Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers after repeated-sprint exercise in humans

Laboratory of Nutrition and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address: .
Nutrition (Impact Factor: 2.93). 06/2013; 29(9). DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2013.03.003
Source: PubMed


The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of creatine (Cr) supplementation on oxidative stress and inflammation markers after acute repeated-sprint exercise in humans.
Twenty-five players under age 20 y were randomly assigned to two groups: Cr supplemented and placebo. Double-blind controlled supplementation was performed using Cr (0.3 g/kg) or placebo tablets for 7 d. Before and after 7 d of supplementation, the athletes performed two consecutive Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Tests (RAST). RAST consisted of six 35-m sprint runs at maximum speed with 10 sec rest between them. Blood samples were collected just prior to start of test (pre), just after the completion (0 h), and 1 h after completion.
Average, maximum, and minimum power values were greater in the Cr-supplemented group compared with placebo (P < 0.05). There were significant increases (P < 0.05) in plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) up to 1 h after acute sprint exercise in the placebo-supplemented group. Malondialdehyde, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzymes also were increased after exercise in both groups. Red blood cell glutathione was lower after exercise in both groups. Cr supplementation reversed the increase in TNF-α and CRP as well as LDH induced by acute exercise. Controversially, Cr supplementation did not inhibit the rise in oxidative stress markers. Also, antioxidant enzyme activity was not different between placebo and Cr-supplemented groups.
Cr supplementation inhibited the increase of inflammation markers TNF-α and CRP, but not oxidative stress markers, due to acute exercise.

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Available from: Rafael Deminice
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    • "Studies in healthy individuals also show contradictions. The effect of acute aerobic physical exercise on antioxidants enzymes levels has been studied in healthy individuals, and authors have observed an increase in plasma CAT and GPx levels after exercise [32] [33]. Interestingly, Gwozdzinski et al [34] observed no change in the antioxidant capacity of plasma immediately after exercise, but 1 hour after the exercise an increase was detected in young untrained men. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are common findings in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, and they are directly related to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, which is the major cause of death in these patients, particularly for those undergoing hemodialysis (HD). Strength physical exercise is a new therapeutic approach to reduce these complications in CKD patients. Following this, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of acute intradialytic strength physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in HD patients. Methods: Sixteen HD patients were studied (11 women; 44.4±14.6 years; body mass index 23.3±4.9 kg/m(2); 61.6±43.1 months of dialysis) and served as their own controls. Acute (single session) intradialytic physical exercise were performed at 60% of the one-repetition maximum test for three sets of 10 repetitions for four exercise categories in both lower limbs during 30 minutes. Blood samples were collected on two different days at exactly the same time (30 minutes and 60 minutes after initiating the dialysis-with and without exercise). Antioxidant enzymes activity [superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, and glutathione peroxidase], lipid peroxidation marker levels (malondialdehyde), and inflammatory marker levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were determined. Results: SOD plasma levels were significantly reduced after acute physical exercise from 244.8±40.7 U/mL to 222.4±28.9 U/mL (P=0.03) and, by contrast, increased on the day without exercise (218.2±26.5 U/mL to 239.4±38.6 U/mL, P=0.02). There was no alteration in plasma catalase, glutathione peroxidase, malondialdehyde, or high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels in on either day (with or without exercise). Additionally, there was no association between these markers and clinical, anthropometric, or biochemical parameters. Conclusion: These data suggest that acute intradialytic strength physical exercise was unable to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, and in addition, it seems to reduce plasma SOD levels, which could exacerbate the oxidative stress in HD patients.
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    • "In the team-sport literature, there is a large diversity of run-based RSA protocols with differences in terms of sprint duration (4–6 s) or distance (10–40 m), sprint number (5– 15 repetitions), recovery time (10–30 s) or nature (passive or active) (Glaister et al. 2008; Spencer et al. 2005). While participant characteristics or sport-specific considerations complicate the emergence of 'gold standards' for the selection of RSA test, the popularity of the so-called Running Anaerobic Sprint Test or RAST (i.e. 6 × 35 m with 10 s rest) (Zagatto et al. 2009) has grown in recent years in both the scientific (Brocherie et al. 2014b; Cipryan and Gajda 2011; Deminice et al. 2013; Keir et al. 2013) and coaching (particularly in South America) communities. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose This study aimed to determine the neuromechanical and metabolic adjustments in the lower limbs induced by the running anaerobic sprint test (the so-called RAST). Methods Eight professional football players performed 6 × 35 m sprints interspersed with 10 s of active recovery on artificial turf with their football shoes. Sprinting mechanics (plantar pressure insoles), root mean square activity of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles (surface electromyography, EMG) and VL muscle oxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) were monitored continuously. Results Sprint time, contact time and total stride duration increased from the first to the last repetition (+17.4, +20.0 and +16.6 %; all P < 0.05), while flight time and stride length remained constant. Stride frequency (−13.9 %; P < 0.001) and vertical stiffness decreased (−27.2 %; P < 0.001) across trials. Root mean square EMG activities of RF and BF (−18.7 and −18.1 %; P < 0.01 and 0.001, respectively), but not VL (−1.2 %; P > 0.05), decreased over sprint repetitions and were correlated with the increase in running time (r = −0.82 and −0.90; both P < 0.05). Together with a better maintenance of RF and BF muscles activation levels over sprint repetitions, players with a better repeated-sprint performance (lower cumulated times) also displayed faster muscle de- (during sprints) and reoxygenation (during recovery) rates (r = −0.74 and −0.84; P < 0.05 and 0.01, respectively). Conclusion The repeated anaerobic sprint test leads to substantial alterations in stride mechanics and leg-spring behaviour. Our results also strengthen the link between repeated-sprint ability and the change in neuromuscular activation as well as in muscle de- and re-oxygenation rates.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Arbeitsphysiologie
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    • "However, in our work, we submitted the animals to a resistance training program which led to different muscular and metabolic adaptations. Deminice and colleagues [30] evaluated the acute effect of creatine supplementation for 7 days on plasma oxidative stress in humans submitted to sprint exercise; no antioxidant effect was observed. The divergence from the results presented here might be explained by the different types of exercise, such as the hemodynamic response and the predominant energetic metabolism related to resistance exercise compared to that reported for sprinting or cycling. "
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    ABSTRACT: Creatine supplementation is known to exert an effect by increasing strength in high intensity and short duration exercises. There is a hypothesis which suggests that creatine supplementation may provide antioxidant activity by scavenging Reactive Oxygen Species. However, the antioxidant effect of creatine supplementation associated with resistance training has not yet been described in the literature. Therefore, we investigated the effect of creatine monohydrate supplementation associated with resistance training over maximum strength gain and oxidative stress in rats. Forty male Wistar rats (250-300 g, 90 days old) were randomly allocated into 4 groups: Sedentary (SED, n = 10), Sedentary + Creatine (SED-Cr, n = 10), Resistance Training (RT, n = 10) and Resistance Training + Creatine (RT-Cr, n = 10). Trained animals were submitted to the RT protocol (4 series of 10-12 repetitions, 90 second interval, 4 times per week, 65 % to 75 % of 1MR, for 8 weeks). In this study, greater strength gain was observed in the SED-Cr, RT and RT-Cr groups compared to the SED group (P < 0.001). The RT-Cr group showed a higher maximum strength gain when compared to other groups (P < 0.001). Creatine supplementation associated with resistance training was able to reduce lipoperoxidation in the plasma (P < 0.05), the heart (P < 0.05), the liver (P < 0.05) and the gastrocnemius (P < 0.05) when compared to control groups. However, the supplementation had no influence on catalase activity (CAT) in the analyzed organs. Only in the heart was the CAT activity higher in the RT-Cr group (P < 0.05). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was lower in all of the analyzed organs in the SED-Cr group (P < 0.05), while SOD activity was lower in the trained group and sedentary supplemented group (P < 0.05). Creatine was shown to be an effective non-enzymatic antioxidant with supplementation alone and also when it was associated with resistance training in rats.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2014 · Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
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