Article

The Effect of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench Extract on Experimental Prostate Hyperplasia

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench) on the prostate gland of rats using an experimental model of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The animals were administered 50 mg/kg of extract preparation for 4 and 8 weeks and the prostate mass and structural degenerative changes were evaluated in the course of the experiment. The administration of E. purpurea extract to rats with hyperplasia for 4 and 8 weeks gradually and significantly reduced the prostate mass and reversed the degenerative changes in the structure of the prostate gland. The present investigation suggests extract of purple coneflower prevents the development of BPH.

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... Так, в опытах на крысах показана эффективность эхинацеи пурпурной на экспериментальной модели доброкачественной гиперплазии предстательной железы. Введение экстракта эхинацеи в течение 4 и 8 недель значительно уменьшало массу простаты и предотвращало дегенеративные изменения в структуре предстательной железы [10]. В опытах in vitro показана возможность применения препаратов эхинацеи для лечения акне. ...
... The administration of E. purpurea L. Monech extract to rats with hyperpla-sia for 4 or 8 weeks gradually and significantly reduced the prostate mass and reversed the degenerative changes in the structure of the prostate gland (squeezing of epithelium of prostate gland, containing low columnar epithelial cells without any intracellular vacuoles, appearance of fragements of degenerating cells in the lumen of glands). This investigation suggests that extract of purple cone flower prevents the development of BPH [103,104]. ...
Article
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) the most common condition in aging men is the non malignant enlargement of the prostate gland with increase in numbers of both epithelial and stromal cells within the periurethal transition zone of the prostate. Sources of symptoms in patient with BPH appear to be both static and dynamic component. Management of BPH has undergone a rapid evolution over the past decade to aid men with lower urinary tract symptoms attributed to bladder outlet obstruction. Treatment of clinical BPH aims to improve symptoms, prevent urinary tract infections, avoid renal insult, relief obstruction and improve bladder emptying.Prostate cancer patients and those with benign prostatic hyperplasia are increasingly exploring the use of plant derived non-nutritive compounds with protective or disease preventive properties, especially due to long term side effects of pharmacological treatment and risk of mortality associated with surgical procedures. Phytotherapeutic preparations are plant extracts with different components obtained by different extraction procedures. Numerous mechanisms of action have been postulated for mono and combination plant extracts. This article give a brief account of rationale and efficacy of various existing phytotherapeutic agents in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia, including the herbs which hold the potential promise are also mentioned , although much research is still required.
... M: Diuretic, antinephritic, hepatic, stomachic, antiacid, antiulcerative, anthelmintic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antihaemorrhoidal, cardiotonic, febrifuge, expectorant, antitussive, antirheumatic, antigout, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticephalalgic, antidermatitis, antiseptic, vulnerary. Cytotoxic (El Zalabani et al. 2012), antimicrobial (Souza et al. 2004), antiviral (Wachsman et al. 1988), antiinflammatory (Souza et al. 2003 Antitumor (Yasukawa 1991;Pisha et al. 1995), diuretic, anti-inflammatory (Sosa et al. 2007(Sosa et al. , 2011, analgesic (Rondina et al. 2008 Antitumor (Skaudickas et al. 2009;Tsai et al. 2012), immunostimulant, antioxidant (Hudson 2012Mishima et al. 2004), antimicrobial (Canlas et al. 2010), antiviral (Pleschka et al. 2009), anti-cold (Nahas and Balla 2011), antiinflammatory (Yu et al. 2013 Antitumor, immunomodulatory (Plohmann et al. 1997), cytotoxic (Bader et al. 1996, antioxidant, antimicrobial (Giada and Mancini-Filho 2009;Subashini and Rakshitha 2012), antiviral ), antiinflammatory (Akihisa et al. 1996), analgesic (Rondina et al. 2008 Antitumor (Srivastava and Gupta 2007), immunomodulatory (Ghonime et al. 2011), antibacterial (Shikov et al. 2008, antifungal (Jamalian et al. 2012), antioxidant, hypoglycemic (Cemek et al. 2008 (Nayak et al. 2007). Antioxidant, antimicrobial (Souza et al. 2004), anti-inflammatory (Pérez-García et al. 1996), antinociceptive, gastroprotective (Figueredo et al. 2011, analgesic (Rondina et al. 2008), vulnerary (Schmidt et al. 2009 Antitumor (Yasukawa et al., 2002), antioxidant (Shukla et al. 2009), hypoglycemic (Chen et al. 2005), hypotensive (Liu et al. 2003), nephroprotective (Shivanna et al. 2013), immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory (Boonkaewwan et al. 2006), antimicrobial (Takaki et al. 1985), antiviral (Oliveira et al. 2013), contraceptive (Gil et al. 2008). ...
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The present contribution includes 50 species of Asteraceae whose products are marketed with therapeutic and aromatic purposes in the conurbation Buenos Aires-La Plata, the largest metropolitan area of Argentina. For each species, the scientific and vernacular names, types of products and samples are given. The plant products comprise fresh plants or parts thereof, herbal products, tinctures, and dietary supplements, among others. The uses assigned and the effects scientifically studied are indicated. Also, the ethnobotanical value of the diverse plant products and their commercial circulation are discussed. Circulating products and their uses were studied, both in the restricted context of immigrant segments (Bolivian and Chinese), and in the broader context of general commercial circuit (health food stores, named locally 'dietéticas'). Botanical knowledge of immigrants segments is considered linked to their traditions, and botanical knowledge of general commercial circuit is regarded nontraditional. Research conducted is framed within the urban ethnobotany context. Specially, it addresses some relevant theoretical and methodological topics within discipline: composition of botanical knowledge in urban pluricultural scenarios (linked to traditions, nontraditional), the embodiment of this knowledge in actions (such as selection of products to consume), and the dynamic of changes in urban botanical knowledge (dispersion of products and uses in the commercial circuit and media).
... M: Diuretic, antinephritic, hepatic, stomachic, antiacid, antiulcerative, anthelmintic, astringent, antidiarrheal, antihaemorrhoidal, cardiotonic, febrifuge, expectorant, antitussive, antirheumatic, antigout, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticephalalgic, antidermatitis, antiseptic, vulnerary. Cytotoxic (El Zalabani et al. 2012), antimicrobial (Souza et al. 2004), antiviral (Wachsman et al. 1988), antiinflammatory (Souza et al. 2003 Antitumor (Yasukawa 1991;Pisha et al. 1995), diuretic, anti-inflammatory (Sosa et al. 2007(Sosa et al. , 2011, analgesic (Rondina et al. 2008 Antitumor (Skaudickas et al. 2009;Tsai et al. 2012), immunostimulant, antioxidant (Hudson 2012Mishima et al. 2004), antimicrobial (Canlas et al. 2010), antiviral (Pleschka et al. 2009), anti-cold (Nahas and Balla 2011), antiinflammatory (Yu et al. 2013 Antitumor, immunomodulatory (Plohmann et al. 1997), cytotoxic (Bader et al. 1996, antioxidant, antimicrobial (Giada and Mancini-Filho 2009;Subashini and Rakshitha 2012), antiviral ), antiinflammatory (Akihisa et al. 1996), analgesic (Rondina et al. 2008 Antitumor (Srivastava and Gupta 2007), immunomodulatory (Ghonime et al. 2011), antibacterial (Shikov et al. 2008, antifungal (Jamalian et al. 2012), antioxidant, hypoglycemic (Cemek et al. 2008 (Nayak et al. 2007). Antioxidant, antimicrobial (Souza et al. 2004), anti-inflammatory (Pérez-García et al. 1996), antinociceptive, gastroprotective (Figueredo et al. 2011, analgesic (Rondina et al. 2008), vulnerary (Schmidt et al. 2009 Antitumor (Yasukawa et al., 2002), antioxidant (Shukla et al. 2009), hypoglycemic (Chen et al. 2005), hypotensive (Liu et al. 2003), nephroprotective (Shivanna et al. 2013), immunomodulatory, antiinflammatory (Boonkaewwan et al. 2006), antimicrobial (Takaki et al. 1985), antiviral (Oliveira et al. 2013), contraceptive (Gil et al. 2008). ...
... Search for effective plant resources for the improvement of BPH has been performed extensively. Among them, Serenoa repens [29,30] Ganoderma lucidum, [31] Lepidium meyenii (Red Maca), [32] banana peel, [33] and Echinacea purpurea [34] showed significant improvements of BPH. The results obtained in this study could have successfully presented that K. parviflora is a novel entry from Zigiberaceae plant and K. parviflora would be a promising candidate. ...
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Chapter
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The phytotherapy should be understood as being integrated into the rational pharmacotherapy. The modern phytotherapy tries hard to proof effects with pharmacological and clinical studies. The task force E of the federal bureau of health of Germany has made a statement regarding this problem. This article reviews only controlled clinical trials about the application of extracts of echinacea purpura or echinacea pallida.
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Echinacea-containing drugs have to be classified according to the used plant species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida or E. angustifolia), the processed part of the plant (root, upper parts or whole plant), and the mode of processing. Significant pharmacological effects have been found in vitro and in vivo for the expressed juice of the upper parts of E. purpurea and for alcoholic extracts of the roots of E. pallida, E. angustifolia and E. purpurea. The activity is mainly directed towards the nonspecific cellular immune system. Several active constituents are discussed: polysaccharides, glycoproteins, caffeic acid derivatives (cichoric acid) and alkamides.
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The effect of the lipidosterolic extract of Serenoa repens (LSESR) on experimental prostate enlargement was investigated in three groups of rats: shams treated with LSESR (sham rats), castrated animals treated with estradiol and testosterone (castrated rats), castrated animals treated with estradiol/testosterone and treated with LSESR (castrated and treated rats). Following three months of continuous hormonal treatment, the weight of prostates in estradiol/testosterone-treated castrated rats was significantly increased in comparison with sham-operated rats. Such an increase started rapidly, reached a maximum by 30 days and remained at a plateau or slightly declined thereafter. The increase of prostate total weight induced by the hormone treatment was inhibited by administration of LSESR. Indeed, the weight was significantly lower at day 60 and day 90 for the dorsal and lateral regions of the prostate. The weight of the ventral region of the prostate was significantly lower after 30 and 60 days treatment with LSESR. These results demonstrate that administering LSESR to hormone-treated castrated rats inhibits the increase in prostate wet weight. This effect of LSESR may explain the beneficial effect of this extract in human benign prostatic hypertrophy.
Article
This work has investigated the effect of echinacea extract on the weight of prostates in rats as well as on alterations of hystological structure and separate blood cells. This preparation was chosen for investigations due to its possible antiandrogenic effect and good immunostimulating features. Experiments were carried out with three-month old male Wistar rats, divided by six into three different groups. The first group was the control one. The rats of the second group were fed for 30 days with the usual food ration plus 50 mg/kg of echinacea extract. The third group was fed for 60 days in the same way as the second one. Clinical death of rats was caused by sodium phenobarbital, later a cervical dislocation was performed. After weighing the rats their prostates were removed and weighed. Patohystological investigations of the removed organs were carried out. Blood test for Shiling's analysis was taken. The weight of prostates in the first group of rats was 412.0+/-14.93 mg, in the second group - 403.0+/-13.33 mg, and in the third group it was 388.0+/-14.66 mg. Having calculated the proportion between prostates of rats and their body weight it was estimated that in the first group it made 0.125+/-0.009%, in the second group - 0.105+/-0.005%, and in the third group - 0.091+/-0.007%. The percentage of lymphocytes in the first group was 72+/-1.41; in the second group - 73+/-0.81; in the third group - 79+/-1,86. The percentage of segmented neutrophyle in the first group was 23+/-3.31; in the second group - 23+/-2.25; in the third group - 18+/-2.33. Having conducted analysis of the experimental results, a significantly important decrease of prostate weight of investigated rats, an increase in the number of lymphocyte as well as the alterations of hystological structures after using echinacea extract for eight weeks were observed.
Article
Fifty percent of men over the age of fifty are diagnosed benign prostate hyperplasia. It is caused by disorders in the balance of androgens and estrogens, depending on the activity of sexual glands; therefore it is advisable to examine the functioning of these organs and to determine the pathogenetic mechanism of effect of this pathology. The antiandrogenic effect of Echinacea preparations was examined in our previous study and hypoplasia of histological structures and the mass reduction of prostate were determined. This encouraged more detailed investigation of the effect of the preparation directly to the organs, participating in the synthesis of the male hormone - testosterone. The effect of Echinacea extract on a testicle and epididymis was examined, the mass of these organs was determined, the proportion between the mass of the organ and the mass of a body was calculated, the changes in histological structures were evaluated in this study. Experiments with the Wistar line 3-month-old male rats were carried out. There were three experimental groups of rats. The first one was control group. The rats of the second group were fed on the usual food enriched with the Echinacea extract additive with the proportion of 50 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The rats in the third group were fed equally to the second one for 8 weeks. The clinical death of the animals was caused by overdosage of the solution of phenobarbital (1 mg/kg). The rats were weighed, the testicles and epididymis were eliminated, and pathohistological examinations were carried out. The average weight of the male rats in the control group was 1530+/-166.37mg, in the second group - 1520+/-164.62mg, and in the third group -1499+/-158.81 mg. Calculations of the relative quantity between the mass of the organs and the body weight were made and it was estimated that the testicles of the rats in the first group made up 0.496+/-0.399% of a body mass, in the second one -0.459+/-0.419%, and in the third one - 0.429+/-0.410%. The epididymis in the control group made up 0.189+/-0.332% of a body mass; in the second one - 0.1733+/-0.328%, and in the third one - 0.1723+/-0.198%. The histological structural changes were traced after 4 weeks of using the preparation, however they became more obvious after 8 weeks. Results of the study enabled to determine statistically significant reduction in the percentage of a testicle and the body mass, as well as changes in histological structures after 8 weeks of consuming extract of Echinacea purpurea.
DOI: 10.1002 DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Bauer R. 1996. Echinacea drugs – effects and active ingredients
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Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 23, 1474–1478 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/ptr Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Phytother. Res. 23, 1474–1478 (2009) DOI: 10.1002/ptr REFERENCES Bauer R. 1996. Echinacea drugs – effects and active ingredients. Z Arztl Fortbild (Jena) 90: 111–115.