Article

Cytokine mediators of Th17 function

Laboratory of Molecular Immunology and Immunology Center, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethsda, MD, USA.
European Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.03). 03/2009; 39(3):658-61. DOI: 10.1002/eji.200839066
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Th17 cells were identified as an independent lineage of CD4(+) T cells that secrete a distinctive set of immunoregulatory cytokines, including IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, and IL-21. These cytokines collectively play roles in inflammation and autoimmunity and in response to extracellular pathogens. The expression of the lineage-specific transcription factor RORgammat leads to Th17 lineage commitment; however, it has become increasingly clear that the population of cells designated as Th17 cells is not homogeneous. Although these cells collectively produce characteristic Th17 cytokines, not all are produced by each individual cell in the population. The cytokines produced by individual cells are presumably affected in part by the specific local cytokine milieu. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the specific functional characteristics and regulation of Th17 cytokines and clarify how they mediate the actions of Th17 cells.

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    • "Curiously, IL- 21 is not required for CD8 + T cells development but promotes their cytotoxic functions and memory phenotype generation (Sutherland et al., 2013). IL-21 contributes to the differentiation of CD4 + T cells in Th17 subset by induction of the expression of ROR-gt, a master transcription factor regulator for that phenotype, and consequently, leading to an inflammatory response (Spolski and Leonard, 2009; Raveney et al., 2013; Sutherland et al., 2013). In addition, IL-21 is decisive to the development of Tfh cells and differentiation of activated B cells into plasma cells in germinal centers (Linterman et al., 2010). "
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    • "Th17 cells produce proinflammatory cytokines [3, 4] such as IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, IL-26, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C–C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) [5], and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) [6]. Although these cytokines all have proinflammatory features, they act on different target cells and therefore contribute to different diseases [7–9]. Th17 cells have been implicated in a wide variety of inflammatory conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, and pathogen infection [10]. "
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    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Clinical and Developmental Immunology
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    • "This effector T cell subset appears to be also involved in tumor immunology, but plays dual roles in promoting or discouraging cancer development [Zamarron and Chen, 2011]. A range of cytokines, including TGFb, IL-6, IL-21, IL-23, and IL- 1b, have been shown to participate in the generation of Th17 cells [Spolski and Leonard, 2009]. "
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