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Options for Integrated Strategies for the Control of Avian Coccidiosis

  • Shandong Vocational Animal Sciences and Veterinary College, Weifang, China


Avian coccidiosis is one of the serious infectious diseases of poultry caused by different species of genus Eimeria. Though some anticoccidial vaccines are in the market with controversial efficacy, farmers mainly rely on the prophylactic and therapeutic use of chemicals for the control of avian coccidiosis. Frequent use of anticoccidial drugs, however, has resulted in the development of resistance in the Eimerian species. Increasing awareness about public health hazards associated with drug residues in food chain has also added to the constraints in using the synthetic drugs for treatment and control of diseases in animals. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in using alternatives for safe, effective and economical control of avian coccidiosis. Some of the alternatives focused in the current review include acids, vitamins, probiotics, mushrooms, amino acids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, natural feed additives, essential oils and botanicals having anticoccidial properties. This review may, in given situations, be helpful in planning integrated control strategies for avian coccidosis. © 2012 Friends Science Publishers
ISSN Print: 1560–8530; ISSN Online: 1814–9596
Review Article
To cite this paper: Abbas, R.Z., Z. Iqbal, A. Khan, Z.U.D. Sindhu, J.A. Khan, M.N. Khan and A. Raza, 2012. Options for integrated strategies for the control
of avian coccidiosis. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 14: 10141020
Options for Integrated Strategies for the Control of Avian
Department of Parasitology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-038040-Pakistan
Deprtment of Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-038040-Pakistan
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad-038040-Pakistan
Corresponding author’s e-mail:
Avian coccidiosis is one of the serious infectious diseases of poultry caused by different species of genus Eimeria. Though
some anticoccidial vaccines are in the market with controversial efficacy, farmers mainly rely on the prophylactic and
therapeutic use of chemicals for the control of avian coccidiosis. Frequent use of anticoccidial drugs, however, has resulted in
the development of resistance in the Eimerian species. Increasing awareness about public health hazards associated with drug
residues in food chain has also added to the constraints in using the synthetic drugs for treatment and control of diseases in
animals. Therefore, there is a renewed interest in using alternatives for safe, effective and economical control of avian
coccidiosis. Some of the alternatives focused in the current review include acids, vitamins, probiotics, mushrooms, amino
acids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, natural feed additives, essential oils and botanicals having anticoccidial
properties. This review may, in given situations, be helpful in planning integrated control strategies for avian coccidosis. ©
2012 Friends Science Publishers
Key Words: Anticoccidials; Alternatives; Poultry; Coccidia (or Eimeria); Coccidiosis; Drug resistance
Commercial poultry farming is expanding day by day
and contributing in the provision of affordable and high
quality proteins (Ahmad et al., 2010; Ghafoor et al., 2010).
However, this sector is still confronted with many enteric
diseases like coccidiosis which are hindering its progress
(Saima et al., 2010; Hafez, 2011).
Avian coccidiosis in an intestinal protozoan disease
caused by various species belonging to genus Eimeria.
According to a recent estimate (Chapman, 2009), the United
States poultry industry costs about US$127 million annual
losses just because of coccidiosis and proportionally similar
losses may be faced by the poultry producers in various
parts of the world. Thus, in commercial poultry systems,
coccidiosis is thought to be the one of the most expensive
infectious diseases. Thus far, chemoprophylaxis and
anticoccidial feed additives have controlled the disease but
situation has been complicated by the emergence of drug
resistant strains against commonly used drugs (Abbas et al.,
2008; Abbas et al., 2011a).
Vaccination by using live coccidial oocysts has been
another effective approach for coccidiosis control (Shirley
& Lillehoj, 2012), but, in poorly managed production
systems particularly in case of broiler birds, live vaccines
may result in the onset of severe reactions ultimately
affecting the performance and production of flocks
(Chapman, 2000). As a result of this drawback of live
vaccines, attenuated vaccines, having reduced
pathogenicity, have been developed, but these are expensive
to produce. The other draw back of using vaccines is
diversity of Eimeria strains in different geographical
distributions. Therefore, vaccine strain, effective in one
geographical area may not be effective in the other area.
Because of development of drug resistance and
pathogenicity associated problems with live vaccines,
poultry producers all over the world are moving towards
alternative control of avian coccidiosis. Cost effective
alternative strategies are being sought for more effective and
safer control of avian coccidiosis (Abbas et al., 2011b,
2011c; Abbas et al., 2012; Arczewska-Wlosek &
Swiatkiewicz, 2012; Zaman et al., 2012) which are
discussed in the following sections.
Acids: Acids are known to have antibacterial, antifungal,
and antiprotozoal activity particularly at low pH. Many
acids like formic acid, butyric acid, anacardic acid, acetic
acid and hydrochloric acid are found effective in controlling
avian coccidiosis (Shobha & Ravindranath, 1991; Garcia et
al., 2007; Abbas et al., 2011b, c). In an experimental study,
Garcia et al. (2007) found formic acid to have positive
effects like increase in height of villus, depth of crypt and
surface area of villus in broiler chickens experimentally
challenged with E. tenella. The broiler growth performance
and immune response were determined by using different
doses of liquid dl-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid
(LMA). In an arrangement of LMA with 4 graded levels
140%, 120%, 100% and 80% of methionine, broiler
requirements were suggested by Chinese feeding standards
for chickens; humoral immunity, cellular immunity and
growth performance were determined. It was observed
(Zhang & Guo, 2008) that in broiler chickens, methionine
deficiency led to decrease in feed utilization; humoral and
nonspecific immuno-competence were also decreased.
However, use of LMA for methionine deficiency corrected
these problems.
Organic acids like acetic acid have also been reported
to have antimicrobial and anticoccidial effects (Chaveerach
et al., 2004; Van Immerseel et al., 2004; Abbas et al.,
2011b). Acetic acid is a weak organic acid which gives
vinegar and is a partially dissociated acid in an aqueous
solution. Only a few reports are available regarding the
protective effects of acetic acid against avian coccidiosis
(Abbas et al., 2011b). Organic acids showed promise in
altering bacterial activities and cecal environment in
chicken. Furthermore, a number of reports (Manickam et
al., 1994; Runho et al., 1997; Yeo & Kim, 1997; Gunes et
al., 2001; Abbas et al., 2011b) also showed the positive
effects of organic acids on performance parameters such as
weight gains and feed consumption. Recently, Abbas et al.
(2011b) has shown the anticoccidial effect of acetic acid
both in terms of improved performance (weight gain and
feed consumption ratio) and pathological parameters (lesion
scores, oocyst scores & mortality).
Some strong acids like hydrochloric acid, in low
concentrations, are also being used for the control and
treatment of avian coccidiosis (Abbas et al., 2011c).
Furthermore, the acids when used at low concentrations also
result in better performance by improving the solubility of
the feed ingredients, digestion and absorption of nutrients
but higher concentrations result in negative impact on
weight gains and feed intake (Owings et al., 1990; Adams,
1999; Vesteggh, 1999).
Anacardic acid shows antimicrobial (Himejima &
Kubo, 1991) and antitumor (Kubo et al., 1993) activities in
addition to having effective molluscicidal (Kubo et al.,
1986) effects. The feed supplementation with 0.4% cashew
nut shell oil and 0.2% anacardic acid was found to be
effective in controlling coccidial infection. Furthermore, it
was also reported that anacardic acids with four
concentrations C
, C
, C
or C
showed uncoupling
effects of alkyl side chains (similar to the classical
uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol) on the ADP/O ratio, state 4
and respiratory control ratio in succinate-oxidizing rat liver
mitochondria (Toyomizu et al., 2000). Considering that
proton electrochemical potential mediats the oxidative
phosphorylation, as chemiosmotic hypothesis described, in
mitochondria anacardic acids could act as ionophores and/or
as protonophores (Toyomizu et al., 2003). Anacardic acids
administration has dual effect as anticoccidial and/or anti-
inflammatory drugs due to its possible protonophores/
ionophore properties.
So far, the exact anticoccidial mode of action of acids
is not fully understood but it is thought that after entering
into the microbial cell, the acids ionize to release H
resulting in a decrease of intracellular pH. This influences
microbial metabolism, inhibiting the action of important
microbial enzymes and forces the cell to use energy to
export the excess of protons H
, ultimately resulting death
by starvation. In the same matter, the protons H
denature acid sensitive proteins and DNA of the microbial
cell (Russell & Diez-Gonzalez, 1998).
Vitamins: Vitamins play a significant role in the
development of chicken immune system and thus enabling
them to fight against various stresses (Khan et al., 2010;
Ajakaiye et al., 2011). Essential nutrients such as vitamins
may affect both humoral and cell-mediated immune
responses. Vitamin A differentiates the epithelial cells,
which is highly essential for maintaining the integrity of
mucosal surface of intestine (Chew & Park, 2004).
Deficiency of vitamin A increases the chances of enteric
diseases like coccidiosis and it also impaires the local
immune defences within the gut lymphoid tissues of broiler
chickens (Dalloul et al., 2002). Due to this effect, there was
a significant reduction in intraepithelial lymphocyte
subpopulations, mainly CD4+ T cells. The alteration in
intraepithelial lymphocyte subpopulation leads to lower the
ability of resistance against E. acervulina. Furthermore, it
was reported (Dalloul et al., 2002) that the deficiency of
vitamin A also affects the systemic immune system by
reducing the ability of splenic T lymphocytes to respond to
in vitro mitogen stimulation, which resulted in lower IFN-
gamma secretion. In fact dietary vitamin A levels can affect
gut immunity in broiler chickens, and its deficiency may
lead to immunosuppression at those sites that make the birds
more susceptible to coccidiosis.
Probiotics: Probiotics are ‘live microorganisms, which
when administrated in adequate amounts confer a health
benefit on the host’ (FAO, 2002). In poultry production,
probiotics are identified for their ability to reinstate the
intestinal microflora after being disrupted by antibiotic
treatment or enteric infections (Line et al., 1998; Pascual et
al., 1999). In addition, they are also known for their capacity
to enhance the immune system and used against allergies
and other immune diseases (Dalloul et al., 2003a, b; Kabir
et al., 2004; Koenen et al., 2004).
Recently, Lee et al. (2007a) reported the increased
resistance of birds against coccidiosis and a partial
protection against growth retardation with a Pediococcus-
based commercial probiotic (MitoGrow®). In another study,
Pediococcus and Saccharomyces-based probiotic
(MitoMax®) given to birds challenged with 5000 oocysts of
either E. acervulina or E. tenella, less oocyst shedding and a
ABBAS et al. / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 14, No. 6, 2012
better antibody response was found in probiotic fed birds
compared to non-probiotic controls. These results suggest
that MitoMax® when included in the diet, may improve the
resistance against coccidiosis by enhancing the humoral
immune response in birds (Lee et al., 2007b). Furthermore,
Lactobacillus-based probiotic has optimistic influence on
cellular immunity (Dalloul et al., 2005).
Mushrooms: Mushrooms contain antibacterial and
antioxidant properties, thus, having the health-supporting
benets. Recently, Willis et al. (2007) conducted an
experiment to determine the health and growth of broiler
chicken by using the combination of probiotics (PrimaLac)
and extract of Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes). The
results indicated that this combination was not effective for
weight gain but showed positive effect on health
enhancement. Furthermore, Guo et al. (2004, 2005)
explored the immunoprotective effects of polysaccharide
extracts of two mushrooms, Tremella fuciformis and
Lentinus edodes, with an herb Astragalus membranaceus in
the chickens infected with E. tenella. Both Lentinus edodes
and Astragalus membranaceus fed groups showed lower
cecal oocyst output. Likewise, it has been reported (Dalloul
et al., 2006) that a mushroom lectin (FFrL) extracted from
Fomitella fraxinea has the immuno-potentiating effect on
cell-mediated immunity and subsequent protection against
coccidiosis. As mushrooms have immunomodulatory
activity, they can be used as effective growth promoting and
immunostimulating agents in poultry.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: The use of
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be another
effective approach for the control and treatment of avian
coccidiosis but so far a very limited work has been done on
this aspect. Ibuprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drug which inhibits the biosynthesis of prostaglandins with
pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties and is
therefore proposed as a candidate molecule for the treatment
of coccidiosis in broiler chickens (Vermeulen et al., 2004).
A number of trials were performed to find out the
anticoccidial activity of Ibuprofen. In all experiments,
Ibuprofen was administered via drinking water and it was
found that coccidial lesion scores and oocyst shedding were
reduced when Ibuprofen was provided at a dose of 100
mg/kg body weight. However, at this dose, Ibuprofen did
not show any significant effect on the degree of sporulation
and infectivity of E. acervulina oocysts.
Natural feed stuffs: The use of natural feed additives has
also been reported to provide protection against coccidiosis.
Among natural products, fat rich diets such as fish oils,
flaxseed and its oil, when fed to chickens from first day of
age, are effective to control caecal coccidiosis (Allen et al.,
1996a). Fat diets are a rich source of n-3 fatty acids (n-3
FA). Allen et al. (1996b) showed that n-3 FA rich diets (fish
oil & flaxseed oil diets) significantly reduced the
development of both sexual and asexual stages of E. tenella,
characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolization,
condensation within the nucleus, and lack of
vacuole delineation (Danforth et al., 1997).
Later, these findings were confirmed by the same effect of
n-3 FA diets on other parasites (Allen et al., 1998). These
diets (n-3 FA diets) are detrimental for the development of
parasite because of inducing oxidative
stress (due to the high
concentration of easily oxidized double
bonds). Therefore,
the anticoccidial effect of n-3 FA against caecal coccidiosis
(E. tenalla) is directly related to the concentrations
of double
bonds in n-3 FA ethyl esters
(Allen & Danforth, 1998).
However, n-3 FA diets are particularly effective against E.
tenella because the developmental stages, sporulated
oocysts and sporozoites, of this Eimeria spp. are deficient in
superoxide dismutase enzyme, which would
protect them
from reactive oxygen damage. Allen et al. (2000) further
supported the oxidative-stress hypothesis and observed that
the antioxidant-stabilized diets supplemented with up
10% flaxseed could not protect against E. tenella. Sources
of fats, such as n-3 FA, can be used in combination of
anticoccidial drugs or vaccines for the effective control of E.
tenella. But further research is needed to explore the
knowledge about the missing information about their mode
of action and immunomodulatory effects.
Glycine betaine or betaine is extensively originated in
nature and has been in use as anticoccidial agent in broiler
chickens (Boch et al., 1994). The cells are protected from
osmotic stress by betain accumulation and permit them to
carry on activities of regular metabolism, in situations that
would generally deactivate the cell (Petronini et al., 1992;
Ko et al., 1994). In avian species coccidia is related with an
enteric disease, and ionic and osmotic disorders are
associated with this disease (Virtanen, 1995). These
disorders may be worsened by using ionophorous
anticoccidial drugs (Virtanen, 1995). Betaine, because of its
osmoprotectant effects against osmotic stress, stabilizes cell
membranes and thus enabling the maintenance of osmotic
pressure in cells and ultimately maintain and ensure normal
metabolic activity (Ko et al., 1994). Because of this
osmoprotection, a number of studies (Augustine et al.,
1997; Allen et al., 1998; Fetter et al., 2003) have been
conducted to find out protection against avian coccidiosis.
Betain showed not only intestinal protection against
coccidiosis but also showed improved weight gains.
However, to get maximum protection, authors suggested to
use betain in combination with anticoccidial drugs.
Essential oils: Essential oils (EOs) are the combination of
fragrant, volatile compounds, named after the aromatic
characteristics of plant materials from which they are
isolated (Oyen & Dung, 1999). EOs have been reported to
have immunomodulatory effects that play a vital role in
treating infectious diseases, especially when these oils have
no adverse effect on the host (Awaad et al., 2010). Most of
the EOs inhibit nitric oxide production in macrophages (de
Oliveira Mendes et al., 2003). Nitric oxide is a potent
intracellular parasite killing mechanism in macrophages and
it is well known fact that macrophages are pivotal in the
innate immune response (Dogdan, 2001). Oregano EOs
have shown an antioccidial effect both in terms of better
production (weight gain & feed conversion ratio) and
reduced pathogenic effects (mortality, lesion scores, oocyst
excretion) against experimentally induced E. tenella
infection in broiler chickens (Giannesnas et al., 2003). But,
this anticoccidial effect was lower as compared to
commercial anticoccidial drug ‘laslalocid’. However, in
another study (da Silva et al., 2009), the anticoccidial effect
of Oregano EOs was similar to anticoccidial effect exerted
by ionophores antibiotics. Later, Oregano EOs were used in
combination with some other plants EOs and extracts. This
combined use of Oregano EOs increased the spectrum of
their activity against both bacteria and Eimeria species
(Bona et al., 2012). The effect of EOs on improvement in
feed effeciency and ultimately better weight gains could be
attributed to their positive effects on nutrient digestibility
(Hernandez et al., 2004; Jamroz et al., 2005).
The carvacrol and thymol compounds, the primary
components of Oregano EOs, are thought to impart
anticoccidial activity by maintaining the intestinal integrity
(Greathead & Kamel, 2006; da Silva et al., 2009).
Prebiotics: Prebiotic is a non digestible food ingredient that
beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the
growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of
bacteria in colon, and thus improves host health (Gibson &
Roberfroid, 1995). The positive influence of prebiotics on
the intestinal flora has been confirmed by a number of
studies (Van Loo et al., 1999). Mannanoligosaccharides
(MOS), derived from the cell wall of the yeast
Saccharomyces cerevisae, are widely used as prebiotics to
promote gastrointestinal health and performance. Mode of
action of MOS is thought to block the binding of pathogens
to mannan receptors on the mucosal surface and stimulate
the immune response (Spring et al., 2000). In poultry, MOS
enhance the development of Bifidobacteria spp. and
Lactobacillus spp. in the intestinal tract of young chickens
and suppress the number of enterobacteriacea members
(Fernandez et al., 2002). Dietary MOS (1 g/kg feed) were
found effective against, artificially induced, light infection
of E. tenella (Elmusharaf et al., 2006). Later on, it was also
observed that a dietary supplementation of MOS, at a
concentration of 10 g/kg feed, reduced the oocyst excretion
and diminished the severity of lesions caused by E.
acervulina. But this anticoccidial effect was also observed
against light infection induced by subclinical doses of
sporulated oocysts (Elmusharaf et al., 2007). However,
further research is required to validate whether MOS has
anticoccidial activity when used at higher concentrations in
feed in combination with higher challenge doses.
Botanicals: Recently, research on botanicals is getting great
attention for the control and treatment of enteric diseases
caused by both microbes and parasites (Alawa et al., 2010;
Jung et al., 2011; Badar et al., 2011). Several poultry
scientists all over the world are also actively engaged in
research into the use of plants and plant derived products to
fight and reduce the heavy economic losses in poultry
industry caused by coccidiosis. Recently, Abbas et al.
(2012) has provided an excellent review on the anticoccidial
effects of various botanicals, herbal complexes and
commercially available botanical products, against avian
coccidiosis, along with their doses, active compounds, and
mechanism of action. A number of botanicals were
discussed but the candidate plants with anticoccidial
properties include Aloe spps. (Marizvikuru et al., 2006; Yim
et al., 2011), Artemisia spp. (Allen et al., 1998; Arab et al.,
2006; Brisibe et al., 2008; de Almeida et al., 2012),
Azadirachta indica (Tipu et al., 2002; Abbas et al., 2006;
Biu et al., 2006; Toulah et al., 2010), Beta vulgaris (Ko et
al., 1994; Augustine et al., 1997; Kettunen et al., 2001;
Klasing et al., 2002), Camellia sinensis (Jang et al., 2007);
Curcuma longa (Allen et al., 1998; Abbas et al., 2010;
Khalafalla et al., 2011), Echinacea purpure (Allen, 2003),
Origanum vulgare (Giannesnas et al., 2003), Saccharum
officinarum (El-Abasy et al., 2003), Triticum aestivum
(Allen et al., 1998) and Yucca schidigera (Alfaro et al.,
2007). Most recently an herbal complex containing Allium
sativum, Salvia officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Thymus
vulgaris and Origanum vulgare has also been found
effective against many species of Eimeria, in broiler
chickens, in terms of reducing oocyst output (Arczewska-
Wlosek & Swiatkiewicz, 2012).
Most of the above mentioned plants have been
reported to have antioxidant compounds like saponins,
flavonoids, papaine, n-3 fatty acids, vernoside and tannins,
and therefore may be lethal to the parasites by inducing
oxidative stress.
Integrated coccidiosis control program: It is clear from
the scientific literature that rapidly increasing problem of
drug resistance and treatment failure will give rise to use
of alternative control strategies in an integrated avian
coccidiosis control program in future. Integrated control
refers to the intelligent use of alternative control methods
like; use of botanicals, vaccine, pre- and pro-biotics and
immunemodulatory compounds in order to minimize the
use of chemical compounds. In case of avian coccidiosis,
alternation of drugs has been practiced with vaccines for
many years. The suggestion that vaccination be combined
with chemotherapy is not new, but efforts have not been
made to develop an integrated control program by
adopting other alternatives as well. Plant, bacterial, and
other substances claimed to alleviate coccidiosis either
directly or indirectly by improving health and immune
status have been evaluated individually. So far, there is no
data available on integration of these strategies into one
coccidiosis control program. The future research in the
area of botanicals and alternative control strategies should
be focused on integration of already proven alternatives
into an effective control program so that farmer could
control coccidiosis in an effective manner with minimal
use of drugs.
ABBAS et al. / Int. J. Agric. Biol., Vol. 14, No. 6, 2012
In the face of development of drug resistance almost all
over the world and drug residues in food, there is an urgent
need to take a shift towards alternative ways for the effective
and long term control of avian coccidiosis. Using
alternatives, mentioned in this review, provide a novel
approach for controlling wide spread drug resistant Eimeria
strains in intensive poultry production systems. Most of the
alternates enhance the immunity of the birds and thus could
play a vital role to minimize or eliminate the burden of
anticoccidial chemotherapeutic agents in poultry production.
Integration of the alternates proposed above for the treatment
and control of avian coccidioisis may be one of the viable
options. However, there is need of large scale experimental
trials to establish the efficacy of alternative agents because
most of these studies lack the sufficient replication, proper
experimental designing and appropriate controls.
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(Received 23 June 2012; Accepted 01 October 2012)
... These findings supported those of Farag and Alagawany [33]. The ability of the employed APS to reduce the infectivity of the subjected oocysts has repeatedly been highlighted by several writers, including Shahrajabian et al. [39] and Abbas et al. [39], as a sure sign of the effectiveness of therapy and control of the coccidiosis disease. APS, Astragalus polysaccharides. ...
... These findings supported those of Farag and Alagawany [33]. The ability of the employed APS to reduce the infectivity of the subjected oocysts has repeatedly been highlighted by several writers, including Shahrajabian et al. [39] and Abbas et al. [39], as a sure sign of the effectiveness of therapy and control of the coccidiosis disease. APS, Astragalus polysaccharides. ...
... affecting chicken, Eimeria tenella is the most common and highly pathogenic in broilers (Alzahrani et al., 2016). It causes great economic losses to the poultry farmers and remains a big concern for the commercial broiler production, because of the high cost involved in the control of this deadly disease (Abbas et al., 2012). Currently, the poultry industry is largely depends on chemotherapy and live vaccines for control of coccidiosis (Allen and Fetterer, 2002). ...
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To evaluate the anti-coccidial effect of Piper betel leaves aqueous extract (PBE) on Eimeria tenella infection in broilers, 96 day old Ven Cobb-400 broiler chicks were divided into six groups, each with two replicate (n=16). The six groups were blank control group (BC), negative control group (NC), positive control group (PC) and three PBE treated groups. The birds in the three PBE treated groups were supplemented with PBE at 5 (T1), 10 (T2) and 15 (T3) percent in drinking water while the birds in the control groups (BC, NC) were not supplemented with PBE and PC group birds were supplemented with Salinomycin in the feed. At 21 days of age, the birds in the NC, PC and the three PBE groups were inoculated with sporulated oocysts (20,000 oocysts / bird) of Eimeria tenella. The results showed that PBE significantly (P<0.05) lower the oocysts per gram (OPG) and the higher (73%) oocysts reduction rate in T1 group and values were comparable with PC group. Similarly, the Intensity of caecal lesions due to E.tenella was mild in T1 group. The current results show that aqueous leaves extract of Piper betel having anticoccidial activity and the effect was not increased with level of supplementation. Hence it can be safely used as prophylactic against E. tenella infection in broiler chicken.
... Medicinal plants have been used for centuries as remedies for human and animal ailments (Raziq et al., 2012;Jahan et al., 2012;Abbas et al., 2012). They have many pharmacologically active chemical compounds which may act as anthelmintic (Chaturvedi et al., 2009), antibacterial (Jung et al., 2011;Shah et al., 2012;Shahzad et al., 2012) and antifungal (Rosina et al., 2009) agents. ...
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Key words: Broilers Methanolic extract Peganum harmala Serum lipid profile Concentration of cholesterol and other lipids in human diet has been an issue of public health concern. In present study the effects of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. (P. harmala) on serum lipid profile and feeding cost of broiler birds were investigated in a 28-days feeding trial. Total 240 one-week old broiler chicks were divided into four groups (Ph-0, Ph-200, Ph-250 and Ph-300) that were replicated six times (10 birds/replicate) and were randomly given methanolic extract @ 0, 200, 250 and 300 mgL-1 of drinking water, respectively. Standard management practices were adopted. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. At the end of every week, two birds from each replicate were randomly selected to collect blood samples for serum lipid profile determination. Serum samples were analyzed for total cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Triglycerides were measured by the enzymatic calorimetric method. Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol showed gradual significant decrease and nevertheless HDL gradual increase with the increasing dose levels of P. harmala up to 250 mgL-1 of drinking water. Feed cost was significantly (P<0.05) reduced by methanolic extract of P. harmala and was the lowest in group Ph-250. The same group had the highest (P<0.05) gross return compared to other treatments. It is concluded that methanolic extract of P. harmala @ 250 mgL-1 drinking water could be effectively used in broilers to optimize serum lipid profile, to reduce feeding cost and to maximize gross return.
... The essential oils of different botanicals such as Trachyspermum ammi, Origanum vulgare and many others are known for their immunomodulatory effects against parasites by stimulation of mucosal immunity and also known to enhance cellular and humoral immunity against coccidiosis. They are involved in immune stimulation, enhancement by macrophage activity and enhancing antibodies level in infected birds (Abbas et al. 2012a(Abbas et al. , 2012b(Abbas et al. , 2017. ...
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The poultry sector is vibrant, fast growing and potential sector playing an important role in food security and economy of developing countries (Abbas et al. 2020; Zhang et al. 2020). Each year, over 50 billion chickens are raised as a source of meat, accounting for over one-third of protein source in food of humans (Quiroz-Castañedaet al. 2015). However, the poultry sector is facing challenges due to outbreak of certain diseases of parasitic, viral and bacterial origin. Among parasitic diseases, Coccidiosis is major parasitic diseases affecting poultry industry all over the world (Blake et al. 2020). Coccidiosis is a parasitic disease caused by different species of genus Eimeria, which is obligate and intracellular protozoa. This is host-specific protozoa and also related to other protozoa like Besnoitia, Babesia, Cystoisospora, Caryptosporidium, Plasmodium, Neospora, Theileria, Toxoplasma and Sarcocystis. There are seven species which are causing coccidiosis in Gallus gallus domesticus. These species of Eimeria include Eimeria brunetti, E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. necatrix, E. mitis, E. tenella and E. praecox (Blake et al. 2021; El-Shall et al. 2022).
Cryptosporidiosis is a serious intestinal disease affecting mal-nourished children and immunocompromised individuals with severe fatal diarrhea. Our present work was done to evaluate the possible curative effects of different essential oils (Mint, Thyme, Chamomile and Basil) on Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) in vivo compared with nitazoxanide (NTZ). Seventy immunosuppressed white Albino male mice were allocated in 7 groups as follows: group I infected and not treated (Positive control), group II (GII) treated with NTZ, group III (GIII) treated with Mint essential oil, group IV (GIV) treated with Thyme essential oil, group V (GV) treated with Chamomile essential oil, group VI (GVI) treated with Basil essential oil and group VII (GVII) naïve not infected mice (Negative control). Evaluation was done using parasitological, histopatholgical, serological as well as biochemical methods. All study groups revealed significant reduction (P value < 0.01) in the mean number of C. parvum oocysts in stool. Results of GII were the best with 87.7% reduction in the oocysts count followed by GIII (77.9%), GIV (74.7%), GVI (68.2%) and lastly GV (67.2%). Improvement of the histopathological damage in the small intestine was shown in treated groups. All treated mice showed significant upregulation in the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels, significant reduction in the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels (P value < 0.0001). It is concluded that Mint, Thyme, Chamomile and Basil oils showed promising anti-cryptosporidial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions.
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Aim: This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of thyme extract in puppies naturally infected with ascarids. Methodology: The study consisted of 20 puppies of different sexes (males and females), 2-4 months old, naturally infected with ascarid. The experimental units were given an oral 20% concentration of thyme extract for 3 days, and faecal oocyst counts were conducted on the 0th, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 7th days starting from the day the treatment was started (day 0). Also, urea, creatinine, AST, ALT values in the blood were monitored on the 0th and 3rd days, together with daily clinical examination, to monitor possible toxic effects. Results: While the number of faecal egg counts in 2 puppies (10%) varied considerably, egg shedding in 8 (40%) of the treated puppies was zero. It was observed that in 10 of the puppies (60%), egg shedding was not completely zero. However, the oocyst counts decreased by 25% to 98.3%. It was also observed that the values of the measured blood biochemical values were within reference range and the puppies did no not show any clinical sign of toxicity during treatment. Conclusion and Recommendation: It was concluded that the thyme extract did not have any toxic effect in the puppies at the concentration studied, and it could be effective in the treatment of ascariasis.
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Coccidiosis is acclaimed as the most prevalent enteric parasitic ailment of poultry. It is caused by an apicomplexan protozoon of the genus Eimeria, which resides in chicken intestinal epithelium leading to intestinal damage. As a result, bloody droppings are there, feed efficiency is reduced, the growth rate is impaired, and egg production is temporarily decreased. Treatment and prevention of coccidiosis are primarily accomplished by inoculating live vaccines and administering anticoccidial drugs. Due to anticoccidials’ continuous and excessive use, the mounting issue is drug resistant Eimeria strains. The poultry industry has managed resistance-related issues by suggesting shuttle and rotation schemes. Furthermore, new drugs have also been developed and introduced, but it takes a long time and causes cost inflation in the poultry industry. Moreover, government disallows growth promoters and drugs at sub-therapeutic doses in poultry due to increased concerns about the drug residues in poultry products. These constraints have motivated scientists to work on alternative ways to control coccidiosis effectively, safely, and sustainably. Using nutritional supplements is a novel way to solve the constraints mentioned above. The intriguing aspects of using dietary supplements against coccidiosis are that they reduce the risk of drug-resistant pathogen strains, ensure healthy, nutritious poultry products, have less reliance on synthetic drugs, and are typically considered environmentally safe. Furthermore, they improve productivity, enhance nonspecific immunity, preventing oxidation of fats (acting as antioxidants) and inflammation (acting as an anti-inflammatory). The present manuscript focuses on the efficacy, possible mechanism of action, applications, and different facets of nutrition supplements (such as organic acids, minerals, vitamins, probiotics, essential oils, amino acids, dietary nucleotides, feed enzymes, and yeast derivatives) as feed additive for treating poultry coccidiosis.
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In this study, the prophylactic and therapeutic activities of thyme extract at different concentrations against experimental Cryptosporidium parvum infection in immunosuppressed rats were investigated. Thyme extract was prepared at four different concentrations (10%, 30%, 50%, and 100%) and administered as a single oral dose of 1 mL for evaluation of its prophylactic efficacy. Five consecutive days after infection was detected in all rats, therapeutic evaluations were also performed. According to the results obtained by daily counting of oocysts in stools, the prophylactic and therapeutic effects of thyme extract administration were significant in comparison to the control group (P˂0.01). Oocyst shedding continued in the control group at high numbers from the beginning to the end of the study, while oocyst counts in the prophylaxis groups remained low throughout the study. On the other hand, oocyst excretion rates were high in the therapeutic groups and decreased rapidly after thyme extract administration. At the end of the study, oocyst excretion had completely stopped for some rats administered thyme extract. There was no group in which oocyst shedding ceased for all rats. No significant differences were observed in the therapeutic or prophylaxis groups regarding the doses administered (P > 0.01). Renal and hepatic functions were monitored by measuring urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels before and after thyme extract administration. As a result, it was concluded that oral thyme extract administration at the doses applied in this study is effective and safe in the prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of experimental cryptosporidiosis in rats.
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Coccidiosis is the most serious protozoan disease of poultry industry worldwide. Infected birds shed the infective oocysts in high numbers in the droppings which enables the persistence of the disease in the flock. Traditionally, the infestation is controlled by chemical anticoccidial preparations. However, the extensive use of chemical preparations represented a serious problem to public health and lead to the emergence of resistant coccidian strains. To overcome this problem, commercial herbal products are available since the last few decades. The present work aims to evaluate and compare the efficiency of the anti-coccidial herbal product (Herb-All COCC-X) and the chemical preparation (Maxiban 160) in the control of coccidiosis in broilers and to determine their effect on shed oocysts. For this purpose, 320 one-day-old broiler chicks were randomly and equally divided in four groups. All groups (with the exception of the negative control group) were subjected to an infestation with Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella. One group was treated with Herb-All COCC-X, the second with Maxiban 160, and the third remained untreated as a positive control group. The birds were slaughtered after 41 days for PM examination. The oocysts count in droppings was significantly lower in both treated groups in comparison to the positive control one. The efficiency of Herb-All COCC-X was significantly higher than that of Maxiban 160 in the reduction of the number and sporulation potential of shed oocyst. Other parameters including the FCR, body weight gain, and mortality rate did not vary significantly in both treated groups.
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Coccidiosis is a major parasitic disease in the poultry industry, with great economic implications worldwide. It is a ubiquitous protozoan infection caused by several species of the genus Eimeria (host-specific) that colonize and reproduce in the intestine of birds, ultimately altering the health and performance of the flock. At present, several methods are used to diagnose coccidiosis in poultry, including field and laboratory techniques (intestinal lesion scoring, oocyst counting in feces, and biochemical and molecular diagnosis). Traditionally, diagnosed flocks have been treated either by vaccination to improve the active immunity of the birds against coccidiosis or supplementation of prophylactic anticoccidials to ameliorate the deleterious effects of coccidiosis. However, these methods has certain drawbacks such as vaccine-induced coccidiosis, drug resistance, and residual drug accumulation in the host. Consequently, alternative safe anti-coccidial agents, including the use of phytogenic compounds, have been explored for preventing coccidiosis. Here, we provide a simple overview of the literature on poultry coccidiosis by focusing on the etiology, diagnostic practices, and preventive measures.
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The experiment was designed to find out the effect of different light intensities on the production performance of broiler chickens. One hundred and fifty broiler chickens were randomly divided into 15 equal experimental units. Three experimental units (replicates) were randomly assigned to each of the five experimental groups. Light treatment T1 (20 lux at first week and 5 lux from 2-6week) was given to group A, T2 (20 lux at first week and 10 lux from 2-6week) was given to group B, T3 (20 lux at first week and 20 lux from 2-6week) was given to group C, T4 (20 lux at first week and 30 lux from 2-6week) was given to group D, T5 (20 lux at first week and 40 lux from 2-6week) was given to group E. Results indicated a non-significant effect of light intensity on body weight and feed consumption whereas, feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly (P<0.05) affected by light intensities. The birds in group A showed significantly better FCR and fetched more profit. Mortality rate was the highest (13.33%) in the birds kept under group E. It can be concluded that energy savers (Compact florescent) may be used in broiler chickens production at same intensities as provided by other light sources for economical provision of light.
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This study was carried out to assess the anthelmintic activity of Acacia nilotica bark and leave extracts in different solvents. Adult motility assay, egg hatch test and fecal egg count reduction test were carried out to evaluate the anthelmintic activity. Effect of plant extracts both of leaves and bark of A. nilotica was dose-dependent. Highest mortality of worms was observed 12 hours post-exposure @ 25 mg/ml. Extracts of leaves were more potent than the bark extracts. Ethyle acetate fractions both of bark and leaves exhibited higher anthelmintic effects compared with chloroform, petroleum spirit and aqueous fractions. Crude aqueous methanol extract (CAME) of bark (LC 50= 201.0032 μg/ml) had higher inhibitory effects compared with that of leaves (LC 50= 769.2485 μg/ml) on egg hatching. Likewise, chloroform and ethyle acetate fractions of A. nilotica bark exhibited higher ovicidal activity. In vivo, maximum reduction (72.01%) in fecal egg counts was recorded for CAME of bark followed by CAME of leaves (63.44%) @ 8 g/kg at day 12 post-treatment. Results suggest lipophilic nature of the active principles having anthelmintic efficacy in A. nilotica bark and leaves.
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An experiment was designed to investigate the effects of vitamins C and E on live weight and egg quality profile of layer hens subjected in situ to heat stress. Hybrid White Leghorn (L33) layer hens (n=720) and 39 weeks old, were randomly allotted to 4 treatments containing 0, 150 mg vitamin C, 150 mg (150 IU) vitamin E, and 150 mg vitamin C plus 150 mg vitamin E/kg of diet. Final live weight in supplemented groups were significantly (P<0.05) higher than control. Egg, egg yolk and egg albumen weight in groups administered with vitamins E and C+E were very significantly higher compared with control, meanwhile, the same indicators were only significantly (P<0.05) higher in vitamin C group compared with control. Similarly, eggshell weight was significantly (P<0.05) higher in all treated groups, with the highest value recorded in group supplemented with vitamins C+E compared with control. By sustaining bird's live weight and increasing egg quality indicators, it is concluded that both antioxidants offered protective effect against the thermally stressful hot-humid condition.
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The enteric health of growing poultry is imperative to success of the production. The basic role of poultry production is turning feed stuffs into meat. Any changes in this turning process, due to mechanical, chemical or biological disturbance of digestive system (enteric disorders) is mostly accompanied with high economic losses due to poor performance, increased mortality rates and increased medication costs. The severity of clinical signs and course of the disorders are influenced by several factors such as management, nutrition and the involved agent(s). Several pathogens (viruses, bacteria and parasites) are incriminated as possible cause of enteric disorders either alone (mono-causal), in synergy with other micro-organisms (multi-causal), or with non-infectious causes such as feed and /or management related factors. In addition, excessive levels of mycotoxins and biogenic amines in feed lead to enteric disorders. Also factors such as high stocking density, poor litter conditions, poor hygiene and high ammonia level and other stressful situation may reduce the resistance of the birds and increases their susceptibility to infections. Under field conditions, however, it is difficult to determine whether the true cause of enteric disorders, is of infectious or non-infectious origin. In recent years and since the ban of use of antimicrobial growth promoters in several countries the incidence of intestinal disorders especially those caused by clostridial infection was drastically increased. The present review described in general the several factors involved in enteric disorders and summarized the available literatures about Clostridium perfringens infection in poultry.
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of the addition of fumaric acid to broiler diet on birds performance. One thousand and eighty Hubbard day-old broiler chicks were alloted in a randomized block design, six treatments with two replicates of males, and four replicates of females. Three basal diets were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements in each growing phase: from 1 to 21 days, 21 to 37 days and 37 to 45 days. Treatments consisted first in the addition of growth promoter to basal diets; second, the basal diet without growth promoter and fumaric acid; and finally the treatments with additions of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0%, of fumaric acid. The group treated without of both growth promoter and fumaric acid presented a higher intake and a smaller feed:gain ratio in relation to the fumaric acid treated groups. However, there were no differences among groups treated with growth promoter and fumaric acid. The contrasts did not show any difference among weight gain, carcass yield and abdominal fat. The addition of fumaric acid levels to the diets promoted reduction of feed intake, without any effect on weight gain, improving, therefore, the feed/gain ratio. A digestibility experiment was carried out, using 30 Hy-Line roosters, to determine apparent metabolyzed energy (AME), corrected by nitrogen of the diets containing 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0% of the acid. An increase on the AME of the diets was observed with fumaric acid addition.
The present study evaluated anti-diarrheal effects of a mixture of Coptidis rhizoma, Lonicerae flos, and Paeonia japonica (1:1:1, v/v/v) methanol extracts and dioctahedral smectite (CLPD) on piglet diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Diarrhea index of group 1 administered by 0.5% CLPD mixed with feed, decreased with the passage of time and was insignificantly differed compared to that of control. In group 2 administered by 1.0% CLPD mixed with feed, diarrhea index was significantly decreased compared to that of control and group I during overall experimental periods (P<0.05). After administration of CLPD mixed with feed, the number of E. coli and S. typhimurium in piglet feces of group 1 except for the 1st day was significantly decreased compared to that of the control group (P<0.05), and the number of E. coli and S. typhimurium in piglet feces of group 2 except for the 1st day was significantly decreased compared to that of the control group and group I (P<0.05). This study showed that CLPD had anti-diarrheal effect on E. coli and S. typhimurium causing diarrhea in piglets. CLPD could be an effective candidate for the treatment of enteric bacterial infections in piglets.