrigley, Warm, & Margetts, 2003; Zenk et al., 2009), and others no association (Ball, Crawford, & Mishra, 2006; Pearson, Russell, Campbell, & Barker, 2005). Given that fruit and vegetable intake is only one component of a healthy diet, studies are required examining other foods that can be purchased from supermarkets. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies use comprehensive ecological approaches considering multilevel factors to understand correlates of healthy (and unhealthy) dietary intake. The aim of this study was to examine the association between individual, social, and environmental factors on composite measures of healthy and unhealthy dietary intake in adults. Participants (n = 565) of the Australian RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) project self-reported dietary intake, home food availability, and behavioral and perceived social and physical environmental influences on food choices. A geographic information system measured proximity of supermarkets from each participant's home. "Healthy" and "unhealthy" eating scores were computed based on adherence to dietary guidelines. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed using linear regression. After full adjustment, "healthy" eating (mean = 6.25, standard deviation [SD] = 1.95) was significantly associated with having confidence to prepare healthy meals (β = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.13, 0.55]); having more healthy (β = 0.13; 95% CI = [0.09-0.16]) and fewer unhealthy (β = -0.04; 95% CI = [-0.06, -0.02]) foods available at home; and having a supermarket within 800 meters of home (β = 1.39; 95% CI = [0.37, 2.404]). "Unhealthy" eating (mean = 3.53, SD = 2.06) was associated with being male (β = 0.39; 95% CI = [0.02, 0.75]), frequently eating takeaway (β = 0.33; 95% CI = [0.21, 0.46]) and cafe or restaurant meals (β = 0.20; 95% CI = [0.06, 0.33]) and having fewer healthy (β = -0.07; 95% CI = [-0.10, -0.03]) and more unhealthy (β = 0.09; 95% CI = [0.07, 0.10]) foods available within the home. Initiatives to improve adherence to dietary guidelines and reduce the consumption of unhealthy foods needs to be multifaceted; addressing individual factors and access to healthy food choices in both the home and neighborhood food environment. Ensuring proximity to local supermarkets, particularly in new suburban developments, appears to be an important strategy for facilitating healthy eating. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Health Education & Behavior
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    • "However, the increase in healthy food consumption was only significant among Latinos and not significant among whites or African Americans . The presence of a convenience store and fast-food restaurants was negatively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption (Zenk et al. 2009) and has been identified as a determinant of fast-food consumption (Lucan, Barg, and Long 2010). Lucan, Barg, and Long's work with lowincome African Americans (n ¼ 40) in Philadelphia found that availability and cost were top barriers to fruit and vegetable consumption. "
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    • "The sample of stores included in this reliability test however was small (n = 14) compared to similar studies (n = 30 to 85) [13,17,19]. The reliability (kappa 0.60) for fruit and vegetable quality was higher than the results reported in some studies [17], but lower than the results of others [57]. Future work using photos or a simple two-point scale of acceptable/unacceptable can provide a more consistent measure of quality as has been used in previous work [17,58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The consumer nutrition environment has been conceptualised as in-store environmental factors that influence food shopping habits. More healthful in-store environments could be characterised as those which promote healthful food choices such as selling good quality healthy foods or placing them in prominent locations to prompt purchasing. Research measuring the full-range of in-store environmental factors concurrently is limited. To develop a summary score of ‘healthfulness’ composed of nine in-store factors that influence food shopping behaviour, and to assess this score by store type and neighbourhood deprivation. A cross-sectional survey of 601 retail food stores, including supermarkets, grocery stores and convenience stores, was completed in Hampshire, United Kingdom between July 2010 and June 2011. The survey measured nine variables (variety, price, quality, promotions, shelf placement, store placement, nutrition information, healthier alternatives and single fruit sale) to assess the healthfulness of retail food stores on seven healthy and five less healthy foods that are markers of diet quality. Four steps were completed to create nine individual variable scores and another three to create an overall score of healthfulness for each store. Analysis of variance showed strong evidence of a difference in overall healthfulness by store type (p < 0.001). Large and premium supermarkets offered the most healthful shopping environments for consumers. Discount supermarkets, ‘world’, convenience and petrol stores offered less healthful environments to consumers however there was variation across the healthfulness spectrum. No relationship between overall healthfulness and neighbourhood deprivation was observed (p = 0.1). A new composite measure of nine variables that can influence food choices was developed to provide an overall assessment of the healthfulness of retail food stores. This composite score could be useful in future research to measure the relationship between main food store and quality of diet, and to evaluate the effects of multi-component food environment interventions.
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