Maternal Feeding Practices Become More Controlling After and Not Before Excessive Rates of Weight Gain

Department of Pediatrics, Brown Medical School, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 03/2009; 17(9):1724-9. DOI: 10.1038/oby.2009.54
Source: PubMed


It is unclear whether controlling maternal feeding practices (CMFPs) lead to or are a response to increases in a child's BMI. Our goal was to determine the direction of this relationship. Data were obtained from National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Child BMI z-score (zBMI) was calculated from measured weight and height. CMFP was defined by, "Do you let your child eat what he/she feels like eating?". Change in child zBMI was calculated between 4-7 years and 7-9 years, and dichotomized into "increasing" vs. "no change or decreasing". Change in CMFP was calculated over the same time periods, and dichotomized into "more controlling" vs. "no change or less controlling." Multiple logistic regression, stratified by gender and controlling for race, maternal education, maternal weight status, and baseline child weight status, was used for analysis. A total of 789 children were included. From 4 to 9 years, mean zBMI increased (P = 0.02) and mothers became more controlling (P < 0.001). Increasing CMFP between 4 and 7 years was associated with decreased odds of increasing zBMI between 7 and 9 years in boys (odds ratio = 0.52, 95% confidence interval = 0.27-1.00). There was no relationship in girls. Increasing zBMI between 4 and 7 years was associated with increasing CMFPs between 7 and 9 years in girls (odds ratio = 1.72, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-2.74), but not boys. Early increases in CMFP were not associated with later increases in zBMI for boys or girls. However, early increases in zBMI among girls were associated with later increases in CMFP. Clarifying the relationship between maternal feeding practices and child weight will inform future recommendations.

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    • "ntakes and lower weight ( Spruijt - Metz , Li , Cohen , Birch , & Goran , 2006 ; Webber , Cooke , Hill , & Wardle , 2010 ) . More longitudinal studies of food restriction have been performed , providing mixed evidence , with some studies suggesting that food parenting practices are a response to child adiposity ( Payne , Galloway , & Webb , 2011 ; Rhee et al . , 2009 ; Spruijt - Metz et al . , 2006 ) and others finding effects of parental restriction to increase child ' s intake or BMI ( Birch et al . , 2003 ; Faith , Berkowitz et al . , 2004 ; Francis & Birch , 2005 ) . It can , thus , be concluded that highly controlling food parenting prac - tices do not seem to be effective in stimulating health"
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    ABSTRACT: Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderates effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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    • "To date there is limited research investigating EAH in very young children and how this behavior may be related to parental controlling feeding practices. Furthermore, there is inconsistent evidence for whether controlling feeding practices impact boys and girls similarly (Blissett, Meyer, & Haycraft, 2006; Faith et al., 2006; Francis & Birch, 2005; Moens & Braet, 2007; Rhee et al., 2009). One observational, longitudinal study (Francis & Birch, 2005) found that maternal restrictive feeding practices when daughters were aged 5 were a significant predictor for EAH at the age of 9, but this was dependent on mother's BMI. "
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    ABSTRACT: Parental controlling feeding practices have been directly associated with maladaptive child eating behaviours, such as Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH). The aim of this study was to examine EAH in very young children (3-4 years old) and to investigate the association between maternal controlling feeding practices and energy intake from a standardised selection of snacks consumed ‘in the absence of hunger’. Thirty-seven mother-child dyads enrolled in the NOURISH RCT participated in a modified EAH protocol conducted in the child’s home. All children displayed EAH, despite 80% reporting to be full or very full following completion of lunch 15 minutes earlier. The relationship between maternal and child covariates and controlling feeding practices and EAH were examined using non-parametric tests, and were stratified by child gender. For boys only, pressure to eat was positively associated with EAH. Neither restriction nor monitoring practices were associated with EAH in either boys or girls. Overall, the present findings suggest gender differences in the relationship between maternal feeding practices and children’s eating behaviours emerge early and should be considered in future research and intervention design.
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    • "f restric - tion . For example , lower behavioral inhibition and higher reinforc - ing value of palatable snack foods have been shown to predict children ' s intake of these foods ( Riggs et al . , 2010 ) and weight gain ( Anzman & Birch , 2009 ; Temple et al . , 2008 ) , the latter of which has been linked to parents ' increased restriction use ( Rhee et al . , 2009 ; Rifas - Shiman et al . , 2011 ) . In Rollins et al . ( in press ) , the highest levels of approach were observed among girls whose mothers had the most controlling restrictive feeding profile . As suggested by the authors , mothers may have responded to girls ' approach tendencies to rewarding items and activities ( e . g . , food and"
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    ABSTRACT: Parents’ use of restrictive feeding practices is counterproductive, increasing children’s intake of restricted foods and risk for excessive weight gain. The aims of this research were to replicate Fisher and Birch’s (1999b) original findings that short-term restriction increases preschool children’s (3–5 y) selection, intake, and behavioral response to restricted foods, and to identify characteristics of children who were more susceptible to the negative effects of restriction. The experiment used a within-subjects design; 37 children completed the food reinforcement task and heights/weights were measured. Parents reported on their use of restrictive feeding practices and their child’s inhibitory control and approach. Overall, the findings replicated those of Fisher and Birch (1999b) and revealed that the effects of restriction differed by children’s regulatory and appetitive tendencies. Greater increases in intake in response to restriction were observed among children lower in inhibitory control, higher in approach, who found the restricted food highly reinforcing, and who had previous experience with parental use of restriction. Results confirm that parents’ use of restriction does not moderate children’s consumption of these foods, particularly among children with lower regulatory or higher appetitive tendencies.
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