Health claims, U.S. Food and Drug Administration regulatory actions, and marketing practices are examined in the environment precipitating the introduction of the Nutrition and Labeling Education Act (NLEA) in 1990. The introduction of three psyllium-based products in 1989 and 1990, Procter & Gamble's Metamucil wafers, General Mills' Benefit cereal, and Kellogg's Heartwise cereal, are examined for their use of health claims and marketing tactics in a changing regulatory environment. Inconsistent approval of psyllium-based health claims for drug and food products created a confusing environment in the pre- and early post-NLEA era. This was exacerbated by marketing issues regarding consumer communication and product positioning. Suggestions for marketing products with health positionings in the new NLEA environment are proposed.