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Ingroup romantic preferences among Jewish and non-Jewish White undergraduates

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Abstract

We hypothesized that ingroup romantic preferences positively relate to group ties (e.g., ingroup identity and approval from friends and family) among ethnic minority groups particularly compared to ethnic majority groups. In Study 1, Jewish undergraduates completed items regarding ingroup identity and ratings of Jewish and non-Jewish partners. Students rated ingroup members more positively than outgroup members, ratings positively correlated with identity, and identity positively predicted ingroup preferences while similarity did not. Study 2 included both White Jewish and White non-Jewish students. Social network approval and collectivism positively predicted preferences among Jewish students, while social network approval and similarity positively predicted preferences among non-Jewish students. We discuss ingroup identity's differential role in attraction between ethnic minority group members and ethnic majority group members.

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... Different social psychological factors have been examined in relation to out-group dating preferences including social approval, self-esteem, social identity, status, physical attractiveness, dating experience, religion, intergroup attitudes, and intergroup anxiety (e.g., Brown, McNatt, & Cooper, 2003;Harper & Yeung, 2015;Levin et al., 2007;Liu, Campbell, & Condie, 1995;Perry, 2013;Shibazaki & Brennan, 1998). In this study, we investigate self-(social identity) and other-related (social approval) social psychological factors, as well as those that concern past personal and other-related experience with intergroup dating experience (previous intergroup direct dating experience and the indirect experience of having known others in an intergroup romantic relationship). ...
... Researchers have shown that social identity is relevant for out-group dating preferences (Brown et al., 2003;Shibazaki & Brennan, 1998). For example, Brown and colleagues (2003) found that the more Jewish students identified as being Jewish, the stronger their preference was for dating Jewish individuals partners over non-Jewish individuals and awarded the potential Jewish (vs. ...
... Results regarding the role of social identity in willingness to engage in an intergroup romantic relationship indicated that the more individuals identified strongly with their ingroup, the less willing they were to date out-group members, supporting Hypothesis 2. This was true for each background category that individuals identified with. These results mirror related findings in the literature and predictions related to social identity theory (e.g., Brown et al., 2003;Liu et al., 1995). Extending from the previous research, we were able to demonstrate these findings in different contexts. ...
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The goal of the present study was to examine dating preferences across three different out-group backgrounds (race/culture/ethnic, religious, socio-economic status) in three different cultural settings (the United Kingdom, the United States, India). A second goal was to explore the role of social psychological factors (social approval, social identity, previous dating experience) in out-group dating preferences. Findings from an online study (nUK = 227, nUS = 245, nIndia = 220) revealed that participants were less willing to date individuals from religious out-groups than individuals from other race/culture/ethnic or socio-economic status out-groups. Individuals’ perceptions of approval from friends and family positively predicted out-group dating preference for all backgrounds and samples. How much individuals identified with their in-groups and whether they have previous experience dating someone from an out-group varied across outgroup backgrounds and samples in predicting out-group dating preferences. Together, the findings provide valuable insight into intergroup relations and reveal the importance of studying out-group dating preferences across different out-group backgrounds and samples.
... While there is a relatively high number of intermarried and/or common-law couples worldwide, the notion of cross-cultural and interfaith marriages contradicts the conventional principle of endogamy, which has been observed for centuries across numerous cultures, and is still practiced today (see , Hollingshead 1950;Harris and Kalbfleisch 2000;Brown et al. 2003;Joyner and Koa 2005). Endogamy is the custom of marrying within one's cultural, religious, ethnic, and socio-economic group. ...
... Unsurprisingly, as a result, heterogamous couples have been found to be more likely to break up compared to homogamous couples (Gaines and Brennan 2001). Unlike other relationships, however, interfaith relationships are not only affected by the authorities overruling their right to choose their life partner (Brown et al. 2003;Joyner and Koa 2005;Leeman 2009;Cila and Lalonde 2013). Donnan (1990) who compared attitudes towards interfaith marriages in Northern Ireland and Pakistan found that interfaith marriages are regarded with hostility since they represent threats to the cultural and religious groups standing within the conflict. ...
... A study by Kahn (1998), for instance, examined interfaith marriages among Muslim Pakistani men, and found that mixed marriages were less likely to succeed than same-faith marriages. Previous studies also suggest that individuals were more inclined to adhere to an endogamic notion of dating and marriage so as to avoid cultural identity challenges (Marshall and Markstorm-Adams 1995;Harris and Kalbfleisch 2000;Brown et al. 2003;Leeman 2009;Cila and Lalonde 2013). These findings suggest that interfaith relationships may be less likely to develop as a result of fear of losing one's cultural identity. ...
Article
This study examines attitudes towards interfaith relationships between individuals living in the conflict state of Israel. An exploratory method was used and interviews were conducted with Jewish Israeli, Christian Palestinian, and Muslim Palestinian students currently living in Israel. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes that emerged from the interviews. Four main themes were identified: (i) negative attitudes towards interfaith relationships, (ii) importance of familial approval, (iii) societal pressure in Israel, and lastly, (iv) preservation of cultural identity. These findings demonstrated that overall, participants were adamantly opposed to engaging in interfaith relationships; the main concern was pleasing their parents. Another concern was adhering to religious teachings, which forbid such relationships. Participants also stated that conserving one’s religious and cultural identity in a conflict state was of utmost importance and interfaith relationships were perceived as fraternising with the ‘enemy’. This paper demonstrates that attitudes towards interfaith relationships may be uniquely shaped by living in the conflict zone of Israel, whose citizens are particularly concerned with preserving their cultural identity – whether they were Muslim, Jewish, or Christian. For a society such as Israel where religion and culture intermingle, this paper suggests that interfaith relationships may not be readily welcomed.
... in most modern societies, however, the research focus shifted gradually to include dating patterns and romantic relationships across various ethnic groups. Most of these studies stem from the social psychological perspective of interpersonal attraction and interethnic or group relations, and their overarching conclusion is that in most multicultural social contexts, people seek romantic partners according to similarity or in-group preference (Brown, McNatt, & Cooper, 2003;Harris & Kalbfleisch, 2000;Osbeck & Moghaddam, 1997;Sprecher & Felmlee, 2000;Sprecher & Regan, 2002). The bulk of published social research on interracial dating behavior so far has been staged on American college campuses, which is understandable given the relatively easy recruitment of ethnically diverse students into research projects and the high level of sexual activity among many young people (Harris & Kalbfleisch, 2000;Moore, 2000;Yancey, 2002). ...
... Generally speaking, research in the U.S. and Canada has highlighted a tension between the 'similarity-attraction' principle and a 'celebration of differences' in the search of romantic partners. In most cases, in-group or similarity preference prevails, and cross-cultural couples still comprise a minority in diverse social settings (Brown et al., 2003;Harris & Kalbfleisch, 2000;Osbeck & Moghaddam, 1997). Some researchers, however, have worked to identify the social and personal characteristics of those who choose to date across ethno-cultural lines. ...
... In Reich et al.'s study, females were also more concerned about their partner's ethnicity and parental opinion on these matters than were males. Brown et al. (2003) reported that stronger ethnic identity, collectivism, and social network approval were all positively correlated with in-group partner preference among Jewish students (some of whom were U.S.-born and others recent immigrants) on a Florida campus. ...
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This study focused on reported dating patterns between Israeli-born and immigrant students from the former Soviet Union. Earlier survey findings indicated that twice as many Russian immigrant women reported having had a romantic relationship with an Israeli-born partner than did their male counterparts. Six focus groups were conducted on two Israeli campuses with third-year BA students. Results suggest that Russian women are 'popular' in part because of their perceived compliance with gender role expectations (i.e., passive and accepting), whereas Russian men are not as popular precisely for the same reason (i.e., adhering to the traditional masculine role in courtship). Across participants, however, those who were most prone to dating Israeli peers were those who felt more integrated and secure in Israeli society, had better Hebrew proficiency, and reported having a greater number of same-sex Israeli-born friends.
... They often drew on North American campus populations and focused on establishing patterns: who dates and marries whom and which personal and social characteristics shape these choices. Generally, American studies tapped on the tension between two opposite principles in partner search in diverse social milieu: the 'similarity-attraction' principle and 'celebration of differences' one (Brown et al., 2003; Sprecher & Reagan, 2002). A significant predictor of dating across one's group lines is having past 'social exposure' to 'Others' while growing up, e.g. by studying in multiracial school, international travel or parental circle of friends (Felmlee, 2001; Khatib-Chahidi et al., 1998). ...
... docile and appeasing demeanor of Asian women or high earning potential of Jewish men) that are ostensibly lacking among 'our own ilk,' the theme that often comes to surface in dating ads (Sprecher & Regan, 2002). Similar social status of the origin families has a stronger influence on inter-ethic partner choice than do religious differences or geographic location of origin countries (Brown et al., 2003; Yancey, 2002). Social support and approval by the friends and families is a salient factor of continuity of interethnic relationships (Felmlee, 2001). ...
Article
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To explore the internal dynamics of intercultural marriage, we conducted in-depth interviews with 18 married couples, of whom one partner was born in Israel and the other immigrated from the former Soviet Union. The interviews focused on the contentious issues of everyday life: selfidentity, language use, cultural consumption, relations with the families/friends, division of household labor, and childrearing. The findings point to a clear tendency for immigrants to make most adjustments to the norms and expectations of the Israeli spouses and their social networks. For most immigrant spouses, the selective acculturation they had hoped for at the outset in fact morphed into relentless assimilation. The Israelization was expressed in the exclusive use of Hebrew in these homes; preference of Israeli spouse's families, friends, and pastimes, Israeli style in cooking and housekeeping, as well as Israeli-Hebrew socialization of the children. The drift towards the hegemonic culture experienced by the Russian wives was stronger than for the Russian husbands. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differentials in power relations, comparative statuses of Hebrew and Russian cultures in Israel, and possible self-selection of individuals wishing to leave their culture of origin via out-marriage.
... Studier av unga judar i Israel har visat att judar kan anses vara mer kollektivistiska än individualistiska men att det finns en tydlig tendens av en växande orientering mot individualism. Vidare har unga judar i Israel ett mer kollektivistiskt tänkande än unga iEuropa(Sagy, Orr, Bar-On & Awwad, 2001;Oyserman, 1993) och judar i USA är mer kollektivistiska än vita amerikaner(Brown et al., 2003).Sammanfattningsvis har forskningen inom social kognition visat att vår perception färgas av vår sociala tillhörighet och våra sociala referensramar. Även individens perception av attraktivitet hos andra kan påverkas av den sociala identiteten. ...
... Formulär för etnisk identitet och partnerval. Frågeformuläret som gällde etnisk identitet och partnerval hämtades från en studie avBrown et al. (2003) och översattes och anpassades till svenska förhållanden av författarna till föreliggande studie. Detta frågeformulär var i sin tur en vidareutveckling av ett formulär skapat avLiu, Campbell och Condie (1995).Liu et al. ursprungliga frågeformulär var anpassat för medlemmar i olika etniska grupper och handlade om bedömningen av personer i deras egen samt andra etniska grupper. ...
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Sammanfattning Studien utredde orsaken till partnerval inom den egna etniska gruppen. Judiska universitetsstuderande (n=42) jämfördes med icke-judiska svenska universitetsstuderande (n=42) och deltagarna jämfördes på variablerna ingruppsidentitet, likhet, stöd från socialt nätverk, partnerval och kollektivism. Dessutom attraktivitetsskattades personer med och utan davidsstjärna. Bäst prediktor för svenskarnas preferens för partnerval inom gruppen var stöd från socialt nätverk medan likhet var bäst prediktor för judarnas ingruppspreferens. Ingruppsidentitet predicerade partnerval inom gruppen för judarna, men inte för svenskarna. Judarnas ingruppspreferens korrelerade med kollektivism. Davidsstjärnan gjorde att personer sågs som mer attraktiva av judar än svenskar. Svenskarnas ingruppspreferens sågs som preferens för "det vanliga", medan judarnas sågs som en identitetsskapande handling. Judarnas partnervalsbeteende påverkas mer än deras attityder av normen om partnerval inom gruppen. Abstract Reasons for intraethnic mate selection were investigated. Jewish students (n=42) were compared with Swedish non-jewish students (n=42) regarding ingroup identity, similarity, social network approval, partner preference and collectivism. They also rated persons for attractivity with and without a Star of David. Social network approval predicted ingroup preference best for Swedes, while similarity predicted ingroup preference best for Jews. Ingroup identity predicted the Jews´ intraethnic mate selection, but not the Swedes´. Jewish ingroup preference correlated with collectivism. The Star of David increased perception of attractivity for Jews, but not for Swedes. The Swedes ingroup preference was interpreted as preference for "the common", while the Jews´ ingroup preference was interpreted as an act strengthening ethnic identity. The intramarriage norm affected behavior more than attitudes.
... In a dating context, the similarity hypothesis operates similarly to ingroup favoritism. People often prefer to date others who share their social group identities on a variety of dimensions, including race, religion, and political orientation (Alford, Hatemi, Hibbing, Martin, & Eaves, 2011;Brown, McNatt, & Cooper, 2003;Huber & Malhotra, 2017;Luo, 2009;Mendelsohn, Shaw Taylor, Fiore, & Cheshire, 2014;Montoya, Horton, & Kirchner, 2008;Watson et al., 2004). We argue that for most sexual identity groups, a similar ingroup preference manifests. ...
Article
Bisexual people may appear to have more potential romantic partners than people only attracted to one gender (e.g., heterosexual, gay, lesbian people). However, bisexual people's dating choices are limited by non-bisexual people's reluctance to date bisexual people. Studies have indicated that some heterosexual, gay, and lesbian people are reluctant to date bisexual people, particularly bisexual men. We extend current understandings of gendered anti-bisexual bias through investigating heterosexual, bisexual, gay, and lesbian people's reported willingness to date within and outside of their sexual orientation groups. Participants (n = 1823) varying in sexual orientation completed measures regarding their willingness to engage in a romantic relationship with heterosexual, bisexual, gay, and lesbian individuals. Heterosexual and gay/lesbian people were less willing to date bisexual people than bisexual people were to date them, consistent with anti-bisexual bias rather than mere in-group preference. Preferences against dating bisexual men appeared particularly strong, even among bisexual women.
... Prominent in some individuals' cultural practice, values and beliefs is religion (van Tubergen & Maas, 2007), which literature has portrayed can influence the decision to engage in cross-cultural dating or relationships. Studies have illustrated that greater religious affiliation and family connectedness leads to reduced openness in attitudes towards engaging in cross-cultural marriages or dating experiences (Brown et al., 2003;Cila & Lalonde, 2014). ...
Article
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Given the importance of cultural continuity within the Indian culture, numerous studies have highlighted the challenges second-generation, Indian women endure, particularly in relation to decisions around romantic relationships. These challenges can have a psychological impact on the women, including an impact on their romantic relationship and with their families. The current study aimed to explore the lived experience of second-generation, Indian, Hindu (IH) women, living in the United Kingdom, who are in a heterosexual, cross-cultural, romantic (CCRR) relationship. Seven participants aged between 24 and 40 years were recruited. The participants were interviewed, and the data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). From the data, three superordinate themes were identified: (1) “Predetermined Identity,” (2) “The Two Worlds don’t Meet,” (3) “Enduring Challenges.” Implications of the findings for clinical practice are discussed.
... In another study, people preferred to date ingroup Jewish (vs. non-Jewish) members (Brown, McNatt, & Cooper, 2003). People have been found to attribute more secondary emotions (which are associated with a tendency to humanize) to the ingroup than to the outgroup (Leyens et al., 2000) and to ascribe ingroup (vs. ...
Article
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Ingroup projection is the tendency of ingroup members to project characteristics of their subgroup onto a larger superordinate category which can lead to bias favoring the ingroup over an outgroup. In the present research we examined ingroup projection as a mediator of the association between ingroup identification and ingroup bias in two fan communities. Fanfiction fans (Study 1) and Star Wars fans (Study 2) completed measures of group identification (subgroup and superordinate group), ingroup projection, and ingroup bias. The results showed that for members of both communities, subgroup identification predicted ingroup bias. Furthermore, the association was mediated by ingroup projection. The results provide new evidence supporting the increasingly-substantiated notion that the group processes driving fan communities are the same as those driving non-recreational and well-researched groups.
... The study of the social network 308, 351 of persons, and the ties between them, is probably the oldest discipline of applied graph theory. 248,92,296 The nature of the ties can be any imaginable social interaction, from romance among adolescents 42,68 to professional ties between corporate executives, 93, 94 from interaction on and off the track at a NASCAR raceway 297 to sex 219,218,202,283 and pair-formation among tango dancers. 212 xii Note that physicists use the word model in a slightly different way than statisticians and mathematicians, see the introduction to chapter 3. ...
... This indicates that being in a cross-cultural relationship may create difficulties that would not exist otherwise in the couple's relationship (Blackwell & Litcher, 2000, 2004; Jepson & Jepson 2002; Launmann et al., 1994). Brown et al. (2003) reported that stronger cultural identity, collectivism, and social network approval were all positively correlated with same-group partner preference among Jewish students (as opposed to cross-cultural= interfaith relationships). Their research consisted of two studies. ...
Article
This article addresses the relationship between religious and/or cultural affiliation and attitudes toward cross-cultural and interfaith relationships among university students in Australia. The questions of interest were as follows: (1) what is the relationship between the three monotheistic religions, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and attitudes toward interfaith dating and marriages, and (2) how do the participants perceive their religious backgrounds to impact on their decisions to enter or avoid cross-cultural and interfaith relationships? Using semistructured interviews, qualitative data were gathered from 57 students (42 women, 15 men, mean age 21.9 [SD 8.8]). The findings suggest that university students in Australia (Jewish, Christian, and Muslim) are generally disinclined to engage in a cross-cultural or interfaith relationship. Only some participants in the present study were open to engaging in a cross-cultural and interfaith relationship, provided the partner was neither too religious nor demanded for the participants to change in any way. However, none of these participants was actively searching for a partner of a different culture or faith. Finally, there was a clear reluctance by non-Muslim participants to be with a Muslim partner.
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Terror management theory (Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) posits that individuals defend against death-anxieties by striving for (symbolic) immortality. Immortality is promised by a symbolic anxiety buffer, which entails one’s (a) cultural worldview; (b) self-esteem; and (c) intimate relationships. Under conditions of mortality salience (MS), individuals prefer potential partners who validate their symbolic anxiety buffer (or are similar to them) over those who challenge it (or are different). Potential partners can be different on the intergroup level (i.e., out-group members) and on the interpersonal level (i.e., having different attitudes). Greenberg et al. (1986) suggested intergroup differences to pose a larger threat than interpersonal differences. So far, the relative threat resulting from differences on both levels has not been tested directly. In the current study, N = 195 women were randomly assigned to an MS (versus control) condition and shown a potential online date following a 2(group-membership) × 2(interpersonal similarity) design. Individuals’ (a) need for worldview validation; (b) state self-esteem; and (c) dating interest was measured. The results showed threats to the symbolic anxiety buffer due to intergroup but not due to interpersonal differences. Findings were obtained for validation needs and self-esteem but not for dating interest. Implications are discussed. Keywords: mortality salience, online dating, out-group status, attitudinal similarity, self-esteem, cultural worldview validation
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This study examined the hypothesis that emotional reactions to national groups would be associated with evaluative responses to the traits forming the stereotypes of these groups. A hierarchical regression analysis of American and Russian subjects' emotional reactions to Americans, Russians, and Iraqis supported this prediction in four of six cases. In addition, simultaneous regression analyses indicated that self-esteem, ethnocentrism, and authoritarianism were each a significant predictor in two of the six analyses, weakly supporting trends found in other research. In general, the personality traits were not as consistently or as strongly associated with emotional reactions to these groups as were the evaluative aspects of stereotypes. A network model of cognition and affect is used to interpret the findings of this and related studies and to address their implications for changing prejudice.
Article
This article examines the relationship between family ethnic homogeneity or heterogeneity and children's ethnic identity. The basic premise was that children from endogamous marriages should have stronger ethnic identities than those from exogamous marriages. Students from four ethnic groups completed a questionnaire to determine their parents' ethnic identities and their own identities, among other items. Results showed only a weak relationship between children's ethnic identity and parents' marriage, however quite a strong relationship was found between ethnic identity and desire to marry within their own ethnic group. This suggests another more important process occurring with little impact from the family ethnic mix.
Article
The study tested there alternative hypotheses regarding intergroup attribution patterns derived from the ethnocentric, the asymmetrical, and the stereotype-based models of intergroup attribution. Junior high school pupils (284 males and 298 females) from majority and minority groups in Israel were asked to make internal-external attributions regarding three different competencies awarded to an ingroup or outgroup member. The results largely supported the streotype-based model: Members of both groups made internal attributions for stereotype-consistent positive behavior and external attibutions for stereotype-inconsistent positive behavior, for both the ingroup and the outgroup.
Article
Addresses the purported impact of Jewish intermarriage on a couple, the spouses' extended families, and the children raised in these interreligious homes. Provides suggestions for the mental health counselor who may be working with Jewish intermarried families or other multicultural/multiethnic groups. Acknowledges inconsistencies in the literature and supports notion that interreligious marriages are not necessarily dysfunctional. (Author/ABL)
Article
Whites' racial attitudes have become complex, with feelings of friendliness and rejection toward Black people often existing side by side. We believe these conflicting sentiments are rooted in two largely independent, core value orientations of American culture, humanitarianism–egalitarianism and the Protestant work ethic. We devised four scales, Pro-Black, Anti-Black, Protestant Ethic (PE), and Humanitarianism–Egalitarianism (HE). In Study 1, the scales were given to White students at eight colleges. As predicted, significant positive correlations were usually found between Pro-Black and HE scores and between Anti-Black and PE scores, whereas other correlations tended to be much lower. In Study 2, we used a priming technique with White students to test for causality. As predicted, priming a given value raised scores on the theoretically corresponding attitude but did not affect scores on the other attitude; priming a single attitude influenced scores on the corresponding value, but not on the other value. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
presents a new theory of group processes and illustrates its application to the related problems of social influence and group polarization self-categorization theory and social identity: social change, social categorization and the interpersonal-intergroup continuum / self-categorization theory: the relationship between personal and social identity / self-categorization and social influence / an explanation of group polarization / some distinctive implications and directions for research (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assessed attitudes toward 14 specific ethnic groups by asking how comfortable 3,325 adult Canadians would feel being around them. The ethnic origin of Ss was also measured by ascertaining the ethnic or cultural group to which their ancestors belonged. Comfort ratings were individually centered within each S by subtracting the mean rating of all groups given by an S from the rating of a particular group by that S. These relative comfort ratings of Ss from the 12 most numerous ethnic origin groups were aggregated. There were 9 groups who were both holders and objects of attitudes. Attitude matrices of attitude holders toward attitude objects were analyzed regarding three issues. First, groups rated themselves more highly than they rated other groups, indicating the existence of ethnocentrism. Second, there was a high degree of consensus among groups with regard to the relative comfort levels for various other groups. Third, the mutual attitudes of pairs of groups were reciprocated. These findings suggest degree of stability in the organization of interethnic attitudes in Canada, despite changes in demography, the groups included in the analysis, and the attitude measures used in the survey. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Hypothesized that perceived threat to social identity and perceived threat to valued resources would each increase ethnocentrism, and that high power groups would be more ethnocentric than low power groups. In Exp 1, a negative message was only a threat to the Ss' group identity; in Exp 2, it was also a threat to their payment for experimental participation. Results show that these threats increased ethnocentrism. However, neither expert power (Exp 1), nor expert power linked to reward power (Exp 2) moderated this reaction. As predicted, in-group–out-group differentiation along the female sex-role stereotype and attitude dimensions was correlated with strength of group identification in the high threat conditions of Exp 1. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Experimental research on intergroup discrimination in favor of one's own group is reviewed in terms of the basis of differentiation between in-group and out-group and in terms of the response measure on which in-group bias is assessed. Results of the research reviewed suggest that (a) factors such as intergroup competition, similarity, and status differentials affect in-group bias indirectly by influencing the salience of distinctions between in-group and out-group, (b) the degree of intergroup differentiation on a particular response dimension is a joint function of the relevance of intergroup distinctions and the favorableness of the in-group's position on that dimension, and (c) the enhancement of in-group bias is more related to increased favoritism toward in-group members than to increased hostility toward out-group members. Implications of these results for positive applications of group identification (e.g., a shift of in-group bias research from inter- to intragroup contexts) are discussed. (67 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Explored sex differences in effects of social and value similarity in a longitudinal study of 146 same-sex college roommate pairs (62 male and 84 female). The clearest findings concerned actual value similarity among women; those who chose each other as roommates were more similar than those who had been assigned to be roommates. Actual value similarity (measured in the fall quarter) was correlated with liking in the fall and liking in the spring among female chosen pairs; it also predicted which female assigned pairs would remain roommates. None of the analyses of actual value similarity was significant for men, although tests of sex differences in effects yielded mixed results. Few effects were obtained for similarity on social characteristics, except for similarity on year in college. Results are discussed in terms of prior roommate studies, and issues are raised concerning the use of roommates in research on friendship development. (28 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
An intergroup extension of M. A. Hogg's (1992, 1993) social attraction hypothesis is proposed. Netball teams were investigated with measures assessing the relationship between (a) objective status; (b) "social beliefs" about intergroup status, stability, legitimacy, and permeability; (c) group identification, self-categorization, and prototypicality; (d) interpersonal relations and similarity; (e) depersonalized social attraction; and (f) true personal attraction. As predicted, group-membership based social attraction was directly influenced by self-categorization; indirectly influenced, through self-categorization, by intergroup status and stability beliefs; and uninfluenced by interpersonal relations. Social attraction (related to prototypicality and group identification) was relatively independent of personal attraction (related to similarity and interpersonal variables). Legitimacy, permeability, and the empirical co-occurrence of social and personal attraction in cohesive groups are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper reports the results of a meta-analytic integration of the results of 137 tests of the ingroup bias hypothesis. Overall, the ingroup bias effect was highly significant and of moderate magnitude. Several theoretically informative determinants of the ingroup bias effect were established. This ingroup bias effect was significantly stronger when the ingroup was made salient (by virtue of proportionate size and by virtue of reality of the group categorization). A significant interaction between the reality of the group categorization and the relative status of the ingroup revealed a slight decrease in the ingroup bias effect as a function of status in real groups, and a significant increase in the ingroup bias effect as a function of status in artificial groups. Finally, an interaction between item relevance and ingroup status was observed, such that higher status groups exhibited more ingroup bias on more relevant attributes, whereas lower status groups exhibited more ingroup bias on less relevant attributes. Discussion considers the implications of these results for current theory and future research involving the ingroup bias effect.
Book
• Ideas, like individuals and nations, have histories, and so do the research enterprises that sometimes stem from ideas. The history of the research that is reported in the following pages is mainly one of indebtedness. The 34 men who, week after week, faithfully provided the bricks of information out of which this monograph is constructed were, of course, my principal benefactors. Not one of them ever lapsed, for even a single week, and my debt to them is most inadequately repaid by sending each of them a standard model of this monograph. The writing of a research report, too, has its own history, and in the writing of this one I came to the conclusion that it would be a bare-boned research report, together with only such theoretical connective tissue as in fact inspired the initial planning of the research. The reader will find that I have sometimes oscillated between the reporting of tests of theoretically derived prediction and the presenting of exploratory findings. Insofar as the latter are interesting or significant, I have no apology to make for them--especially as one who has often criticized students who, in their eagerness to find support for cherished hypotheses, ignore serendipidous findings. The phenomena of getting acquainted, like most others which one studies intimately for a period of years, are full of interesting surprises, and none of us is capable of anticipating all of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • Ideas, like individuals and nations, have histories, and so do the research enterprises that sometimes stem from ideas. The history of the research that is reported in the following pages is mainly one of indebtedness. The 34 men who, week after week, faithfully provided the bricks of information out of which this monograph is constructed were, of course, my principal benefactors. Not one of them ever lapsed, for even a single week, and my debt to them is most inadequately repaid by sending each of them a standard model of this monograph. The writing of a research report, too, has its own history, and in the writing of this one I came to the conclusion that it would be a bare-boned research report, together with only such theoretical connective tissue as in fact inspired the initial planning of the research. The reader will find that I have sometimes oscillated between the reporting of tests of theoretically derived prediction and the presenting of exploratory findings. Insofar as the latter are interesting or significant, I have no apology to make for them--especially as one who has often criticized students who, in their eagerness to find support for cherished hypotheses, ignore serendipidous findings. The phenomena of getting acquainted, like most others which one studies intimately for a period of years, are full of interesting surprises, and none of us is capable of anticipating all of them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Factors that predicted breakups before marriage, investigated as part of a two-year study of dating relationships among college students, included unequal involvement in the relationship (as suggested by exchange theory) and discrepant age, educational aspirations, intelligence, and physical attractiveness (as suggested by filtering models). The timing of breakups was highly related to the school calendar, pointing to the importance of external factors in structuring breakups. The desire to break up was seldom mutual; women were more likely than men to perceive problems in premarital relationships and somewhat more likely to be the ones to precipitate the breakups. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for the process of mate selection and their implications for marital breakup. (“The best divorce is the one you get before you get married.”)
Article
Over the last 50 years, many theories of prejudice reduction in social psychology have embraced the premise that intergroup contact allows people to recognize similarities between themselves, and that this perceived similarity overwhelms the social distance associated with intergroup antipathy. Given the mixed empirical evidence, however, we suggest that the positive effects of perceived similarity have been overemphasized. Although similarity may be sufficient for improved intergroup relations, the relationship between similarity and intergroup relations is far more complex than the literature usually suggests. Moreover, studying difference in intergroup contexts may yield new ways to resolve intergroup conflict and address group inequalities.
Article
In addition to personal self-esteem, we propose that there is a second type of self-esteem, collective self-esteem. People who are high in trait collective self-esteem should be more likely to react to threats to collective self-esteem by derogating outgroups and enhancing the ingroup. In a study using the minimal intergroup paradigm, trait personal and collective self-esteem were measured, and subjects received information about the average performance of their group. Subjects high in collective self-esteem varied their ratings of above-average and below-average scorers on the test in an ingroup-enhancing fashion, whereas those low in collective self-esteem did not. Analyses based on personal self-esteem did not show this interaction. We conclude that collective self-esteem is an individual difference variable that may moderate the attempt to maintain a positive social identity. The relation between collective and personal self-esteem is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examines the attitudes of young Muslim Iranians and young Jewish Iranians regarding intramarriage and intermarriage, and identifies reasons for differences between these two groups. It also examines differences between male and female Iranians in choosing a prospective spouse. The results indicate that Muslim Iranians attitudes regarding mate selection are more liberal (Americanized) than are those of Jewish Iranians. Regardless of religion, male Iranians attitudes regarding mate selection are more Americanized than are those of female Iranians. The findings indicate that cultural, religious, sex role attitudes, and dating patterns are factors in young Iranians attitudes regarding mate selection.