ChapterPDF Available

Disasters and Social Change: Hurricane Andrew and the Reshaping of Miami?

Authors:
... Sociopolitical ecology perspective recognizes that disasters often exacerbate or accelerate processes already occurring in communities instead of changing them (Aldrich & Meyer, 2015;Bates & Peacock, 1989;Green, Bates, & Smyth, 2007;Hirayama, 2000;Kates, Colten, Laska, & Leatherman, 2006;Morrow & Peacock, 1997;Xiao & Van Zandt, 2012). Hence, preexisting inequalities can be manifested and magnified with disaster damages leading to unequal trajectories of housing recovery. ...
... Consequently, households might experience differential sequencing across any or all stages of housing or shelter in the aftermath of disasters based on their socioeconomic characteristics and access to resources. For example, in a study of temporary sheltering following Hurricane Andrew, households with higher incomes were more likely to stay at hotels and motels, while those with lower incomes stayed with family (Morrow & Peacock, 1997). The limitations that lower income households face when addressing housing issues in normal situations can result in a delay or failure to transition out of temporary shelters or temporary housing into permanent housing (Fothergill & Peek, 2015;Starr Cole, 2003). ...
... From this light, a selection of sequences, presented in Fig. 13, are examined closely to relate them back to empirical and theoretical literature for model validation. The authors note that their own interview and survey experiences, alongside quantitative literature reviewed in Section 2 (e.g., Comerio, 1997;Starr Cole, 2003), were used to build the transition probabilities, whereas the qualitative literature (e.g., Fothergill & Peek, 2015;Hamideh & Rongerude, 2018;Morrow & Peacock, 1997) was used to validate sequences through stories and accounts collected through field studies. Five sequences are presented in Fig. 13 from the Centerville analysis. ...
Article
Housing recovery is an unequal and complex process presumed to occur in four stages: emergency shelter, temporary shelter, temporary housing, and permanent housing. This work questions the four‐stage typology and examines how different types of shelter align with multiple housing recovery stages given different levels of social vulnerability. This article also presents a Markov chain model of the postdisaster housing recovery process that focuses on the experience of the household. The model predicts the sequence and timing of a household going through housing recovery, capturing households that end in either permanent housing or a fifth possible stage of failure. The probability of a household transitioning through the stages is computed using a transition probability matrix (TPM). The TPM is assembled using proposed transition probability models that vary with the social vulnerability of the household. Monte Carlo techniques are applied to demonstrate the range of sequences and timing that households experience going through the housing recovery process. A set of computational rules are established for sending a household to the fifth stage, representing a household languishing in unstable housing. This predictive model is exemplified on a virtual community, Centerville, where following a severe earthquake scenario, differences in housing recovery times exceed four years. The Centerville analysis results in nearly 5% of households languishing in unstable housing, thereby failing to reach housing recovery. These findings highlight the disparate trajectories experienced by households with different levels of social vulnerability. Recommendations are provided at the end for more equitable postdisaster recovery policies.
... According to disaster experts, the losses and recovery process a city or region experiences during a disaster are complex and contradictory, depending on the social measures and level of analysis (Morrow and Peacock 1997;Ayala-Carcedo 2004;Barnshaw and Trainor 2007). Natural disasters are classified into those that are climatic in origin, such as floods, droughts, and tropical storms, and those that are geological in origin, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, and landslides. ...
... The new residents of Liberty City found stable neighborhoods, highly respected public schools and teachers, and rich recreation and civic life. Many middle-class Blacks moved to suburban developments, while the enclave Black communities emerged in several cities and towns developing south of Miami (Grenier and Morrow 1997). Regardless of the changing spatial patterns of urban Black residential sections, the Black social networks that centered on extended families, religious life, shared school experiences, and common cultural interests emerged in and across these Black communities. ...
... Black-owned businesses employed 6,208 persons, or four percent of the Dade County Black population (Dunn and Stepick 1992). When Andrew struck Miami, Black communities and their entrepreneurial segments had only faint input into municipal and state public decision-making and finances (Grenier and Morrow 1997). ...
... After disasters, the triggers for violence are identified as loss of personal possessions, increased stress and trauma, economic hardship, frustration and struggles to replace housing, jobs and possessions, leading to increased tension in relationships (Morrow & Peacock 1997). In addition, there are higher rates of mental distress after disasters for a variety of reasons and these may also be linked to family violence (Brooks et al. 2020;). ...
Article
Disasters including public health crises like the COVID‐19 pandemic are known to increase instances of family violence against women, children, and other diverse populations. This paper discusses and provides evidence of disaster‐related vulnerability of and violence towards specific groups of people. We argue that the COVID‐19 pandemic presents the ‘perfect storm’ for family violence, where a set of rare circumstances combine, resulting in a significant aggravation of the resulting event. Given the mental health implications of family violence, mental health professionals need to be aware of this issue during the pandemic and ready to assist with the development of strategies to overcome the situation where possible. To provide protection and prevent violence, there is a need to include at‐risk groups in disaster response and community planning. Such a plan could involve gender and disaster working groups at the local community, state, and national levels.
... Specifically, large national insurance companies that were more likely to provide adequate settlements had systematically failed to underwrite insurance in minority, and particularly Black, neighborhoods. The literature also suggests that rental housing is slower to recover, which makes it more difficult for minority and low-income households to find postdisaster housing and return to their pre-disaster communities, often extending the recovery process (Quarantelli 1982;Comerio 1998;Comerio et al. 1994;Bolin 1986Bolin , 1993bStanford 1998a and1998b;Morrow and Peacock 1997). Indeed, in one of the few longitudinal studies of housing recovery following a major natural disaster, Hurricane Andrew in Miami-Dade county, Zhang and Peacock (2010) found that housing in predominantly minority (Black and Hispanic) neighborhoods as well as rental housing, was much slower to recover. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This report provides details of work undertaken in Phase 3 of the Status and Trends of Coastal Vulnerability to Natural Hazards Project exploring changing vulnerabilities and overall resilience of Texas Coastal Counties associated with the Texas Coastal Management Zone. In addition to updates on the Texas Sustainable Coastal Initiative and the Texas Coastal Planning Atlas, the annual report includes the detailed reports of specific research activities undertaken as part of the project. These reports include: 1) The Elite Survey Report: A Report on the Perception of State, County, and Local Officials Regarding the State of Texas Mitigation Plan, Coastal Management Plan and the Promotion of Mitigation Efforts in the Texas Coastal Management Zone; 2) The Status and Trends of Population Social Vulnerabilities along the Texas Coast with special attention to the Coastal Management Zone and Hurricane Ike: The Coastal Planning Atlas and Social Vulnerability Mapping Tools; and 3) The Hazard Mitigation Policy Adoption and Implementation Survey of Local Jurisdictions: A Preliminary Survey Report
... A survey of the writing demonstrated that welfare and rehabilitating services have been less required in any phase of comparison with traumatic anxiety mediation, in addition to, the interaction of supporting endeavors. Innovative academic attempts demonstrate that groups with reduced and lower rate earnings are liable to endure a descending winding of disintegration after a debacle which will sustain the results of disaster management efforts in the long run (Morrow and Peacock, 1997). Investigation reveals that the relationship of group qualities some time recently a fiasco with the survival or disappointment after debacle of eight groups that accomplished the flood in Midwestern area of USA in 1993 . ...
Article
Full-text available
After making thorough on-ground observation it is observed that because of hazardous development of populace, evolving needs, financial rivalry and also inflation of the assets for social welfare administrations at the worldwide level are decreasing. Keeping in perspective the contracting position of assets for social welfare and group advancement the idea of investment rose in range of sociological areas and group improvement. Participatory approach gradually and steadily came into use in the group advancement discourse. It was trailed by a fast development in the advancement of techniques for including rustic individuals in looking at their own issues, setting their own objectives, and checking their own accomplishments. It is essential to note that an effectively included and enabled domestic populace is key for effective community development process. This paper deals with similar themes on community development and disaster management in Pakistan.It discusses the fundamental prologue to the worldview of involvement of local community; ontological transformation in disaster administration and procedure of community based disaster management in Pakistan.
... Others define it broadly as a combination of effects from exposure to a natural hazard, proclivity to resulting harm, and how effected individuals or groups cope or adapt to the outcome (Turner et al., 2003;Bolin and Kurtz 2018). Thus, scholars appear to have reached an implicit consensus in asserting that vulnerability is constituted by the interaction of biophysical factors and social dimensions-interactions which vary across space and time (Bolin and Kurtz 2018;Cutter, 2016b;Cutter and Emrich, 2006;and Hearn Morrow and Gillis Peacock, 1997). And while physical vulnerability is somewhat easy to identify by considering past hazard events, "the social aspects of hazard vulnerability are a bit more complicated given their temporal and spatial variability" (Cutter and Emrich, 2006: 104). ...
Article
In the last two decades, social capital has become a crucial concept in the study of vulnerability and resilience in disaster research. While most of this scholarly attention has focused on the recovery phase of the disaster management cycle, this article focuses on the often neglected phase of disaster preparedness. Using more than 180 in-depth interviews with community members involved in emergency management conducted from 2014 to 2018, we explore the relationship between various forms of social capital in communities across the state of Oklahoma. Here, stakeholder perceptions describe a deteriorating relationship between rural communities and urban centers due to failed expectations of trust and reciprocity. Oklahoma's divisive social arrangement is the historical product of geographic distance, a statewide financial crisis, and conservative economic policy. This collective sense of community disenfranchisement creates social solidarity across rural Oklahoma, paving the way for the formation of informal networks that stitch together resources in order to cultivate resilience. The findings suggest that while these rural communities do become more resilient by forming new inter-community relationships, their insulation from diverse social networks in urban areas makes them more vulnerable. This research enhances understanding of the relational dimensions of social capital. Additionally, it gleans perspective on how emergency management in financially strapped, rural communities use social relationships to navigate economic challenges in a geography under constant threat from a variety of natural hazards.
... The Hispanic populations are believed more vulnerable due to their language and cultural barriers that affect their access to post-disaster funding and residential locations in high hazard areas (Bolin, 1993;Bolin & Stanford, 1998;Morrow & Peacock, 1997;Pulido, 2000). The total number of Hispanic populations living in the flood hazard zone is 5618, that makes up only 2.65% of the total population ( Table 2). ...
Chapter
To a considerable extent, people do know how to build their abodes to sustain not only their socio-cultural environment, but also to make the best out of the climatic conditions in places where they live. However, they tend to compromise in planning, designing, and constructing their settlements and abodes due to both economic and ecological reasons. Economic reasons are more obvious than non-economic reasons such as the euphoria of being integrated or accepted into a mainstream planning and building precinct.
Article
Full-text available
The housing sector is an important part of every community. It directly affects people, constitutes a major share of the building market, and shapes the community. Meanwhile, the increase of developments in hazard-prone areas along with the intensification of extreme events has amplified the potential for disaster-induced losses. Consequently, housing recovery is of vital importance to the overall restoration of a community. In this relation, recovery models can help with devising data-driven policies that can better identify pre-disaster mitigation needs and post-disaster recovery priorities by predicting the possible outcomes of different plans. Although several recovery models have been proposed, there are still gaps in the understanding of how decisions made by individuals and different entities interact to output the recovery. Additionally, integrating spatial aspects of recovery is a missing key in many models. The current research proposes a spatial model for simulation and prediction of homeowners’ recovery decisions through incorporating recovery drivers that could capture interactions of individual, communal, and organizational decisions. RecovUS is a spatial agent-based model for which all the input data can be obtained from publicly available data sources. The model is presented using the data on the recovery of Staten Island, New York, after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. The results confirm that the combination of internal, interactive, and external drivers of recovery affect households’ decisions and shape the progress of recovery.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.