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IDENTIFICAÇÃO DOS CANÍDEOS BRASILEIROS ATRAVÉS DOS SEUS PÊLOS GUARDA

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The Canidae family includes six extant species in Brazil: Atelocinus microtis, Cerdocyon thous, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Pseudalopex gymnoscercus, Pseudalopex vetulus and Speothos venaticus. These canids are top food chain species and their importance is relevant and indispensable for the homeostatic maintenance of the ecosystem. This family is under threat due to anthropogenic actions: habitat loss and hunting to obtain furs. The study of canid ecology in the field, generally, requires high financial costs that include radio telemetry equipment and specialized professionals. The biological study of these animals, based in their traces, is a cheaper alternative, and its application in the field is easy and probably efficent. Analyzing the patterns of dispersal of faeces and morphological patterns of the hairs found in faeces (due to self-grooming behavior), bring about important information, such as species, population size and territory size. The aim of this study was a field key elaboration for guard hair identification of the six Brazilian canids. This key is based on cuticular and medular patterns of the guard hairs and on their coloration and bands.
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... Como uma metodologia mais simples, de baixo custo e de fácil acesso esta vem sendo usada cada vez mais. (SILVEIRA; SBALQUEIRO; MONTEIRO-FILHO, 2013;MARTINS, 2005;VANSTREELS et al., 2010;INGBERMAN;MONTEIRO-FILHO, 2006;QUADROS, 2002). ...
... No Brasil os trabalhos com tricologia vem aumentando, sendo que na década passada os trabalhos focavam na revisão do assunto e identificação de espécies brasileiras de mamíferos (QUADROS, 2002), depois outros trabalhos vieram focando com grupos específicos como canídeos, felídeos e primatas (MARTINS, 2005;VANSTREELS et al., 2010;INGBERMAN;MONTEIRO-FILHO, 2006). Mais recentemente trabalhos com pequenos mamíferos começaram a surgir, Todas as informações contidas neste trabalho, desde sua formatação até a exposição dos resultados, são de exclusiva responsabilidade dos seus autores caracterizando a morfologia dos pêlos e propondo chaves de identificação para os táxons trabalhados (MARTIN et al., 2009;ABREU et al., 2011;SILVEIRA et al., 2013). ...
... As características observadas nessas lâminas são nomeadas segundo várias classificações como de Quadros e Monteiro-Filho (2006b), assim como as metodologias para preparação são as mais diversas (QUADROS; MONTEIRO-FILHO, 2006a;MARTINS, 2005;VANSTREELS et al., 2010;INGBERMAN;MONTEIRO-FILHO, 2006). ...
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Conference Paper
RESUMO: Os mamíferos possuem 22 ordens no mundo sendo Rodentia a ordem mais especiosa no Brasil e no mundo. Desta ordem destaca-se a subfamília Sigmondotinae uma das mais diversas e complexas. Devido essa complexidade temos alta dificuldade de identificação com certa confusão e muitas vezes dependendo de análise molecular. A tricologia, estudo de características do pêlo (medulares e cuticulares), vem como forma de remediar essa situação onde o baixo custo e acessibilidade permitem identificar as espécies de mamíferos, e o uso de ferramentas de alta nitidez e precisão permitem maior sucesso nesse estudo de características de pêlo. Dessa forma analisamos os táxons do gênero Akodon sp. para identificação em nível de espécie com auxílio da microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Coletamos pêlos de animais taxidermizados das seguintes espécies: Akodon montensis, Akodon reigi, Akodon serrensis. Esses pêlos foram preparados através de metodologia padrão do Laboratório de Microscopia Eletrônica e Análise Ultraestrutural. Após preparados, analisamos os stubs no Leo Evo 40. Geramos imagens tanto da parte do escudo quanto da haste, e identificamos que não há diferenças interespecíficas tão aparentes, que permitam a diferenciação em nível de espécie. Além disso, A. serrensis foi o único que apresentou escama um pouco distinta sendo a ponta dessa mais arredondada. Já A. reigi apresentou a região do escudo com orientação das escamas transversais. Podemos concluir que o uso da microscopia eletrônica de varredura é útil de forma a obter mais nitidez e precisão na imagem, porém não foi auxílio na identificação de espécies de Akodon sp. Palavras-chave: pêlo, mamíferos, microscopia eletrônica, varredura, Akodon.
... The food items were identified to the lowest possible taxonomic category with the help of specialists. We followed the studies of Martins (2005) and Quadros and Monteiro-Filho (2006) to identify the canid species using the microstructure and cuticle patterns of the hairs that were found inside the fecal samples due to the self-grooming behavior of the canids. Fecal samples that could not be identified due to lack of hair were discarded. ...
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The crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous) and the Pampas fox (Lycalopex gymnocercus) are two canids with very similar food and habitat requirements, which live in sympatry across parts of their distributions. Here we describe the diet and habitat use of both canids in the Pampas biome. The study took place in southern Brazil from December 2012 to December 2013. Diet and habitat use analyses were based on fecal samples, footprints and direct visualizations. Diet overlap was measured using Pianka's index, while habitat use was measured using presence records from three different environments; forests , edges and open areas. Both canids feed on invertebrates and vertebrates but have preferences for fruits, especially Syagrus romanzoffiana. Pianka's index showed a high overlap of their diets throughout the year, with the exception of autumn. Regarding habitat use, C. thous preferred to inhabit for-ested areas while L. gymnocercus was more active in open areas. Our results showed that fruits were the most consumed food item in the Pampas biome. Our findings suggest that habitat use by these two canids is affected by seasonal variation in fruit abundance, but other factors, such as parental care, should be taken into account when explaining how they behave throughout the year.
... In any case, some studies have used trichology to identify mammal species in the Neotropical region [20][21][22][23][24] even being available a reliable molecular methodology to identify them from fecal samples [25][26][27][28][29][30][31]. Part of the literature on hair morphology provides identification keys [32][33][34][35]. ...
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To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns) of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative. In this study we constructed a morphological identification key for guard hairs of eight Neotropical felids (jaguar, oncilla, Geoffroy’s cat, margay, ocelot, Pampas cat, puma and jaguarundi) and compared its efficiency to that of a molecular identification method, using the ATP6 region as a marker. For this molecular approach, we simulated some field conditions by postponing sample-conservation procedures. A blind test of the identification key obtained a nearly 70% overall success rate, which we considered equivalent to or better than the results of some molecular methods (probably due to DNA degradation) found in other studies. The jaguar, puma and jaguarundi could be unequivocally discriminated from any other Neotropical felid. On a scale ranging from inadequate to excellent, the key proved poor only for the margay, with only 30% of its hairs successfully identified using this key; and have intermediate success rates for the remaining species, the oncilla, Geoffroy’s cat, ocelot and Pampas cat, were intermediate. Complementary information about the known distributions of felid populations may be necessary to substantially improve the results obtained with the key. Our own molecular results were even better, since all blind-tested samples were correctly identified. Part of these identifications were made from samples kept in suboptimal conditions, with some samples remaining outdoors for up to seven days, simulating conditions in the field. It appears that both methods can be used, depending on the available laboratory facilities and on the expected results.
... No precise estimates of population sizes are available, however generally they are considered stable. Despite the stability of this species, annually hundreds of individuals are referred to rehabilitation centers and zoos in Brazil, victims of hunting, road-kills and wildfires (Martins 2004). ...
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Article
Annually hundreds of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) are referred to rehabilitation centers and zoos in Brazil. The ultrasonographic study of wildlife species is an important tool for a non-invasive and accurate anatomical description and provides important information for wildlife veterinary care. The aim of the present study was to determine the characteristics of the main abdominal organs as well as the vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries of crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) using mode B ultrasonography and Doppler ultrasonography, respectively. Ultrasonographic features of the main abdominal organs were described and slight differences were noticed between ultrasound imaging of abdominal organs of crab-eating foxes and other species. The bladder presented wall thickness of 12 +/- 0.01 mm, with three defined layers. Both, the right and left kidneys presented corticomedullary ratio of 1: 1 and similarly to the adrenals and the liver, they were homogeneous and hypoechoic compared to the spleen. The spleen was homogeneous and hyperechoic compared to the kidneys. The stomach presented 3 to 5 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 39 +/- 0.05 mm and lumen and mucosa with hyperechoic and hypoechoic features, respectively. Small and large intestines presented 2 to 3 peristaltic movements per minute, wall thickness of 34 +/- 0.03 mm and three defined layers with hyperechogenic (submucosa and serosa) and hypoechogenic (muscular) features. Ovaries of the female crab-eating fox were hypoechoic compared to the spleen and with heterogeneous parenchyma due to the presence of 2x2 mm ovarian follicles. Prostates of the six males were regular and with a well defined boundary, with a homogeneous and hyperechoic parenchyma compared to the spleen. Vascular indexes of the abdominal aorta (PSV: 25.60 +/- 0.32 cm/s; EDV: 6.96 +/- 1.68cm/s; PI: 1.15 +/- 0.07 e RI: 0.73 +/- 0.07) and right (PSV: 23.08 +/- 3.34cm/s; EDV: 9.33 +/- 2.36cm/s; PI: 1.01 +/- 0.65 e RI: 0.65 +/- 0.16) and left renal arteries (PSV: 23.74 +/- 3.94cm/s; EDV: 9.07 +/- 3.02cm/s; PI: 1.04 +/- 0.31 e RI: 0.64 +/- 0.10) were determined. Thus, conventional and Doppler ultrasonographic imaging provides basic information that can be used as reference for the species as well for other wild canids and it is a precise and non-invasive method that can be safely used to evaluate and diagnose abdominal injuries in these patients.
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Background: Non-invasive sampling through faecal collection is one of the most cost-effective alternatives for monitoring of free-living wild mammals, as it provides information on animal taxonomy as well as the dynamics of the gastrointestinal parasites that potentially infect these animals. In this context, this study aimed to perform an epidemiological survey of gastrointestinal parasites using non-invasive faecal samples from carnivores and artiodactyls identified by stool macroscopy, guard hair morphology and DNA sequencing in Itatiaia National Park. Between 2017 and 2018, faeces from carnivores and artiodactyls were collected along trails in the park. The host species were identified through macroscopic and trichological examinations and molecular biology. To investigate the parasites, the Faust, Lutz and modified Ritchie and Sheather techniques and enzyme immunoassays to detect Cryptosporidium sp. antigens were used. Results: A total of 244 stool samples were collected. The species identified were Chrysocyon brachyurus, Leopardus guttulus, Canis familiaris, Cerdocyon thous, Puma yagouaroundi, Leopardus pardalis, Puma concolor and Sus scrofa. There were 81.1% samples that were positive for parasites distributed mainly in the high part of the park. Helminths, especially eggs of the family Ascarididae, were more frequently detected in carnivore faeces (70.9%). Protozoa, especially Cryptosporidium sp., represented the highest frequency of infection in artiodactyl faeces (87.1%). This zoonotic protozoon was detected in eight mammalian species, including in a wild boar. High values of structural richness and Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were observed for the parasites, especially in the faeces of C. brachyurus. Significant differences in parasite diversity were observed between wild and domestic animals, such as C. brachyurus and C. familiaris, respectively, and between taxonomically distant species, such as C. brachyurus and S. scrofa. The highest values for parasite similarity were found among the species that frequented similar areas of the park, such as C. brachyurus and L. guttulus. Conclusions: The animals and parasite infections were identified through the combination of three techniques. High frequency parasite structures were diagnosed. Zoonotic protozoa were found and mainly occurred in samples from introduced species.
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Conference Paper
Os mamíferos são um dos grupos que mais despertam interesse dos humanos assim como um dos mais diversificados do mundo. O estudo de suas exigências ecológicas é crucial para a conservação destes. A dieta é uma das características mais importantes de uma espécie e que influência aspectos comportamentais como padrão de atividade, uso de hábitat, comportamento reprodutivo e etc. Visto isso tivemos por objetivo avaliar os hábitos alimentares de canídeos da região da Serra da Mantiqueira, uma das dez áreas de prioridade de conservação do mundo e um dos mais importantes remanescentes de Mata Atlântica. Selecionamos duas áreas da Serra da Mantiqueira para coleta de fezes. Triamos as fezes em laboratório e separamos os itens que foram identificados até o maior nível taxonômico possível. Com campanhas de Junho de 2013 a Março de 2014 e com um esforço de 253 km percorridos foram coletadas um total de 36 amostras fecais pertencentes a quatro espécies de mamíferos: Cerdocyon thous e Chrysocyon brachyurus. Observamos que para C. brachyurus os principais itens consumidos foram os pequenos mamíferos (roedores) e vegetais representados por lobeira, sendo insetos e aves itens de baixa frequência de ocorrências. Já para C. thous os itens pequenos mamíferos aqui representados por roedores e marsupiais foram os itens de maior frequência na dieta, vegetais e insetos apresentaram pequenas frequências de ocorrências. Palavras-chave: fezes, mamíferos, Serra da Mantiqueira, comportamento.
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