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The Theory and Technique of Electronic Music

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Abstract

This is the first book to develop both the theory and the practice of synthesizing musical sounds using computers. Each chapter starts with a theoretical description of one technique or problem area and ends with a series of working examples (over 100 in all), covering a wide range of applications. A unifying approach is taken throughout; chapter two, for example, treats both sampling and wavetable synthesis as special cases of one underlying technique. Although the theory is presented quantitatively, the mathematics used goes no further than trigonometry and complex numbers. The examples and supported software - along with a machine-readable version of the text - are available on the web and maintained by a large online community. The Theory and Techniques of Electronic Music is valuable both as a textbook and as professional reading for electronic musicians and computer music researchers. © 2007 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
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... Puckette 2006: 32. 122 Vgl. ...
... Puckette 2006: 3. 147 Dickreiter et al. 2008 ...
... Puckette 2006: 32. 163 Reynolds 2011 ...
Book
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Die Begriffe Sampling und Sample verweisen in musik- und klangbezogenen Kontexten auf überaus Unterschiedliches. Der vorliegende Band beleuchtet die Entwicklung der Diskurse um diese Begriffe, analysiert instrumentale Sampling-Prozesse und reflektiert die Sampling-Praxis als künstlerischen Forschungsprozess. Dabei stehen folgende Fragen im Mittelpunkt: Wie hat sich das Verständnis von Sampling und Samples gewandelt? Wie vermittelt sich Sampling durch die instrumentale Praxis? Inwiefern prägt die individuelle künstlerische Sampling-Praxis die Wahrnehmung von Sampling? Diese Fragen werden anhand von Beispielen und Diskursanalysen thematisiert. So zeigt etwa die Analyse konkreter Anwendungen, wie das Interface-Design von Instrumenten das Verständnis von Sampling beeinflusst. Auch ein eigenes Softwaretool des Autors wird in diesem Zusammenhang reflektiert. Der Ansatz möchte eine Alternative zur bislang vorherrschenden Praxis bieten, welche die Begriffe Sampling und Sample durch neue Definitionen immer weiter auszudifferenzieren sucht und als exklusive Fachbegriffe etabliert. Sein Ziel ist es, Sampling in einer möglichst nachvollziehbaren und anschlussfähigen Annäherung in den verschiedensten Facetten darzustellen und zu diskutieren.
... In our case this was 0.75 ms. 18 That means, when the last block of audio was processed and no more data is in the pipeline, the scheduler sleeps 19 for 0.75 ms and frees up the processor. During that time a couple of new blocks (here, a block of 16 samples had a real-time duration of 0.33 ms) accumulate in the processing pipeline and will get processed in a fast burst when Pd awakes from sleep. ...
Conference Paper
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With the advent of fast ARM processors more audio products are running embedded Linux systems and using high level languages to implement real-time signal processing. Still, embedded Linux systems can't compete with the processing power of desktop computers to implement complex signal processing as needed for physical modeling algorithms. This paper describes how to interface custom digital logic circuits in an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with the Linux operating system to speed up processing. The hardware used is a Terasic DE10-Nano development kit equipped with an Intel Cyclone V SoC. We are running Pure Data (Pd) on Linux and communicating with a mass-interaction network for physical modeling sound synthesis on the FPGA. The code referenced in this publication is available online.
... Essa experiência foi realizada em sala de aula, como parte do ensino do método de síntese aditiva. Uma visão mais aprofundada na teoria e técnicas da música eletrônica pode ser obtida em (PUCKETTE, 2006). ...
Chapter
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Musicologia & Diversidade é uma obra que enriquece a bibliografia musicológica dos países de língua portuguesa. No Brasil, as origens dessa ciência remontam ao século XIX quando o ofício de musicólogo ainda se confundia com o de crítico musical...
... Натиснувши кнопку Edit ви отримуєте можли-Мал. 50 Repeat призначений для встановлення у творі реприз, форм Da capo тощо. ...
Book
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The experience of applying technologies for making music is methodized in this textbook. The textbook contains information about history of audiorecording technologies and electronic music instruments and their influence on a music art development as well as emergence of modern music genres. The practical chapter is devoted to the work with the musical software, particularly score writers, audio processing, making phonograms via producing MIDI file and its following processing in DAW and VST instruments. The textbook is designed for music high school students, professional musicians and everyone who is interested in using computer for making music.
... [317], М. Пакета [337], Н. Коллінза [268], П. Шапіро [351] [261], С. Рейнолдса [342], дисертаційне дослідження Т. Ястремського [249]. Окремі дослідження західних авторів присвячені окремим музичним напрямам: хауз (C. ...
Research
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Дисертація на здобуття наукового ступеня кандидата мистецтвознавства зі спеціальності 26.00.01 «Теорія та історія культури». – Київський національний університет культури і мистецтв, Міністерство освіти і науки України, Київ, 2021. У роботі досліджується електронна музика, її поява та розвиток в культурному просторі України. Представлено особливості звукового матеріалу електронної музики, методів її аналізу, розмаїття її напрямів в академічному і неакадемічному середовищі. Показано, що на ранніх етапах розвиток електронної музики в Україні відбувався в умовах переважання периферизаційних явищ. Попри це українським композиторам вдавалося знаходити індивідуальні творчі підходи, а на рубежі століть – віднайти можливості поєднання електронних звучань з фольклорними, що ознаменувало появу нового напряму – фольк-електроніка, а також тенденцію до подолання периферизаційних процесів та залучення українського національного мистецтва до світової музичної культури.
... Computer-generated audio reproduction technology for VR and AR leverages decades of signal processing innovation in interactive audio rendering systems and application programming interfaces -building and extending upon prior developments in the fields of computer music and architectural acoustics (including binaural techniques, artificial reverberation algorithms, physical room acoustics modeling and auralization [22]- [25]). ...
Thesis
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The present work consists of a study about compositional strategies in the use of Machine Listening (ML) and Music Information Retrieval (MIR) techniques applied to live-electronic music, proposing a technical, contextual, and creative study. The research starts from a theoretical foundation that seeks to discuss and contextualize the emergence and development of the ML and MIR as interdisciplinary research fields, as well as approaches concepts related to interactive musical systems, interactive music and emphlive-electronics. The theoretical foundation also extends to the review of a set of techniques, processes, and tools, aiming to elucidate the main concepts in the implementation of ML/MIR methods. Subsequently, the investigative study covers some general observations about the main characteristics of musical writing in interactive music/live-electronics associated with the use of the studied tools. With that, we point out some practical applications and compositional approaches in a set of pieces from the repertoire. Finally, the last part of the work discusses the creative process of a composition for acoustic guitar and live-electronics, approaching particular strategies for employing ML/MIR techniques.
Thesis
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Esta tese trata de processos de análise e criação sonora por meios tradicionais e através de ferramentas computacionais, a partir da interação entre análise/criação e percepção. Em sua primeira parte, tendo como base as noções de tecnomorfismo e síntese instrumental, apresentamos um estudo de alguns processos sonoros microtemporais que são classificados como ondulatórios ou granulares, através de uma abordagem complementária entre estes dois modelos. Sobre a percepção e a modulação das morfologias sonoras produzidas a partir destes processos, apresentamos uma análise tendo como ferramentas teóricas o princípio da individuação e o método alagmático de Gilbert Simondon, a autopoiese de Humberto Maturana e Francisco Varela, a enação de Varela, além das saliências, pregnâncias e a teoria as catástrofes de René Thom. No que tange às suas diferentes escalas temporais, estas morfologias podem apresentar características isomórficas, de acordo com as proposições de Stockhausen, Koenig e Grisey, ou heteromórficas, tal como propõe Vaggione. Dentro deste panorama estudamos e analisamos o fenômeno da fusão de diferentes timbres numa única estrutura perceptiva pelos vieses psicoacústico (por jitter) e composicional, através de conceitos propostos por Ligeti e Grisey. Na segunda parte deste trabalho analisamos obras musicais instrumentais e eletroacústicas (acusmáticas e mistas) de Schoenberg, Ligeti, Murail, Xenakis, López-López e Vaggione, as quais apresentam importantes contribuições (a partir de diferentes métodos) sobre a fusão de timbres. Por fim, descrevemos e analisamos etapas do processo criativo de cinco composições realizadas ao longo desta pesquisa, obras estas para instrumentos solistas e para diferentes formações instrumentais e vocais, com quatro delas possuindo tratamentos eletrônicos em tempo real. This thesis addresses analysis and composition processes by traditional means and by computing environments, from an interaction between analysis/composition and perception. In the first part, based on the concepts of technomorphism and instrumental synthesis, we present a study of a few microtemporal sound processes. These processes are classified into undulatory and granular paradigms, upon which we propose a complementary approach. Regarding to sound morphology perception and modulation, we present an analysis having as theoretical basis the principle of individuation and the allagmatic method of Gilbert Simondon, the autopoiesis of Humberto Maturana and Francisco Varela, the enaction of Varela, besides the saillances, prégnances and the catastrophe theory of René Thom. With respect to the different temporal scales, these morphologies can have isomorphic features, in agreement with the propositions of Stockhausen, Koenig and Grisey, or heteromorphic features, as proposes Vaggione. In keeping with this approach, we study and analyze the fusion of different timbres into a single perceptual structure, by psychoacoustic (jitter) and compositional (by Ligeti and Grisey¿s concepts) means. In the second part of this work, we analyze instrumental and electroacoustic musical works by Schoenberg, Ligeti, Murail, Xenakis, López-López, and Vaggionne, all of them providing important contributions for timbre fusion phenomenon. Lastly, we describe and analyze our creative process in five musical works, which had been composed during this research. Among these works, there are solo pieces and pieces for different instrumental and vocal ensembles, four of them with live electronic treatments
Article
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The research presented in this article investigates the artistic practices of Mauro Lanza, Andrea Valle and Simone Pappalardo, with particular attention to the concrete use and the theoretical definition of their new electromechanical and electroacoustics instruments. The paper considers the works Le Nubi non scoppiano per il peso (2011) by Mauro Lanza, the cycle Selva Petrosa (2019-2020) by Andrea Valle, the cycle Systema Naturae (2013-2017) by Andrea Valle and Mauro Lanza, and the performative practice by Simone Pappalardo. Starting from the definition of instrumental apparatus, the discussion presents the organological problems related to the new electromechanical and electroacoustic lutherie, and examines the definitions of electromechanical and electroacoustic instrument. The works of the three composers are analyzed from the point of view of the instrumental equipment, by investigating the algorithmic control techniques of the musical materials that have been used for organizing the instrumental component, and the different signals for controlling the computational component.
Article
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Many techniques have been proposed for synthesiz- ing the sung or spoken voice; they generally fall into two classes. First, the purely synthetic techniques (FM, FOF, PAF, ...) make sounds with specified formant frequencies, bandwidths, and amplitudes. Second, the sample-based methods (LPC, Vocoders, PSOLA, ...) reconstruct sounds from pre-recorded speech or singing. Here we present a technique that can synthesize spectra either with specified formants, or in imitation of a recorded sound. Since it is not patent encumbered it can be used to replace the PAF operator for open-source re-implementations of pieces us- ing PAFs.