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Workplace strategy: What it is and why you should care

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Abstract

Innovative workplace solutions have been known as “workplace of the future”or “alternative fficing.” Today these concepts are being adopted by a cadre of forward-thinking companies of all sizes, across industries. These companies have begun to tailor their workplace to meet their particular needs. They are seeking ways to use their investments in space and technology to enable rather than inhibit progress toward their objectives. While still far from being universally embraced, these changes in workplace conceptualization and implementation are worth a closer look. This paper identifies key trends, discusses the forces driving them, debunks some myths that have arisen, outlines the potential benefits of these approaches, and discusses the need for an integrated approach to achieve successful implementation. Several examples are provided to demonstrate the appeal of workplace strategy across industries and suggest lessons that can be applied by the reader to their own unique situations. Primary workplace research conducted by the author as well as her corporate and consulting experience informs the points made throughout this article.

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... Small and medium businesses without professional management have distinctive characteristics -specifi c barriers for strategic planning activities are lack of time and experience, insuffi cient knowledge of about activities of strategic planning, unwillingness to share strategic plans and ideas with employees and with the others, indefi nite environment, the size of business, type of industry, internal barriers for implementation, cycles of business lifetime and the level of development (Vasiliauskas, 2004;Volovikov, 2011). Despite the strategic activity barriers small and medium business without an appropriately chosen strategy is vulnerable as it does not accumulate the necessary resources and does not ensure application of competitive advantages (Abdalkrim, 2013;Adamoniene & Andriuscenka, 2007;Demmings, 2008;Eden & Ackermann, 2013;Ibrahim et al., 2004, Yusuf & Saffu, 2005Schriefer, 2005;Streimikiene & Kiausiene, 2012;Svagzdiene et al., 2015;Wittmann & Reuter, 2013;Vveinhardt et al., 2015;2016). Most often sport organizations employ relatively small staff and the executive has to care not only of the organization strategy, therefore there is lack of strategic activity motivation and the mentioned barriers of strategic activity emerge. ...
... The research shows that the attention of leaders to the implementation of strategic decisions decides profi t growth and increases customer satisfaction. When combined with innovations such strategic decisions infl uence the competitive superiority of an organization (Schriefer, 2005). According to Natzel (2010), implementation of innovations would enable a successful application of a mixed strategic model, oriented towards a conscious decision of executives to connect differentiation price and expenditure control. ...
... Though leaders of small and medium business are striving for success and development, without strategy and tactics they remain vulnerable in connection to the necessary resources and productivity (Demmings, 2008). The environment infl uences organizations and they change and choose the environment by using organizational strategy in decision making (Scott, 2003). Yusuf & Saffu (2005) determined that, in comparison with other companies, activity results of small and medium companies improved when an offi cial business plan was started to be used. ...
Article
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The article focuses on the application of strategic planning activities in a sport organization. Firstly, strategic planning activities are distinguished and their signifi cance for organizations analyzed. The following activities are emphasized - setting of strategic goals, analysis, and prognostication, the choice of strategy and its implementation, as well as the feedback. The research deals individually with the issue of management participation in the strategic planning activities and raises the question of their documentation. The signifi cance of strategic planning activities can be identifi ed through the achieved strategic results, i.e. innovativeness and development. The article presents an empiric research with Kaunas city sport clubs as its participants. Though the analysis showed that strategic planning activities are itemized, the process of their analysis should include distinguishing the main activities that would cover other more detailed ones. Strategy results refl ected in service innovativeness, network, client scope, and workplace development, could be signifi ed as an individual strategic planning element showing the signifi cance of planning activities. When researching the strategic planning and management aspects of sport organizations, it was discovered that the importance of strategic activities for the results of these organizations is statistically signifi cant. Sport organizations are oriented towards all strategic management activities and are striving to create results directed to development. The following strategic activity aspects are appropriately evaluated - organizations give suffi cient attention to the process of strategic management, its formalization and documentation and innovative results are achieved. The insuffi cient understanding of connection between goal setting and strategic planning and management activities carried out in an organization could be distinguished as a negative aspect.
... Nine out of 12 papers mention reduced real estate and facilities costs as the most expected added value of a workplace concept (Nagy et al., 2013;Springer, 2010, GSA, 2006, followed by reduced vacancy rates (7 out of 12, e.g. CABE, 2005;Schriefer, 2005) and reduced cost of absenteeism (6 out of 12, e.g. JLL, 2012; Van der Voordt, 2004) (Table I). ...
... Others include non-financial value related to improved organisational processes. Based on the literature review, the value in Business processes category was added by facilitation of evolving business processes (Kampschroer et al., 2007;GSA, 2006), growing popularity of sustainable practises and design (Appel-Meulenbroek et al., 2011;Springer 2010) and improved operations (Schriefer, 2005;JLL, 2012) (Table I, Processes category). ...
... Besides, many employees still do not consider informal communication as "real" work (Davis et al., 2011). Added value of workplace concept in Place category in Table I is perceived through improving connectivity (Van der Voordt, 2004;GSA, 2006) and providing access to colleagues and customers (Mitchell-Ketzes, 2003;Schriefer, 2005), as well as gaining more flexibility with open space and movable furniture. Seven out of 12 papers (Appel-Meulenbroek et al., 2011;JLL, 2012) mentioned more effective use of a space as added value in Place category, followed by and connectivity of spaces appearing in five papers ( Van der Voordt, 2004;Springer, 2010). ...
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to focus on the value of workplace concepts. The aim is twofold. First, the development of expected value into actual perceived value of workplace concept is studied together with the methods adopted to realise such value. After this, the perceived value of concepts is analysed in more detail to supplement the literature. Design/methodology/approach – The identified relationship is analysed qualitatively through six Finnish case organisations. The data were collected both through interviews and observations and analysed through coding. Findings – The actual perceived value of the workplace concepts was richer than the expected value before the workplace implementation. The direction from cost- to business- workplace strategies was noticed. Active employee involvement and orientation towards their needs, as well as also the activity-based offices with unassigned workspaces and more meeting areas, were the main tools and methods used to perceive the value. Practical implications – More organisations develop their own workplace concepts. For practitioners, this paper offers the insight on what was expected, provides the workplace concept development results and practical insights into realizing such value from the organisational perspective. Originality/value – The value of this paper lies in the relationship between the expected value from the workplace concept and the actual perceived value of the concept, along with tools and methods to perceive it.
... Third, the offices are used as a strategic tool to facilitate desired behaviours aligned to organisational values. These trends are challenging the social norms of where, when, and how it is accepted to work (Schriefer, 2005). A few examples of such trends created to support the 'New Ways of Working' are Guerilla Office, Coffice, A2, and Activity-Based Workplace (henceforth; ABW). ...
... The offices of today have therefore gained new importance as a strategic tool for facilitating human interaction in a way that unites employees under the same organisational culture (Schriefer, 2005). By facilitating interactions between all disciplines in an organisation, the office arrangement arguably increase the chances of collective learning and innovation. ...
Thesis
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In the modern business climate, knowledge workers can work from anywhere at any time due to the latest innovations in ICT. Hence, the use of an office is being questioned. Instead, offices carry valuable possibilities in facilitating human interaction, and aligning employee behaviour with organisational values. This development has led to new ways of working, from where new trends in office arrangements have emerged. One of these trends is called Activity-Based Workplaces (ABW). In ABW, employees are provided with the flexibility to undertake workplace activities in a variety of settings that best suit the current task at hand. This means mobility is essential for ABW to work; hence, implementing ABW often comes with substantial investments in computer systems. Since employees are encouraged to move around more in the office, new managerial challenges are likely to arise. Therefore, there is a need of studying possible effects of group cohesiveness and individual identity when working in ABW. Literature in office research indicates potential connections between the physical office environment and how the employee satisfaction, well-being and productivity are affected. However, in-depth studies of group dynamics in an ABW are lacking. Therefore, this thesis aims to contribute to the field of office research with empirical data collected from a case study of ABW within a Swedish context. In this qualitative study, the method for obtaining data has been interviews and an observational method called shadowing. Through shadowing, several scenarios were observed which were analysed together with the interviews conducted on the case company’s employees. The findings revealed some social challenges which need attention and further investigation. It was concluded that the increased and uncertain distance created by ABW was the main cause of these challenges present in the office. Therefore, trust, responsibility, and feedback become very important.
... Source: OECD, 2006 OLD APPROACH NEW APPROACH OBJECTIVES Equalisation, farm income, farm competitiveness Competitiveness of rural areas, valorisation of local assets, exploitation of unused resources KEY TARGET SECTOR Agriculture Various sectors of rural economies MAIN TOOLS Subsidies Investments KEY ACTORS National governments, farmers All levels of government, various local stakeholders While changes in work patterns and the workforce are occurring rapidly, changes in the workplace are taking place at a much slower pace. Investments in buildings, furniture and equipment remain on the books for long, fixed periods ( Schriefer, 2005). The question of this study is, could rural enterprise hubs support to living and be entrepreneur in the countryside? ...
... At uninspiring places, where disturbing actions distract from work, it would be impossible to accommodate new ideas and technologies. The space has to be designed to force more intense interaction, where it provides the opportunity of quick transitions from collaborative work to focused work ( Schriefer, 2005). One of the main aspects of the design is when individuals are in the lounge or kitchenette, they are also considered to be working, as they are expanding their network, and broaden their social capital, not just simply having a coffee, meal or break. ...
Article
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Although the tendency that the population migrate from rural to urban areas is typical world wide, the globalised economy creates new circumstances and opportunities for rural areas as well. The ‘new rural economy’ therefore needs new infrastructure to support it. The authors of the paper have a common interest in how enterprise hubs could help the development of entrepreneurship in the 21st century from two different directions, from physical and from social aspects. Building on the experience gained along enterprise hubs in cities, the hypothesis behind the study is, that creating enterprise hubs from existing buildings in rural settlements could help the development of rural entrepreneurship. To examine the hypothesis two case studies following a period of two years (enterprise hub development in Debrecen and Noszvaj) were carried out. In line with other studies in this field, result shows that even well-designed physical spaces are not enough for change, and initiators, hosts or facilitators are needed, as they play an important role in focusing on the real interaction network and enabling more synergies to happen.
... In the case of WPD, the physical elements, such as real estate, furniture etc., are usually purchased to last a longer period of time than the employees and processes associated with the workplaces (Schriefer, 2005). Thus, some of these elements can have an impact on business for up to 70 years (CABE, 2005). ...
... Modern technology enables such a versatility. Most of the specifications required in different workplaces can be achieved by generic tools, such as personal computers equipped with specific software applications or multi-purpose furniture (Schriefer, 2005). Thus, I posit: ...
Article
In these times of increasing global competition among firms and advancing technological innovation at work, firm resources have become more important than ever before. Workplace design is affected greatly by these new technologies. In this paper I draw upon the research in the management literature--specifically the Resource-Based View--to discuss the prerequisites of workplace design that can be leveraged for a sustainable competitive advantage. Based on a qualitative approach with data from four cases, I develop a framework describing six interrelated characteristics of workplace design to enable sustainable competitive advantage: Value, Overlap with Firm Strategy, Inimitability, Complementarity, Versatility, and Expression. To align the complex resource bundle of workplace design with firm strategy and to ensure its potential benefits, management should consider these characteristics during planning and implementation of workplaces. Further research is needed to understand the relevance and individual impact of these characteristics in different industries or cultures and over time.
... Some special reasons to build and adopt a digital workplace strategy could be the following [4,12,13,14]: ...
... organization. A workplace consultant may be retained to engage the team, help define success criteria, manage the process, and assess results" [13]. ...
... • Boost employee satisfaction (Heywood and Smith 2006;Martin and Black 2006) • Shifting 'cost reduction paradigm' to 'value added paradigm' (Weatherhead 1997;Haynes 2007) Functionality • Provide conducive workplace design (Gibson 2003;Schriefer 2005) • Owning or leasing (Brounen and Eichholtz 2005;Tipping and Bullard 2007) Business ...
Article
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Two main elements for a service being accepted are its performance and its relationship with the targeted audience. Corporate real estate management (CREM) can be shown to have a significant technical performance for organisations in term of physical, financial, human, functionality, business and capital markets. Despite of these contributions, there still a gap between CREM executives and its customers. Meanwhile, branding theory is successful in conveying services' performance and establishing relationships with a targeted audience. This paper explores how internal branding helps to close the gap between CREM executives and CREM's customers. It is part of research undertaken for a PhD study at the Faculty of Architecture Building and Planning, University of Melbourne. The theoretical framework provides a useful ground for understanding CREM internal branding. The main elements of branding that are suitable to CREM's situation are positioning the brand, communicating the brand message, delivering the brand performance and leveraging the brand equity.
... Zur vorgelagerten Prüfung von Machbarkeit und Wirtschaftlichkeit ist eine Arbeitsplatzstrategie erforderlich, die einen langfristigen Rahmen sowie strategische Ziele definiert. Die Gesamtheit der Erkenntnisse bildet die Basis für die Vision, wie die (Zusammen-)Arbeit im Unternehmen zukünftig aussehen soll (Schriefer 2005). Die IT-Abteilung kann anhand dieser generischen Anforderungen konkrete Umsetzungsvorschläge bzgl. ...
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Zusammenfassung Veränderungsdruck durch technologischen Fortschritt wirkt sich in Unternehmen auch auf die technischen Anforderungen an betriebliche IT-Arbeitsplätze aus. Das zunehmende Tempo der Digitalisierung mit immer neuen Technikinnovationen verstärkt diese Wirkung weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund des technisch Machbaren und wirtschaftlich Sinnvollen ergibt sich die Frage, wie ein systematisches Vorgehen zur Erkennung, Auswahl und Umsetzung von Technikinnovationen für IT-Arbeitsplätze gestaltet werden kann, um die Wettbewerbsfähigkeit eines Unternehmens sicherzustellen. Der Beitrag untersucht zunächst den Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Weiterentwicklung von IT-Arbeitsplätzen. Nach einem kurzen Überblick über Methoden für die Innovationserkennung und -bewertung wird anhand einer Fallstudie die praktische Anwendung der Methoden unter den Rahmenbedingungen der Digitalisierung bei der Deutschen Telekom beschrieben und analysiert. Der Beitrag schließt mit der Darstellung identifizierter Erfolgsfaktoren und Überlegungen zur Übertragbarkeit.
... Offices with better physical environment enhance and motivate the employees and ultimately improve their productivity (Awang & Denan, 2016). In addition, highly sophisticated employees demand an environment that attracts them, satisfies their needs and eventually provides an incentive to stay (Savage, 2005). As a result, the traditional design knowledge is no longer appropriate in solving complex client demands (Manzini, 2009). ...
Article
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In current era, the nature of business is ever-changing where communication and interaction between office workers are encouraged as the scope of work for office is expanding. Traditional offices with identical cubicles separated with panels are ineffective because not all workers are in the same activity mode at the same time. Providing and maintaining a comfortable and healthy office environment is vital consideration in designing an office. The interior layout design parameter involved are the comfortability of furniture, surrounding temperature, amount of lighting provided, the quality of indoor air, spatial arrangement, the condition of environment in terms of noise and privacy, and finally the 2D horizontal and vertical layout. This research seeks to identify the factors of interior layout design parameter that will affect the productivity and performance of the workers. The research is conducted using quantitative method. Questionnaire is distributed to the building occupants to evaluate and obtain their opinion on the satisfaction level of the layout at their workplace. The user satisfaction and perception on the existing interior layout design are gathered by using a questionnaire survey. The study proves that the workers are most satisfied with the lighting and least satisfied with the furniture at their existing interior layout design. The workers from both case studies agreed that the interior layout design parameter that has the most effect on the productivity is the environment noise and privacy; while 2D horizontal and vertical layout has the least effect.
... • Speed to market Schriefer (2005) indicates that the initial thought that comes to the minds of executives in organizations about Workplace strategy is that it is going to cost a lot, the organization will start from the scratch after creating a new workplace strategy, employees would be overcrowded in a specific area, employees will be forced to adopt different work styles, less face to face interaction, loss of corporate identity. All these 19 2 Theoretical Background © 2018 ZHAW, Institute of Facility Management Added Value in WPM: A focus on Workplace Strategy factors are misconceptions, a workplace strategy doesn't necessarily mean a lot of money needs to be spent, in fact a good workplace strategy can help reduce cost by reducing the amount of unused and wasted workspaces. ...
Article
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In the business world creating added value is beginning to be the main need of organizations, they are seeking employees, service providers, and clients that would add value to their organization. The workplace is considered to be a strategic tool in influencing the performance of employees and realizing business goals, that is why organizations are beginning to use the workplace to realize their corporate goals. The role of Facility managers in workplace management is beginning to grow into adding value to the organization hence placing FM in a more strategic position in organization. Workplace strategies are used by organizations to make sure that the work processes are aligned with the workplace to enable peak performance. This Master thesis deals with how workplace strategies can be used as a tool to positively influence the performance of employees. It explains how workplace management strategies and innovation can generate added value to an organization, hence increasing employee performance. This research adopts a qualitative approach in gathering data which resulted in conducting 11 semi-structured interviews with Inhouse Facility/Workplace managers and Consultants from around the world. The outcome of this thesis gives insights on how facility managers can add value to their organizations through workplace management, to outline a detailed process of how to develop a workplace strategy, stating out the elements and benefits of a workplace management, and finally the positive impact of workplace strategies on employee performance. These findings are adequate only for knowledge intensive organizations because the interviews were conducted with participants from knowledge-based industries. ii
... It is because the main concern of an investor or a facility manager who wants to use a shared space is always the financial benefit he can gain by using the shared space. Another enabler is the improvements that can be expected in the performance and productivity of the workers which has also been confirmed by Ellison Schriefer (2005). A group of people working in a shared workspace can get together and brainstorm and work as a team to accomplish creative and innovative work. ...
Article
Space management has an important role to play in office buildings as it can create a safe, functional and efficient space that can increase productivity of the office staff. Unutilized space in office buildings could be used as shared workspaces by different people for different purposes. This study used a qualitative research approach to collect data thorough fifteen semi-structured interviews conducted with industry practitioners selected using purposive sampling. The two case studies done subsequently identified the issues that could arise in space planning and the possibility of adopting the concept of shared workspace in Sri Lanka. The data collected were analysed using NVivo 11 content analysis software to identify the characteristics of spaces that could be used as shared spaces, types of shared spaces, enablers/barriers that contribute to the success/failure of shared workspaces and the steps that can be taken to overcome the barriers. The barriers identified are legal and regulatory issues, lack of privacy, need to match co-worker expectations and attitudes as a whole, need to monitor and control the space, noise and the unavailability of an effective support structure. Recommendations to overcome each identified barrier are also presented. The findings of the research would facilitate the smooth implementation of the shared workspace concept in Sri Lanka.
... Work environment. Work environment is the place at which an employee conveys work for an employer (Audrey, 2005). ...
Thesis
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This qualitative case study explored the perspectives of three managers and four non- managers regarding self-promotion motivational factors in a stressful work environment in the professional employer organization industry. The research was conducted at a professional employer organization in south Florida. The research question answered was, “How do employees describe stress and motivational factors that influence employees to self-promote in the highly, stressful work environment of professional employer organizations in south Florida?” The three managers participated in a focus group, and four non-managers were interviewed. All participants completed an open- ended questionnaire, as well. The review of literature revealed that stress in the work environment has caused employees to develop mental and physiological dysfunctions. Jones and Pittman's self-presentation theory and Maslach's Burnout Inventory Model were used in this study as a foundational theory and model. The interview and focus group transcripts, and self-administered questionnaires were transcribed, coded, and uploaded into ATLAS. TI software. From the data analysis and responses to the research question, all participants described stress as negative and motivational factors as positive influence on employees who self-promote in the highly, stressful work environment. Six themes resulted from the data analysis. These included 1) Motivational factors; 2) effects of motivational factors; 3) negative effects of stress; 4) stress reducers; 5) self- promotional behaviors; and 6) attributes of self-promoters. The results of the study showed that there were employees who practiced self-promotion in a stressful work environment due to a variety of motivational factors.
... The opportunity of quick transitions from collaborative working to focus is needed. The space has to be designed to force more intense interaction [7]. ...
Article
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The importance of alternative office spaces for more productivity and space efficiency has been analyzed: the way of usage as it was common in the past decades and how new technologies and decreasing productivity in the tertiary and quaternary sector urge intervention in the traditional structures and hierarchies to attain top competitiveness. The paper takes the form of a literature review, considering the history and functionality of the work environment and its widening scope to consider how it would be possible to use the existing office buildings more sustainable, healthier by having more productive workplaces at the same time.
... An effective workplace strategy must simultaneously address the social, physical, and technical components of the work environment (Ellison Schriefer, 2005). Even acknowledging the wide diversity of compensations that organizations can offer to their workers, such as coverage of different medical assistance services for them and their families, for instance, these types of benefits are more related to insurance policies of health than to the promotion tools of well-being at work. ...
Article
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In an increasingly competitive context, attracting and retaining the best employees are a real preoccupation and a big challenge for organizations. Online recruitment (OR) is a growing trend, and corporate websites are an important instrument for talent attraction, but academic research on this topic is still scarce, especially in the voluntary sector. To shed light on the topic, this study examines and compares the 100 best companies to work for, published by Fortune, and the 100 largest charities, reported by Forbes. The comparative study focuses the attention and quantifies the web section devoted to careers, concretely information related to goods practices affecting the workers well-being. The results indicated, as essential in the OR process of charities, to understand the relevance of their web content because that affects the intentions of potential applicants. The work concludes that benchmarking efforts can be helpful for increasing the charities’ attractiveness in the labor market in the near future.
... The choice of workplace furniture is important, because an employee needs them to function effectively in the office (Schriefer, 2005). If the furniture are uncomfortable and not user friendly, the employee's working style, efficiency and health is affected (Rantanen, 2013). ...
Article
Majority of the people tend to spend quite an ample amount of time in their workplaces. Depending on the working hours in each jurisdiction, workers spend between eight to ten hours at work. Furniture, equipment, lights and devices are usually put in place to facilitate and improve work environment. The importance of furniture and infrastructure, the way and manner they are designed and placed, and the environmental conditions of the workplace become crucial when linked to the comfort or discomfort of the user. Poorly arranged office furniture and infrastructure can definitely be a source of reduction in productivity and output in the workplace. This article looks at the dynamic nature of furniture and office infrastructure as well as environmental conditions in the workplace, by assessing whether they have significant impact or are impediment to the day to day running of business ventures. © MCSER-Mediterranean Center of Social and Educational Research.
... In organization, workplace planning strategy implemented depends on the purpose of the usage of the workplace. Savage and Schriefer (2005) highlighted that workplace planning strategy is dynamic alignment of organization work pattern with the work environment to enable peak performance and reduce cost. As defined by Creb (2010), space planning is a process of deciding how space can be most efficiently and effectively used. ...
Article
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Institutes of Higher Learning (IHLs) seem to concern themselves with knowledge and hence knowledge creation, dissemination and learning are regarded as core activities. The most important factor affecting the knowledge sharing behavior is the quality of place and space. Thus, in designing an academic environment they need to provide accommodation designed for people to meet and share their knowledge. The study is expected to be able to give awareness on the importance of quality of workplace space in enhancing the human interaction of knowledge sharing behavior among the lecturers.
... Furniture ergonomics is the relationship that exists between tool, equipment, and the office as the extension of the user [73]. Office furniture impacts employee"s effectiveness and defines user friendliness with shelves, cloaks, interior decorations, chairs, tables, drawers, notice boards, reduces risk of injury and possibility of accidents in the environment [64] [45] [20] [58]. According to [25], suitably designed workspace furniture provides more legroom, adequate support to the elbows and better accessories for users. ...
... Provide and manage workspace (Venezia and Allee, 2007;Morgan and Anthony, 2008) Data storage and tools to manage physical objects (Roberts and Daker, 2004) Corporate site selection (Rabianski et al., 2001;Gibler, 2006) Financial Financial flexibility in a rapidly changing environment (Lasfer, 2007;Liow and Ingrid, 2008) Cost reduction (Roberts and Daker, 2004;Haynes, 2007) Human Boost employee satisfaction (Martin and Black, 2006) Shifting "cost reduction paradigm" to "value-added paradigm" (Weatherhead, 1997;Haynes, 2007) Functionality Provide conducive workplace design (Gibson, 2003;Schriefer, 2005) Owning or leasing (Brounen and Eichholtz, 2005;Tipping and Bullard, 2007) ...
Article
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce concepts of branding applicable to the corporate real estate management (CREM) service and present early results of a study of branding concepts to address a credibility-positioning problem in CREM. Design/methodology/approach – The paper presents case studies of CREM in Australia and Malaysia analysed from the branding perspective. Findings – It is found that the CREM credibility-positioning problem inside organisations depends not only on the technical performance of CREM service, but also involves the relationship between CREM and its customers. Research limitations/implications – These are the early results of a study limited to a few case studies selected from four industry sectors in two different countries. Further findings might explain cross-cultural perceptions for CREM's credibility-positioning in emerging and mature real estate markets. Practical implications – The research clearly identified the application of branding elements in CREM's relationship with customers. The findings of this paper are useful to CREM executives in increasing their credibility in their organisations. Originality/value – The paper introduces branding theory as being useful and important in CREM practice.
Chapter
Over the past years many corporate business leaders have started to shift their strategy from a pure profit seeking one towards a balance in simultaneously striving to achieve economic, environmental and social goals (Elkington 1998; Preuss 2007; Roth 2009). As a result, challenges on the sustainability agenda have emerged as a new source of opportunities for innovation and competitive advantage (Fichter 2006; Hockerts 2008; Hansen et al. 2009). Research has shown that entrepreneurs are the main drivers of innovation, economic growth and social change (Audretsch 2002); hence, organizations try to adopt entrepreneurial approaches in order to spur their own innovativeness (Hamel 1999; Ireland et al. 2009). However, as recent publications have discussed, the promotion of entrepreneurship is a difficult and multifaceted issue requiring the consideration of dynamic processes describing the interplay of multiple external factors, local conditions and the individual innovators (Isenberg 2010; Krueger 2012; Vogel 2013). These difficulties are particularly distinct when discussing sustainable innovation, as risk-related reluctance in instigating this kind of innovation can still be observed among corporate leaders (Hall 2002). If established companies plan to take part in creating tomorrow’s economy, it will be necessary for them to challenge prevailing assumptions about innovation processes (Hamel 1999). The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the main success factors of entrepreneurial ecosystems and discuss ways how to assimilate these in an organizational context.
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Purpose – Corporate real estate (CRE) is a costly and risky asset in need of more rigorous evaluation methods to support strategic decision making for portfolio and asset management. Especially the indirect added value on organizational revenues is hard to quantify, while it is gaining importance. The purpose of this paper is to describe a quantitative technique that predicts office use as input for CRE management (CREM) decisions. Design/methodology/approach – After a literature study to identify relevant aspects influencing office use in modern work environments, a Bayesian belief network (BN) is constructed from a large database of 80,907 observations of office use in three organizations in Belgium and the Netherlands. Next specific evidence from future scenarios of organizational change is entered to discuss the application of BN for CRE decision-making processes. Findings – This study showed that the use of activity-based offices might be influenced by a complex network of office design variables and user characteristics. The use of the predicting possibilities of a BN model can help CRE managers identify employee behaviour inside their offices. That information is valuable input for future workplace decisions and strategic CREM activities. Practical implications – This study provides CRE managers with a model to gain knowledge on office use to get a better grip on how to add value with activity-based office concepts. The results obtained through using such a model can help support decision making on their office layouts. Originality/value – Bayesian BNs have not been used in this area of research before. This paper provides both academics and practitioners with valuable insights in the possibilities of this methodology for the field.
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The specialist research and design unit in Aedas' London office focuses on three principal areas of research: computational design, advanced modelling and sustainable design. Christian Derix, Judit Kimpian, Abdulmajid Karanouh and Josh Mason of Aedas R&D explain how this cross-pollination of interests has led the practice to develop innovative approaches, exemplified by the design for Al Bahr Towers, the Abu Dhabi Investment Council Headquarters and the Digital Masterplanning (Digma) tool. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Purpose – The paper seeks to show that in today's turbulent business environment, the advantage goes to organizations whose leaders are continually scanning the external environment, engaging in organizational dialogue and participating in learning processes in order to discover possibilities, mobilize positive energy and build commitment within their organizations to achieve a shared, robust view of the future. Design/methodology/approach – So that more executives can succeed in this way, the study analyzed the action skills and thought patterns of successful “anticipatory leaders.” Findings – These “anticipatory leaders” consistently demonstrate three skills: As futurists, they inform themselves about a wide range of current events and trends. As strategists, they hone their understanding of the opportunities and threats that these shifts present. As integrators of ideas, beliefs and emotions they continually engage with the people of their organizations, identifying opportunities and aligning resources toward common objectives. Practical implications – The paper offers executives a “self-assessment” inventory. Leaders who hope to successfully shape how their organization evolves in the dynamic era that is unfolding can use the skills inventory to learn the art of anticipating the future. Originality/value – Anticipatory leaders achieve a disciplined understanding of a range of potential future conditions. By using systems thinking and scenario analysis together, anticipatory leaders are able to galvanize action at all levels of their organizations through their ability to articulate the new thinking that informs strategic decisions.
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Purpose – With strategies including flexible work practices, tenants are increasingly seeking flexibility in their physical office space and layouts. The purpose of this paper is to examine to what extent investors address tenants’ changing demand for office space with reference to layouts in new and existing office buildings. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative study comprising in-depth individual interviews with senior portfolio managers of all listed property trusts investing in the office sector in New Zealand was undertaken. Findings – The findings confirmed property investors incorporate several adaptive and flexible space design and specifications in their modern office buildings to enhance space flexibility and functional efficiency. These include adaptive building structures, efficient floor plates, flexible building services, advanced IT networking, high-quality building amenities and modern building materials. Building structures and layouts are designed to be modified quickly and cost effectively to address tenants’ changing needs. Implications affecting tenant demand for flexible spaces on their lease contracts were also identified. Research limitations/implications – The findings from this research have implications for management of office space. Although the data were sourced with reference to buildings located in New Zealand only, the findings are applicable to office buildings in other countries. Practical implications – The study provides an insight into design strategies adopted in modern office buildings to enhance space flexibility and functional efficiency. These findings are of practical application to professionals involved in the design, development, investment and valuation of modern office buildings. Originality/value – The paper provides in-depth insights into how investors meet tenants’ changing demand for physical space which is linked to delivering improved and stable market-driven returns to investors.
Chapter
Unter dem Begriff «Future Workplace & Office» werden seit einiger Zeit neue Bürowelten diskutiert, die nicht nur eine optimierte Flächennutzung erlauben, sondern die Produktivität steigern und die Arbeitgeberattraktivität bei Beschäftigten aller Generationen erhöhen sollen. Verbunden sind damit jedoch nicht nur strukturell-architektonische Maßnahmen. Neue Büro-Konzepte berühren wesentliche Fragen der Führung, der Zusammenarbeit sowie der Kommunikation und bedingen damit einen tiefgehenden unternehmenskulturellen Wandel in der Organisation. Ausgehend von der Analyse wesentlicher Trends bei der Gestaltung flexibler und attraktiver Bürowelten skizziert der Beitrag zentrale Elemente von «Future Workplace & Office»-Konzepten. Sodann wird aufgezeigt, wie der Übergang von tradierten Büro-Konfigurationen zu zukunftsfähigen Arbeitsumgebungen erfolgreich gelingen kann.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between organisational flexibility and individual adaptation in the implementation of integrated workplace concepts. The focus is on the interconnectedness between different concepts and organisational aspects, as well as on overcoming challenges to fully achieve the intended ends. Design/methodology/approach The discussion builds on a triangulated research design including: semi-structured interviews, observation studies and analysis of secondary material in the form of internal evaluation reports and quantitative questionnaire data. Findings To fully achieve the intended ends, organisational, cultural and managerial aspects need to be aligned with the interconnected workplace concept. To create alignment, the concept also needs to be supported by a process of continual improvement and organisational learning. Research limitations/implications The case study was conducted in one organisation. Additional empirical research is needed to provide more definite conclusions, guidelines and theories. Practical implications The findings highlight the importance of applying a socio-material perspective towards implementation and development of integrated workplace concepts. Emphasising change, learning and development rather than standardisation and equality, may, in the end, allow for better concept interconnectedness. Originality/value The originality of this study lies in the perspective of studying the implementation of integrated workplace concepts from a socio-material perspective, shedding light on employee and managerial adaptation to different interrelated aspects and measures.
Article
The purpose the worldwide increase of the digitalization level and COVID-19 pandemic at the same time lead to a situation in which companies have to adapt to the trend of remote economics and change the working environment of their employees. Methodology. This research aimed at improving the methodology for assessing the level of workplace digitalization and to evaluate the level of workplace digitalization on the example of a company “IT marketing”, taking into account technical and moral factors. Recent years statistics confirms the growth of people working from home and building careers remotely. Increasing the level of mobility and flexibility of personnel, digitization of the workplace, national and gender diversity of staff – all these trends proof that the workforce is a powerful factor for the intensive growth of the whole company. But at the same time the process of workplace’s digitizing requires deep scientific researches. Strengthening the level of security, the presence of digital etiquette, new corporate culture, the moral stress of staff to keep in touch can lead to burnout and reduce employee’s performance and therefore – profitability of enterprises. It is impossible to ignore the trend towards increasing remote economics that is proved by numerous scientific studies. At the same time, sociologists argue that today for the effective functioning of the economy the vector must be shifted from technology to humans. One of the main objectives of the presented research is to identify tools that can increase the level of digitalization of the workplace and at the same time enlarge the efficiency of working staff. These tools should cover all aspects of doing business including customer and employee engagement, accounting and financial transactions, project management and productivity. Thus, the presented article reflects the study of current trends in the socio-economic sphere, the results of which may have an impact on human relations in companies and meet the needs of employees while observance of high level of their work efficiency. Results. The research we used our methodology and evaluated the level of digitalization on the example of company “IT-Marketing”. Practical implications. In the article gave the recommendations to the company’s management how to increase the level of workplace digitalization.
Chapter
Unter dem Begriff „Future Workplace & Office“ werden seit einiger Zeit neue Büro- und Arbeitswelten diskutiert, die nicht nur eine optimierte Flächennutzung erlauben, sondern Innovationskraft und Produktivität steigern sowie die Arbeitgeberattraktivität erhöhen sollen. Verbunden sind damit jedoch nicht nur strukturell-architektonische Maßnahmen in Regie des Facility Managements. Neue Szenarien für die Büroarbeit berühren wesentliche Fragen der Führung, der Zusammenarbeit sowie der Kommunikation, bedingen einen tiefgehenden unternehmenskulturellen Wandel und fallen damit als Querschnittsthema auch in den Handlungsbereich des Personalmanagements. Ausgehend von der Darstellung grundlegender Büroformen beleuchtet der Beitrag Mega-Trends, die die Einführung von „Future Workplace & Office“-Konzepten bedingen und Initiative des Personalbereichs fordern. Sodann werden Leitlinien für die Gestaltung zukunftsweisender Büro-Konfigurationen vorgeschlagen, grundlegende Raum-Elemente skizziert und anhand von Umsetzungsbeispielen aus dem Silicon Valley konkretisiert. Deutlich wird dabei, dass es den Arbeitsplatz der Zukunft nicht gibt, sondern Unternehmen vielmehr gehalten sind, das für die jeweilige Organisation optimale Arbeitsplatz-Angebot zu konfigurieren. Um die mit neuen Büro- und Arbeitswelten verbundenen Effektivitäts- und Effizienzgewinne auch tatsächlich realisieren zu können, werden abschließend Handlungsempfehlungen für die Mitarbeiterführung in modernen Arbeits- und Bürowelten vorgestellt, die Führungskräften Orientierung bei der Gestaltung ihrer Führungsagenda vermitteln.
Article
Purpose The study aims to provide insight on the relationship between a newly implemented workplace concept, its intentions, the actual use and ultimately its ability to function as a strategic tool. By addressing the intended and unintended consequences of planned spatial arrangements, the interest lies in studying underlying factors affecting the concepts’ ability to function as a strategic tool. Design/methodology/approach The case study builds on semi-structured interviews and observational studies from a larger Norwegian organisation that recently implemented an activity-based workplace concept. Concept descriptions and architectural drawings have also been important sources to study how the concept was interpreted and used by different groups. Findings Taking a socio-material perspective, the findings illustrate that spatial aspects and different concept structures, together with issues such as employee mobility and time spent in the office, different work processes, management style and departmental cultures influenced the way the activity-based workplace concept was perceived and taken into use. Originality/value The findings indicate that social and cultural aspects may play a more significant role in the adaptation process than previously emphasised. The article further provides knowledge on how organisations, in planning and implementation of such concepts, may address the right issues to overcome challenges and achieve the higher strategic ends.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyse the drivers that allow for enhanced personal productivity of knowledge-based workers in Central London focusing on the physical and social environment as well as worker’s individual preferences. Design/methodology/approach A closed-ended questionnaire was sent to employees of eight professional companies (Consultancy, Financial and Media Services) based in Central London. Of the 500 questionnaires sent, 213 were successfully completed and returned, representing a response rate of 42.6 per cent. Findings The findings from this trial study show that comfort, convenience, IT connectivity, good design and working to a specific time scale were strong drivers of personal productivity. Knowledge workers prefer a flexible range of office settings that enable both a stimulating open and connected work environment, knowledge sharing, collaboration, as well as quiet concentration locations, free of distractions and noise. It was also found that moves of knowledge workers into open-plan office space (and especially fee earners) is normally met with initial resistance. However, there is normally greater acceptance of open space after experiencing an actual move into open-plan, with benefits improving teamwork and communication being highlighted. The research also stresses that office design considerations need to be closer aligned with knowledge worker’s overall well-being and individual psychological needs. Research limitations/implications Limited to Central London offices and self-assessed evaluation of productivity drivers within the knowledge worker’s office environment. Practical implications Corporate real estate managers and office occupiers, designers and facilities managers can use the findings as part of their workplace strategy by providing a range of flexible workplaces that allow the knowledge worker a place for greater personal productivity through the provision of a well-designed collaborative office environment alongside private and quiet working spaces. Developers and landlords should also be aware of these requirements when taking their decisions. Originality/value This paper focuses specifically on the high-productivity knowledge-based work environment, demonstrating that there is a need to consider the collaborative physical and social environment and the individual preferences of knowledge workers to ensure enhanced personal productivity and well-being within the office. This can be achieved through the provision of a well-designed office space that allows for open, connected and comfortable work environments, as well as opportunities to use dedicated concentration spaces that are free of distraction. It was also shown that hot-desking was unanimously disliked by knowledge workers.
Article
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The article is devoted to the content analysis of 19 broadcasts for children and teens in six leading television channels dedicated to minors recipients in Poland. The study has been conducted on the basis of 16 criteria reflecting the positive and negative attributes of the programmes. It has aimed to answer the question of how the world is depicted in these broadcasts, and furthermore what sociocultural patterns are transmitted to children and adolescents watching their favourite fairy tales and film heroes. The research conducted has proved that it is possible to identify both the best, most valuable from the point of view of the child’s development and socialization channel (it is MiniMini+) and the most harmful, presenting negative values and negative patterns channel (which is Cartoon Network). The text presents the first in Polish media and sociological studies comparative analysis of such a large number of broadcasts for children and youth, and the analysis so widely verifying the content and formal elements of these broadcasts.
Article
Challenged by the effects of organisational flexibility and high corporate real estate costs, organisations are increasingly seeking flexibility and operational efficiency in their office spaces. To date, the literature relating to flexible office spaces has focused mainly on their physical characteristics. The full effects of such spaces on human reactions and the corporate culture of organisations are less understood. The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of introducing activity-based working (ABW) on existing organisational culture. It was addressed from the perspective of the management of large corporate organisations. A mixed-method research that included a qualitative approach followed by a quantitative approach was adopted. The first stage included semistructured interviews with 19 large organisations who had introduced flexible layouts. The second stage involved a questionnaire survey of 32 organisations which had experienced office layout changes. Findings identify that the nature of workplace designs has a considerable impact on the corporate culture of an organisation and can be used to leverage and change its culture. Workplace designs directly influence culture by supporting the systems, symbols, engagement/motivation and behaviours of the organisation and employees. However, some differences between the perceptions of public and private organisations were identified. In conclusion, office layouts are artefacts that can either support, or change, the existing organisational culture. Therefore, the critical achievement of workspace design is to integrate the cultures, values and behaviours of organisations to meet their ultimate goals.
Article
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The purpose of this study is to measure moderating role of the knowledge management between innovation, information technology that could enhance organizational performance. This study is cross-sectional study and there are four objectives in this study (1) to measure the link between innovation and organizational performance, (2) to evaluate the link between information technology and organizational performance, (3) to analyse the moderating role of knowledge management towards innovation and organizational performance, (4) to analyse the moderating role of knowledge management towards information technology and organizational performance. This study conducted through the quantitative method. In order to achieve the purpose of study, questionnaires will be distributed via email to selected 214 public listed companies in Malaysia. After that, the data that's gathered will be analyzed by using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 20.0 (SPSS). Due to know the relationship between each variable, the multiple regressions will be used. The implication of conceptual framework in this study is to give a better understanding about knowledge management that could enhance the organization performance. The organization that implements knowledge management very well would encourage their employees' performance become excellent. The originality or value of this paper is this paper investigates new thing about the relationship the moderating role of knowledge management on innovation, information technology, and organizational performance.
Thesis
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This thesis deals with understanding the relation between employees and their work environment with the objective of improving the quality of the workplace and thus increasing the productivity of the work institution. The thesis is divided into four chapters and a conclusion. The first three chapters deal with the historical and theoretical research, starting with chapter two that explores the development stages and typologies of workspaces over the past hundred years, then at the next chapter, reporting how literature discussed the ways of workspace enhancement to boost productivity and creativity at workspaces, after that chapter three end up with a checklist the will be tested at chapter four and make a SWOT analysis for each case study. Finally, chapter five come up with the research findings and conclusion regarding the theoretical part and applied research part.
Article
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Purpose – Purpose of current study is to explore, impact of workplace environment i.e Physical Environmental Factors and Behavioral Environmental Factors on employee productivity (EP) through mediating role of employee health (EH). Research methodology – This study adopted questionnaire survey method and data was collected from 250 employees working in software houses in Pakistan. Data has been analysed using SPSS and AMOS software. Reliability and correlation analysis was performed by using SPSS while; path analysis was performed using AMOS. Findings – Results revealed that one unit variance in PEF incorporates 35% change in EH, 33% change in EH is caused by one unit increase in BEF and one unit increase in EH leads to 80% increase in EP. Physical and Behavioural Environmental Factors are positively affecting EH and EH is positivity affecting EP. Results of the study revealed that: employee health is mediating the relationship between workplace environment factors and employee performance. Research limitations – We used working Environment factors to determine employee health; future studies can consider compensation practices, insurance plans and health benefits by the organisation, a large sample or increased number of mediating variables can be used. The current study has adopted cross-sectional design while future studies can consider longitudinal design. Practical implications – Organisations must maintain a better environment in order to enhance employee productivity as, employee performance and workplace environment have direct and positive relationship, employees productivity and physical as well as behavioural environment are linked through employee health.
Article
The concept of alternative work arrangements (AWAs) represents a growing trend within many organizations to shift once-common models of working to newer paradigms. Among many options, this includes models where employees may work from somewhere other than a primary physical office space (remote work), or no longer possess a personal desk at their office (desk sharing). Both remote work and desk sharing often require employees to adapt to a mode of “working” far different than they are accustomed to, yielding a range of conflicting opinions, pros and cons, and unique experiences along the way. The research question becomes: How do employees make sense of their organization’s shift towards alternative work arrangements? This capstone explores the transition from the perspective of a higher-education information technology organization (HEITO) in the midst of its journey in adopting and adapting to AWAs, initially presenting the historical circumstances that led to the organization’s current state. A literature review and secondary research is used to explore AWAs and several sub-topics related to the change, and a recent survey of HEITO’s employees is used to gather quantitative and qualitative data on the organization’s transition. This capstone concludes with an analysis of the research data, and thoughts pertaining to further studies on AWAs.
Article
Purpose Office layout arrangements have a significant influence on many important aspects of organisations, and design firms need to liaise with the client to determine the most appropriate design process. The purpose of this paper is to explore the factors design firms consider when designing new office layouts and the nature of future offices from the design and workplace strategist firms’ perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A qualitative study comprising interviews with leading international and nation design firms and workplace strategy consultant firms in Australia. Qualitative data was analysed using a thematic approach, which adopted within case, and across case, analyses. Findings Research identified major factors considered when identifying appropriate workplace strategies. These included the existing and preferred culture of the organisation, the level of flexibility required, functionality and technology requirements, acoustic strategies, sense of community and generation gap between employees. Participants believed future offices would be technology driven, community oriented, sustainability, health and well-being focussed, smaller in size with satellite offices, such as co-working and office spaces. Research limitations/implications This research has implications for industry and academics, as it provides an in-depth understanding of workplace specialists’ and design firms’ perceptions of clients’ contemporary and future requirements from office spaces. It also illustrates what they look at when designing office spaces for large corporates. Practical implications Research demonstrates how the office environment should match with the physical and psychological needs of the organisation and its employees. Findings have practical applications to professionals in human resource management and the design, management, development and valuation of office buildings. Originality/value This paper provides in-depth insights into how design firms and workplace strategists meet organisations’ changing demand for physical spaces, their main considerations in developing new workplace strategies, process followed and nature of future workplace in Australian context.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore how users respond to office design through their use of space. Intentions for how office spaces should be used can be not only understood as sociomaterial scripts that are inscribed into the architecture by designers but also communicated through organisational change processes. The paper elaborates on how users de-script office spaces, that is, how they respond to these scripts through use. Design/methodology/approach The paper draws on a case study of an office design intervention in a public organisation. Taking a sociomaterial approach, the paper uses the concepts of scripting and de-scripting to analyse the data. Findings The findings show that users subscribe to, repair, resist or re-script design scripts. This suggests that users can enact agency in use through creative acts of appropriation. Further, both materiality and user participation play equivocal roles in user responses. Research limitations/implications The paper is based on a single case study where the design process was studied retrospectively. The case is regarded as typical of contemporary office design processes, but more studies that follow projects from design into use are needed. Practical implications This suggests that design solutions should be better adapted to the work practices instead of applying generic concepts to specific situations and that design and use should be understood as overlapping processes. Originality/value The originality of this study lies in linking aspects of the design process with user responses and in taking a sociomaterial approach to examine design and use.
Article
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Purpose This research investigates the literature and perspectives of bilateral domains of experts, the facilities management (FM) and real estate management (REM) professionals. It provides insights towards a comprehensive understanding of office facilities relocation as organizational workplaces. Design/methodology/approach An investigation of the literature was conducted, to identify design aspects, drivers, challenges, and technical and functional considerations of the workplace relocation. A structured survey was utilized, as face-to-face interviews with 32 FM and 32 REM professionals, to explore and compare their perspectives and expertise. Findings The study identified key aspects for workplace relocation that were rarely focused on, holistically, in the literature. The research led to identifying the drivers, challenges, considerations, scenarios, and design needs pertaining to the implementation, acquisition, and occupation of the workplace in times of relocation. There is a dispersed view on workplace relocation between FM and REM, which requires alignment. FM and REM experts' perspectives were intrinsically discussed to ascertain the identified key areas. Practical implications Workplace relocation is a change that disturbs almost every workplace around the globe, at least once in its life cycle. This study enlists comprehension of the knowledge obtained from a review of the international literature, to provide a holistic guide for organizational decision makers, and interlink FM and REM professionals' perspectives, for enhanced decision-making. Originality/value This article reviews the literature on workplace relocation, covering FM and REM domains perspectives to advance the organizational workplace relocation practices.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore how strategic alignment of the corporations’ real estate with the organisational strategy may be used to facilitate change within an organisation’s collaborative culture. The focus is on the interconnectedness between spatial and behavioural artefacts in the transition process to a new workplace concept. Design/methodology/approach The discussion builds on observational studies and semi-structured interviews with 65 employees in a Norwegian organisation. Findings The findings indicate that the physical change, when supported by behavioural artefacts as change management actions, paved way for a cultural change towards increased collaboration between employees and across hierarchical levels. However, misalignments between the new workplace concept and existing behavioural artefacts and cultural constructs also restricted the organisation in fully achieving the intended ends. Research limitations/implications Applying a socio-material perspective with explicit focus on issues such as management and culture in workplace studies is important to develop better models for strategic use of a corporations’ real estate. Originality/value When new workplace concepts are implemented with the aim of effecting organisational change they require support of a focused change management process where both spatial and behavioural artefacts are designed to support employee adaptation to the new concept. By conducting the change as a continuous iterative process, extending beyond the moving process itself, the corporate real estate management (CREM) may add to the success by guiding and steering the organisation in the right direction.
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