Validation study of villous atrophy and small intestinal inflammation in Swedish biopsy registers

Department of Pediatrics, Orebro University Hospital, Orebro, Sweden.
BMC Gastroenterology (Impact Factor: 2.37). 02/2009; 9(1):19. DOI: 10.1186/1471-230X-9-19
Source: PubMed


Small intestinal biopsy with villous atrophy (VA) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD). We validated VA (Marsh 3) and small intestinal inflammation without VA (Marsh 1+2) in Swedish regional biopsy registers.
All pathology departments in Sweden (n = 28) were searched to identify individuals with VA or duodenal/jejunal inflammation. The validation consisted of blinded examination of biopsy samples, manual review of biopsy reports, web surveys, and patient chart reviews of 121 individuals with VA and 39 with inflammation.
We identified 29,148 individuals with VA and 13,446 individuals with inflammation. In a blinded examination, Swedish pathologists correctly classified 90% of biopsies with VA. Manual screening of 1,534 biopsy reports (performed by co-author JFL and a research assistant) found that comorbidity other than CD was rare. IBD was the most common comorbidity and occurred in 0.3% of biopsies with VA (1.6% in inflammation). Among 114 patients with VA and available data, 108 (95%) had a clinical diagnosis of CD. 79% of the validated individuals with VA and 64% of those with inflammation had documented gastrointestinal symptoms prior to biopsy. 88% of the validated individuals with VA had positive CD serology before their first biopsy. 172/180 (96%) of Swedish gastroenterologists and 68/68 (100%) of pediatricians perform a small intestinal biopsy in at least 9 out of 10 individuals prior to diagnosis of CD.
Regional biopsy data are feasible to identify individuals with CD and small-intestinal inflammation. The specificity of CD is high in villous atrophy.

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Available from: Jonas Ludvigsson, Mar 05, 2014
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    • "The main limitations are due to the use itself of administrative data with the inability to directly verify the presence of CD, and obtain data on compliance with a gluten-free diet. As regards the identification of CD cases, however, we are confident that our data are accurate since 71 % of cases had a biopsy report of villous atrophy, which has been found to be highly specific (positive predictive value 95 %) for CD in a validation study[33]. Of the remaining cases, 20 % had a copayment exemption, which in Italy is based on a physician's diagnosis. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Celiac disease (CD) may affect healthcare use in children and young adults. Socio-economic factors may act as a confounder or effect modifier. We assessed such hypotheses in a population-based birth cohort of young celiac subjects and references matched by maternal education. Methods: The cohort included all newborns recorded in the Medical Birth Register of Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (Italy) between 1989 and 2011. CD incident cases were identified through pathology reports, hospital discharges and copayment exemptions and matched with up to five references by sex, year of birth and maternal education. Cox regression models were used to estimate Hazard Ratios (HRs) for major causes of inpatient diagnosis and drug prescription occurring after diagnosis in CD patients compared to references, stratifying by time of first event and maternal education. Results: We identified 1294 CD cases and 5681 references. CD cases had a higher risk of hospital admission for any cause (HR: 2.34; 95 % CI 2.08-2.63) and for all major ICD9-CM categories except obstetric complications, skin and musculoskeletal diseases, and injuries and poisoning. Prescription of all major ATC drug categories, except dermatologicals and genito-urinary medications, was significantly increased in CD subjects. For most outcomes, HRs were highest in the first year after CD diagnosis but remained significant after five or more years. HRs were similar across different categories of maternal education. Conclusions: Diagnosed CD subjects had a higher risk of hospitalization and medication use compared to the general population, even five or more years after diagnosis, with no effect modification of maternal education.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2016 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    • "Through the personal identity number [30] we linked data on smoking and moist snuff use obtained from some Swedish construction workers [31,32], with data on CD from Sweden’s 28 pathology departments [33]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Smoking status has been linked to several chronic inflammatory conditions but earlier research on smoking and celiac disease (CD) is contradictive. There are little data on moist snuff use and CD. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between smoking, moist snuff use and later CD. Methods We identified individuals with biopsy-verified CD (villous atrophy, histopathology stage Marsh III) through biopsy-reports from Sweden’s 28 pathology departments. Data on smoking and moist snuff were collected from the Swedish construction worker database “Bygghälsan” that includes preventive health care check-up data. Through poisson regression we calculated relative risks (RRs) for later CD according to smoking status (n = 305,722), and moist snuff status (n = 199,200) adjusting for age, sex and decade. Results During follow-up 488 individuals with smoking data, and 310 with moist snuff data had a diagnosis of CD. The risk of CD was independent of smoking status with all RRs being statistically insignificant and ranging between 0.9 and 1.0. Compared to non-smokers, neither current smokers (RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.76-1.14) nor ex-smokers (RR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.75-1.28) were at increased or decreased risk of CD. Risk estimates were similar in moderate smokers (RR = 0.92; 0.72-1.16) and heavy smokers (RR = 0.95; 0.74-1.24), and did not change when we examined the risk more than ten years after health examination (RR-moderate: 0.90; and RR-heavy: 0.95; both p > 0.05). Moist snuff use was not associated with later CD (RR = 1.00; 0.78-1.28), or with CD after more than ten years of follow-up (RR = 1.05; 0.80-1.38). Conclusions We found no association between smoking, moist snuff use and future CD.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Gastroenterology
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    • "Although in some cases visual information provided by WCE are sufficient for identifying GI lesions [7] [8] [9], this technique lacks the ability of collecting biopsy samples, which is crucial for an effective and definitive diagnosis [10]. In particular, random biopsies of small bowel tissue are required to diagnose celiac disease, malabsorption syndromes, food sensitivity, autoimmune disease, inflammatory small bowel disease, and small bowel infection [11]. "
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