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Microbial fuel-cells: Electricity production from carbohydrates

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Abstract

Microbial fuel cells containing Proteus vulgaris and oxidation-reduction ([open quotes]redox[close quotes]) mediators were investigated. The bacteria were chemically immobilized onto the surface of graphite felt electrodes, which supported production of continuous electric current and could be reused after storage. A computer-controlled carbohydrate feed system enabled the cell to generate a constant output with improved efficiency compared to the performance obtained with single large additions of fuel. The response to additions of substrate when immobilized bacteria were used was faster than that achieved with freely suspended organisms. This is attributed to the advantageous mass-transfer kinetics resulting from the proximity of the immobilized bacteria and the electrode surface. 16 refs., 6 figs.

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... Bacteria are used as catalyst in microbial fuel cells use to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate current [3] [13] [12]. Recent studies have reported that oil and other fossil fuels will not be available in the next 100 years and it is expected that the demand for oil will exceed the production [2]. ...
... However, considering anticipated energy trends, a more reasonable projection is 27TW by 2050 and 43TW by 2100 [10]. By 2100 it is estimated that CO2 concentratio n will reach anywhere from 560ppm to 970ppm [2]. ...
... MFCs B and C showed maximum power density values of 0.0000256W/cm 2 and 0.00197W/cm 2 respectively, obtained from a 1000 Ω resistor. The power density was calculated from equation (2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Three dual chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) labeled MFC-A, MFC-B and MFC-C were fabricated with agar-agar salt bridge as the proton exchange membrane. Each of the MFCs contained wastewater as c atholyte. Biochemical and Physiological tests was carried out on the wastewater sample to obtain characteristics which will be helpful in the identification of microbial species in the sample and measure some physiological parameters. Readings of voltage and current with different resistors of 10Ω, 100Ω and 1000Ω and with no resistor was taken for 10 to 12 hours daily for 14 days. The power density was calculated for the MFCs. Also, the MFC performance was calculated in terms of various parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, Conductivity and Temperature. MFCs A, B and C showed a maximum voltage output of 0.987V, 1.621V and 1.409V respectively. The maximum power densities for MFCs A, B and C were calculated as 0.329W/cm 2 , 2.56 x 10-5 W/cm 2 and 0.00197W/cm 2 respectively. The BOD removal efficiency of MFCs A, B and C was calculated as 71.70%, 73.35% and 72.00% respectively.
... Bacteria are used as catalyst in microbial fuel cells use to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate current [3] [13] [12]. Recent studies have reported that oil and other fossil fuels will not be available in the next 100 years and it is expected that the demand for oil will exceed the production [2]. ...
... However, considering anticipated energy trends, a more reasonable projection is 27TW by 2050 and 43TW by 2100 [10]. By 2100 it is estimated that CO2 concentratio n will reach anywhere from 560ppm to 970ppm [2]. ...
... MFCs B and C showed maximum power density values of 0.0000256W/cm 2 and 0.00197W/cm 2 respectively, obtained from a 1000 Ω resistor. The power density was calculated from equation (2). ...
Article
Full-text available
Three dual chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) labeled MFC-A, MFC-B and MFC-C were fabricated with agar-agar salt bridge as the proton exchange membrane. Each of the MFCs contained wastewater as c atholyte. Biochemical and Physiological tests was carried out on the wastewater sample to obtain characteristics which will be helpful in the identification of microbial species in the sample and measure some physiological parameters. Readings of voltage and current with different resistors of 10Ω, 100Ω and 1000Ω and with no resistor was taken for 10 to 12 hours daily for 14 days. The power density was calculated for the MFCs. Also, the MFC performance was calculated in terms of various parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, Conductivity and Temperature. MFCs A, B and C showed a maximum voltage output of 0.987V, 1.621V and 1.409V respectively. The maximum power densities for MFCs A, B and C were calculated as 0.329W/cm 2 , 2.56 x 10-5 W/cm 2 and 0.00197W/cm 2 respectively. The BOD removal efficiency of MFCs A, B and C was calculated as 71.70%, 73.35% and 72.00% respectively.
... Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has been used to convert the energy stored in chemical bonds in organic compounds to electricity which is achieved through the catalytic reactions by microorganisms. This has generated considerable interest among academic researchers in recent years [2] [4] [12]. Microbial fuel cells are not newthe idea of using microorganisms to catalyze fuel cells was explored from the 1970s [4] and microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater were presented in 1991 [6]. ...
... The release of stored carbon in fossil fuels is increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, with increases from 316ppm in 1959 to 377 ppm in 2004 [3]. By 2100 it is estimated that CO2 concentration will reach anywhere from 560 ppm to 970 ppm [2]. Today the greatest environmental challenge is to simultaneously solve energy production and CO2 release. ...
Article
Two dual chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) labelled MFC-A and MFC-B were fabricated with agar-agar salt bridge as the proton exchange membrane. Each of the MFCs contained wastewater gotten from an abattoir as the catholyte. The anolyte for MFC-A was potassium ferricyanide with double copper-copper electrodes while the anolyte for MFC-B was potassium permanganate with a single copper-copper electrode. Readings of voltage and current was taken for 10 to 12 hours daily for 14 days, a total of 495 hours. Also, the MFC performance was calculated in terms of various parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, conductivity and temperature. MFC-A showed a maximum voltage output of 1.812V while MFC-B showed a maximum of 1.718V. The BOD removal efficiency of MFCs A and B was calculated as 78.33% and 72.67%, respectively. MFC-A showed an average value of 1.643V on the last day of observation while MFC-B showed an average value of 1.531V on the 14 th day. An MFC generates electricity from wastewater. The voltage generated in an MFC is independent of the number of electrodes used, potassium ferricyanide gives a better result than potassium permanganate. BOD removal efficiency increases with the number of electrodes used.
... Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has been used to convert the energy stored in chemical bonds in organic compounds to electricity which is achieved through the catalytic reactions by microorganisms. This has generated considerable interest among academic researchers in recent years [2] [4] [12]. Microbial fuel cells are not newthe idea of using microorganisms to catalyze fuel cells was explored from the 1970s [4] and microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater were presented in 1991 [6]. ...
... The release of stored carbon in fossil fuels is increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, with increases from 316ppm in 1959 to 377 ppm in 2004 [3]. By 2100 it is estimated that CO2 concentration will reach anywhere from 560 ppm to 970 ppm [2]. Today the greatest environmental challenge is to simultaneously solve energy production and CO2 release. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two dual chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) labelled MFC-A and MFC-B were fabricated with agar-agar salt bridge as the proton exchange membrane. Each of the MFCs contained wastewater gotten from an abattoir as the catholyte. The anolyte for MFC-A was potassium ferricyanide with double copper-copper electrodes while the anolyte for MFC-B was potassium permanganate with a single copper-copper electrode. Readings of voltage and current was taken for 10 to 12 hours daily for 14 days, a total of 495 hours. Also, the MFC performance was calculated in terms of various parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, conductivity and temperature. MFC-A showed a maximum voltage output of 1.812V while MFC-B showed a maximum of 1.718V. The BOD removal efficiency of MFCs A and B was calculated as 78.33% and 72.67%, respectively. MFC-A showed an average value of 1.643V on the last day of observation while MFC-B showed an average value of 1.531V on the 14 th day. An MFC generates electricity from wastewater. The voltage generated in an MFC is independent of the number of electrodes used, potassium ferricyanide gives a better result than potassium permanganate. BOD removal efficiency increases with the number of electrodes used.
... Electricity production is the principal identification and initial motive of the MFCs. MFC has been recorded for bioelectricity generation for well over a century (Potter 1910;Allen and Bennetto 1993;Mathuriya and Sharma 2009;Mathuriya and Pant 2019). Reports have shown that any chemical that can be oxidized by microbiota can further transform into electrical energy (Jadhav et al. 2018;. ...
... The results obtained were discouraging compared with the energetic alternative performances of the historic period. We had to wait until 1993 to obtain a serious interest in the argument, when Allen and Bennetto (1993) realized the first prototype of an electrochemical bioreactor able to reach interesting results in terms of current density using Proteus vulgaris as microorganism and, as substrate, glucose. That reactor was one of the first modern double chambers "microbial fuel cell" (MFC). ...
Chapter
Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) with the coexistence of denitrifiers and electricigens were generally observed for simultaneous nitrogen removal and electricity production. As the increasing of nitrate, the percentage of denitrifiers increased and the percentage of electricigens relatively decreased until it lost its dominant position. In denitrifying BES, anodic heterotrophic denitrification could improve organics removal and energy recovery efficiency during the treatment of nitrate-containing wastewater. In this chapter, the developments of denitrifying BES as well as the evolution of the microbial community were comprehensively introduced. Furthermore, a special type of bacteria, denitrifying electricigens, was also introduced and utilized in BES for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated waters.
... Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has been used to convert the energy stored in chemical bonds in organic compounds to electricity which is achieved through the catalytic reactions by microorganisms. This has generated considerable interest among academic researchers in recent years [2] [4] [12]. Microbial fuel cells are not newthe idea of using microorganisms to catalyze fuel cells was explored from the 1970s [4] and microbial fuel cells treating domestic wastewater were presented in 1991 [6]. ...
... The release of stored carbon in fossil fuels is increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, with increases from 316ppm in 1959 to 377 ppm in 2004 [3]. By 2100 it is estimated that CO2 concentration will reach anywhere from 560 ppm to 970 ppm [2]. Today the greatest environmental challenge is to simultaneously solve energy production and CO2 release. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two dual chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) labelled MFC-A and MFC-B were fabricated with agar-agar salt bridge as the proton exchange membrane. Each of the MFCs contained wastewater gotten from an abattoir as the catholyte. The anolyte for MFC-A was potassium ferricyanide with double copper-copper electrodes while the anolyte for MFC-B was potassium permanganate with a single copper-copper electrode. Readings of voltage and current was taken for 10 to 12 hours daily for 14 days, a total of 495 hours. Also, the MFC performance was calculated in terms of various parameters such as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), pH, conductivity and temperature. MFC-A showed a maximum voltage output of 1.812V while MFC-B showed a maximum of 1.718V. The BOD removal efficiency of MFCs A and B was calculated as 78.33% and 72.67%, respectively. MFC-A showed an average value of 1.643V on the last day of observation while MFC-B showed an average value of 1.531V on the 14 th day. An MFC generates electricity from wastewater. The voltage generated in an MFC is independent of the number of electrodes used, potassium ferricyanide gives a better result than potassium permanganate. BOD removal efficiency increases with the number of electrodes used.
... Electricity production is the principal identification and initial motive of the MFCs. MFC has been recorded for bioelectricity generation for well over a century (Potter 1910;Allen and Bennetto 1993;Mathuriya and Sharma 2009;Mathuriya and Pant 2019). Reports have shown that any chemical that can be oxidized by microbiota can further transform into electrical energy (Jadhav et al. 2018;. ...
... The results obtained were discouraging compared with the energetic alternative performances of the historic period. We had to wait until 1993 to obtain a serious interest in the argument, when Allen and Bennetto (1993) realized the first prototype of an electrochemical bioreactor able to reach interesting results in terms of current density using Proteus vulgaris as microorganism and, as substrate, glucose. That reactor was one of the first modern double chambers "microbial fuel cell" (MFC). ...
Chapter
Bioelectrochemistry and, more specifically, microbial electrochemistry are research fields that establish their fundaments on the molecular and electrochemical link between microbes (also known as exoelectrogens or, focusing only on bacteria, electrochemically active bacteria) and electrodes. Bioelectrochemistry can be used as a strategy in bioremediation when traditional bioremediation is not an option due to the lack of suitable electron acceptors, and in which bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are used for the removal of pollutants from the environment. For example, in subsurface hydrocarbon-polluted water, the absence of final electron acceptors may limit the biodegradation rate. Therefore, bioelectrochemical systems can be used as a sustainable remediation technology. Moreover, microbial metabolism can be stimulated in a BES when overpotential is applied, increasing the rate of pollutant degradation. BES has been studied for the remediation at laboratory and pilot scale of water, soil, and sediments affected by organic pollutants, such as hydrocarbons (aliphatic, aromatic) and chlorinated compounds. In addition, BES can be exploited as biosensors to detect organic pollutants in environmental matrices and remote sites. One of the main challenges in this field is to scale up the technology towards the commercial BES remediation applications.
... The first microbial fuel cell was presented over one hundred years ago [21] and several advancements have been achieved in previous years [22,23]; in the past 10e15 years, the research related to BESs and MFCs has grown exponentially [1]. One of the main bottlenecks of the technology dedicated to produce useful electricity is the low current/power generation generated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Self-stratifying microbial fuel cells with three different electrodes sizes and volumes were operated in supercapacitive mode. As the electrodes size increased, the equivalent series resistance decreased, and the overall power was enhanced (small: ESR = 7.2 Ω and P max = 13 mW; large: ESR = 4.2 Ω and P max = 22 mW). Power density referred to cathode geometric surface area and displacement volume of the electrolyte in the reactors. With regards to the electrode wet surface area, the large size electrodes (L-MFC) displayed the lowest power density (460 μW cm-2) whilst the small and medium size electrodes (S-MFC, M-MFC) showed higher densities (668 μW cm-2 and 633 μW cm-2, respectively). With regard to the volumetric power densities the S-MFC, the M-MFC and the L-MFC had similar values (264 μW mL-1, 265 μW mL-1 and 249 μW cm-1, respectively). Power density normalised in terms of carbon weight utilised for fabricating MFC cathodes-electrodes showed high output for smaller electrode size MFC (5811 μW g-1-C- and 3270 μW g-1-C- for the S-MFC and L-MFC, respectively) due to the fact that electrodes were optimised for MFC operations and not supercapacitive discharges. Apparent capacitance was high at lower current pulses suggesting high faradaic contribution. The electrostatic contribution detected at high current pulses was quite low. The results obtained give rise to important possibilities of performance improvements by optimising the device design and the electrode fabrication.
... Current generated can be find out using ohm's law I = V∕R Then power generated, P = VI or P = V 2 ∕R Power density = P/A of anode To test the current producing capability of the cell, they were allowed to discharge through different range of resistances and the polarizing curves were [8] constructed. ...
... The MFC is an artificially designed BES, in which electricity can be directly harvested from biodegradable matters through the catalytic action of electroactive microorganisms (EAM) in the anodic chamber (Allen and Bennetto, 1993;Franks and Nevin, 2010;Ieropoulos et al., 2016;Logan et al., 2019;McAnulty et al., 2017). In the MFC a spatial purpose separator initiates charge separation between the anode (oxidation reaction) and the cathode (reduction reaction), thus generating an electric potential difference termed as Galvani potential difference or simply electrode potential (Gruning et al., 2014) (Fig. 1a and 1b). ...
Article
Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a robust technology capable of treating real wastewaters by utilizing mixed anaerobic microbiota as inoculum for producing electricity from oxidation of the biodegradable matters. However, these mixed microbiota comprises of both electroactive microorganisms (EAM) and substrate/electron scavenging microorganisms such as methanogens. Hence, in order to maximize bioelectricity from MFC, different physio-chemical techniques have been applied in past investigations to suppress activity of methanogens. Interestingly, recent investigations exhibit that methanogens can produce electricity in MFC and possess the cellular machinery like cytochrome c and Type IV pili to perform extracellular electron transfer (EET) in the presence of suitable electron acceptors. Hence, in this review, in-depth analysis of versatile behaviour of methanogens in both MFC and natural anaerobic conditions with different inhibition techniques is explored. This review also discusses the future research directions based on the latest scientific evidence on role of methanogens for EET in MFC.
... Bio-battery consists of two electrodes (anode and cathode), enzymes, and electronic mediators that transfer electrons between electrodes and the enzymes (Togibasa et al. 2019). The amount of organic substance availability in wastewater possesses significant energy and promising technology for converting this sustainable carbon source into electrical energy would contribute largely to the present energy requirement (Allen and Bennetto 1993;Angenent et al. 2010;Ismail and Habeeb 2017;Rabaey and Verstraete 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Renewable energy such as microbial fuel cell may be an important promising potential alternative source to conventional fuels in energy production as well as wastewater treatment. In the present article, the sediment sludge in microbial fuel cell was adopted for generating electricity. The experimental data illustrated that the organic contents of the sludge sample have a major impact on the produced power despite the low bacterial presence. It was shown that a 38% increase in the organic content resulted a 86% increase in generated power. Doubling electrodes surface area increased generated power by 40% for the anode and 60% for the cathode. In addition, introducing excessive oxygen to both anode and cathode chambers has a negative impact and decreased the power by 30% especially with the presence of oxygen in the anode chamber. Connecting cells in series increased internal resistance, but overall produced power was increased by almost 30%. A distance of 8–10 cm between anode and cathode was found to be optimum. In addition, the results also showed that the system exposure to oxygen continuously causes a decrease in the amount of energy generated due to the influence of the anaerobic environment in the anode region. With a continuous run of sediment microbial fuel cell for the duration of 4 days, a stable increasing rate of power generation was achieved.
... These generated electrons travel through the external circuit toward the cathode while protons pass through the membrane or separator toward the cathode. These electrons and protons react with oxygen to form water at the cathode [1,10]. The generated electricity can be utilized by an external resistor placed between the anode and cathode [11]. ...
Chapter
Waste is the refuse generated by almost every human activity that gets worse when dissolved in water. Wastewater has a considerable amount of complex biological and chemical materials that can cause serious safety, sanitation, and environmental problems. However, these complex biological and chemical materials of wastewater also encourage the growth of countless microbial flora that can survive even in extreme environments. The development of a pathway to generate electricity from this microbial flora’s ability to degrade these biological and chemical materials is the driving force for the development of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). MFCs are bioelectrochemical systems that convert the chemical energy of wastewaters into electrical energy by metabolic (catalytic) activity of microorganisms. This chapter discusses the wastewater treatment potentials of MFCs.
... Una tecnología que utiliza células de combustible microbianas (CCM), convierten la energía almacenada en los enlaces químicos de los compuestos orgánicos en energía eléctrica lograda a través de las reacciones catalíticas de los microorganismos, ha generado considerable interés entre los investigadores académicos en los últimos años (Allen & Bennetto, 2009) (Gil, y otros, 2003) (Moon, Chang, & Kim, 2006) (Choi, Jung, Kim, & Jung, 2003). Las bacterias pueden ser utilizados en una CCM para generar electricidad, mientras que cumplen el papel de Biorremediación y degradación de materia orgánica (Park & Zeikus, 2000) (Oh & Logan, Hydrogen and electricity production from a foodprocessing wastewater using fermentation and microbial fuel celltechnologie, 2005). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
This project consists of building a microbial fuel cell with stainless steel and graphite electrodes, and evaluating the electrical performance using synthetic wastewater.
... 12 As the direct transfer of electrons from bacteria to anode is easily hampered by the nonconductive lipid membrane of bacterial cells, the electron mediators have usually been involved in the earlier MFCs, which can accelerate electron transfer through the capture of electrons from the interior of bacterial cells and their release to anode. [13][14][15] Considering the cost, toxicity, and the need for constant replenishment, the addition of mediators seems not to be sustainable. Therefore, the MFC technology was found to be stagnated until 1999, when the exoelectrogens that directly transfer electrons to electrodes were gradually revealed. ...
Article
Full-text available
For the performance improvement of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), the anode becomes a breakthrough point due to its influence on bacterial attachment and extracellular electron transfer (EET). On other level, carbon materials possess the following features: low cost, rich natural abundance, good thermal and chemical stability, as well as tunable surface properties and spatial structure. Therefore, the development of carbon materials and carbon‐based composites has flourished in the anode of MFCs during the past years. In this review, the major carbon materials used to decorate MFC anodes have been systematically summarized, based on the differences in composition and structure. Moreover, we have also outlined the carbon material‐based hybrid biofilms and carbon material‐modified exoelectrogens in MFCs, along with the discussion of known strategies and mechanisms to enhance the bacteria‐hosting capabilities of carbon material‐based anodes, EET efficiencies, and MFC performances. Finally, the main challenges coupled with some exploratory proposals are also expounded for providing some guidance on the future development of carbon material‐based anodes in MFCs.
... Afterwards the first MFC was constructed by Cohen et al. [19,20]. To enhance power output, researchers turned their attention to the utilization of electron transport mediators [20,21]. However, research on electrogenic respiration in BES declined dramatically until the mid-1990s. ...
Article
Using conventional anaerobic digestion to treat refractory wastewater has several drawbacks such as long start-up period, temperature sensitivity, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation and so on. The coupling of the bioelectrochemical systems with anaerobic digestion (BES-AD) has been proposed to enhance the degradation of refractory pollutants. In this review, the mechanism of BES-AD is firstly discussed. Then, the performance of BES-AD is evaluated with respect to different types of wastewater, anaerobic reactors, electrode materials and microbial communities associated with different systems. The embedding of BES addresses the accumulation of VFA and accelerates the start-up period, thus, allows for the growth of various microbial communities in the system. Novel electrodes with high biocompatibility and large specific surface area can be fabricated by the bioelectrodes-based modification and used for synergistic reinforcement of the system by combining macroscopic effects with microscopic biological mechanisms. However, the modification of BES electrodes is deemed to be the key for further improving BES performance.
... The microbial bioelectrochemical systems contain single or series of chambers in which anode-and cathode-mediated redox reactions are catalyzed particularly by microbes due to activities of electrogenic biocatalysts (Allen and Bennetto, 1993). Electrons generated from the oxidation of organic matter by the microbial action are transferred to the anode via conductive material from the cathode, which produce electric current, and electrons at the cathode can be consumed in biotic and abiotic reduction reactions (Logan et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread across the globe mainly due to long-term anthropogenic sources of pollution. The inherent properties of PAHs such as heterocyclic aromatic ring structures, hydrophobicity, and thermostability have made them recalcitrant and highly persistent in the environment. PAH pollutants have been determined to be highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and immunotoxicogenic to various life forms. Therefore, this review discusses the primary sources of PAH emissions, exposure routes, and toxic effects on humans, in particular. This review briefly summarizes the physical and chemical PAH remediation approaches such as membrane filtration, soil washing, adsorption, electrokinetic, thermal, oxidation, and photocatalytic treatments. This review provides a detailed systematic compilation of the eco-friendly biological treatment solutions for remediation of PAHs such as microbial remediation approaches using bacteria, archaea, fungi, algae, and co-cultures. In situ and ex situ biological treatments such as land farming, biostimulation, bioaugmentation, phytoremediation, bioreactor, and vermiremediation approaches are discussed in detail, and a summary of the factors affecting and limiting PAH bioremediation is also discussed. An overview of emerging technologies employing multi-process combinatorial treatment approaches is given, and newer concepts on generation of value-added by-products during PAH remediation are highlighted in this review.
... A microbial fuel cell is a renewable energy device that uses bacteria as a biocatalyst to convert the chemical energy into electrical energy via biochemical pathways during the wastewater treatment process [1][2][3][4]. Microbial fuel cell incorporating air-breathing cathodes is a new type of MFC (Figure 1), which had various advantages such as low operating cost and zero secondary pollution [2,5]. In an air cathode MFC, electrons produced by the bacteria are transferred to the anode and flow to the cathode. ...
Article
Full-text available
Metal, as a high-performance electrode catalyst, is a research hotspot in the construction of a high-performance microbial fuel cell (MFC). However, metal catalyst nanoparticles and their dispersed carriers are prone to aggregation, producing catalytic electrodes with inferior qualities. In this study, Pd is uniformly dispersed on the graphene framework supported by carbon black to form nanocomposite catalysts (Pd/GO-C catalysts). The effect of the palladium loading amount in the catalyst on the catalytic performance of the air cathode was further studied. The optimized metal loading afforded a reduced resistance and improved accessibility of Pd particles for the ORR. The maximum current output of the 0.250 Pd (mg/cm2) MFC was 1645 mA/m2, which is 4.2-fold higher than that of the carbon paper cathode. Overall, our findings provide a novel protocol for the preparation of high-efficient ORR catalyst for MFCs.
... BES is a wellknown technology allowing simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity production. BES performance depends on activities of electrochemically-active bacteria (EAB) that form biofilms on anodic surfaces [3]. Various factors account for EAB enrichment: organic substrates, pH, temperature, electrode composition, and electrical potential [2,[4][5][6][7][8]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bio-electrochemical systems can generate electricity by virtue of mature microbial consortia that gradually and spontaneously optimize performance. To evaluate selective enrichment of these electrogenic microbial communities, five, 3-electrode reactors were inoculated with microbes derived from rice wash wastewater and incubated under a range of applied potentials. Reactors were sampled over a 12-week period and DNA extracted from anodic, cathodic, and planktonic bacterial communities was interrogated using a custom-made bioinformatics pipeline that combined 16S and metagenomic samples to monitor temporal changes in community composition. Some genera that constituted a minor proportion of the initial inoculum dominated within weeks following inoculation and correlated with applied potential. For instance, the abundance of Geobacter increased from 423-fold to 766-fold between-350 mV and-50 mV, respectively. Full metagenomic profiles of bacterial communities were obtained from reactors operating for 12 weeks. Functional analyses of metagenomes revealed metabolic changes between different species of the dominant genus, Geobacter, suggesting that optimal nutrient utilization at the lowest electrode potential is achieved via genome rearrangements and a strong inter-strain selection, as well as adjustment of the characteristic syntrophic relationships. These results reveal a certain degree of metabolic plasticity of electrochemically active bacteria and their communities in adaptation to adverse anodic and cathodic environments.
... Microbial interference in addressing the issues related to environmental pollution could offer economically viable and socially acceptable solution. An integration of microorganisms and electrochemical systems has led to developing green technologies that could generate power from wastewater or polluted soils [18,19]. Microbial strains have been characterized for the development of bioplastic. ...
Chapter
Microorganisms dominate the terrestrial environment at the Earth. They can thrive the moderate to harsh niches in the biosphere. It is desirable to explore the microbial resource for bioprospection, i.e. search for the seeds of useful biomolecules, biochemical, and genetic information. Bioprospection for microbes covers application to commodity chemical products, foods, medicines, cosmetics, environmentally friendly products, etc. The microbial resource has been demonstrated to be a biomass value of neutraceutical, pharmaceutical, food, biomedical, bioenergetic importance. The enormous microbial diversity is largely unexplored, yet. Extensive research is being done on exploiting the microbial diversity for the benefit of humanity. This book covers diverse aspects of bioprospecting of microorganisms for the extraction of several industrially important biomolecules.
... This didn't generate much interest until 1980s when it was discovered that current density and the power output could be greatly enhanced by the addition of electron mediators. Typical synthetic exogenous mediators include dyes and metallorganics such as neutral red (NR), methylene blue (MB), thionine, meldola's blue (MelB), 2-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone (HNQ), and Fe (III) EDTA (Ieropoulos et al., 2005;Park and Zeikus, 2000;Tokuji and Kenji, 2003;Vega and Fernandez, 1987;Allen and Bennetto, 1993). Unfortunately, the toxicity and instability of synthetic mediators limit their applications in MFCs. ...
Article
Full-text available
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that generates current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Sewage wastewater collected from different locations and effluents from Textile industries in Mumbai city were screened for generation of electricity using a "Two chambered H-type MFC unit". The present study demonstrated that maximum electricity was generated from effluent of textile industry using MFC, while at the same time accomplishing biological waste treatment of the same. Highest current output was obtained with 10% KCl and 7% agar concentration in salt bridge after running it for 120 hrs. The effects of different cathodic electron acceptors were tested and optimum catholyte obtained was 40mM potassium ferricyanide which showed maximum current production of 0.64 mA. Effect of various sugars was screened and 1 % glucose and 1% sucrose exhibited optimum growth of indigenous flora present in the waste water. Hence 0.5% of molasses in textile dyeing effluent generated maximum current. Scanning electron Microscopy of anode biofilm showed formation of nanowires. Optimised MFC system with Textile Dye industry effluent generated maximum current of 0.768mA with 76.4% of BOD reduction.
... It also displays the reactions that typically take place at both electrodes when acetate is used as a substrate by the anodic microorganisms [100]. The first report of electricity production by bacteria was made in 1911, although it was not until the beginning of the 1990s that MFCs focused researchers' attention [101][102][103][104]. In recent years, many advances have been made in terms of new materials, designs, low cost catalysts or substrates. ...
... The schematic of a typical double chambered MFC (DCMFC) is represented in Fig. 13.1. This technology was furthered by Allen and Bennetto (1993) who used the pure culture of bacteria to catalyze the oxidation of organics using artificial mediators for easy electron transfer from bacteria to the anode. Further advancement in MFC studies was brought about by Kim et al. (1999) who introduced the concept of electrochemically active bacteria that could facilitate oxidation of a variety of substances. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Microbial Fuel cell (MFC) has come up as a promising technology for the treatment of wastewater along with simultaneous energy generation. In the initial stages of development of MFC technology, it was mainly used for organic matter removal, specially COD, but nowadays, it is also explored for treatments that include heavy metal removal/recovery, dye degradation and colour removal, nutrient toxicity removal (phosphate, nitrate) and treatment of other xenobiotic compounds like nitrobenzene, chlorobenzene and others. While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are costly due to their dependence on energy and chemicals, the MFC technology recovers energy from the wastewater during treatment. Further, there is no generation of toxic sludge in this bioelectrochemical method in contrast to that of traditional physico-chemical treatment methods. The present chapter critically discusses various applications of MFC technology in wastewater treatment along with its power generation scenario. Challenges associated with MFC technology to finally upscale it to the field level can be addressed by further research insights, particularly in the areas including electrode material, separators, biofilm communities, design and configuration briefly discussed in this study. The chapter critically assesses the technical and economic feasibility of MFC technology that can play an important role towards achieving the sustainability goals of clean water and alternate energy through energy-supported wastewater treatment.
... It also displays the reactions that typically take place at both electrodes when acetate is used as a substrate by the anodic microorganisms [100]. The first report of electricity production by bacteria was made in 1911, although it was not until the beginning of the 1990s that MFCs focused researchers' attention [101][102][103][104]. In recent years, many advances have been made in terms of new materials, designs, low cost catalysts or substrates. ...
... The results obtained were discouraging compared with the energetic alternative performances of the historic period. We had to wait until 1993 to obtain a serious interest in the argument when Allen and Bennetto (Allen & Bennetto, 1993) realized the first prototype of an electrochemical bioreactor able to reach interesting results in terms of current density using Proteus vulgaris and, as substrate, glucose. That reactor was one of the first modern double chamber "Microbial Fuel Cell" (MFC). ...
Chapter
Compost is widely used to improve soil fertility for its chemical-physical properties, with particular regard to the abundance of humic substances. Compared to the untreated organic solid waste, the use of compost in Microbial Fuel Cells (MFCs) could offer different advantages like the strong reduction of fermentative processes. The use of compost in MFCs in combination with soil or mixed with other substrates had been reported by some researchers to improve the performance of MFCs fed with agro-industrial residues and plant-MFCs. In this chapter, we report the results of an experiment carried out using a compost of vegetable residues as feedstock in a single chamber, air cathode MFCs. We investigated the behaviour of two MFCs serially connected, the possibility to use compost as a long-term source of energy in MFCs, the influence of cathode surface /cell volume ratio on MFCs performance in terms of power and current density. Our results showed for MFCs serially connected a maximum PD and CD of 234 mW/m 2 and 1.6 A/m 2 respectively, with a maximum OCV of 557 mV. Unexpectedly, the compost-based MFCs kept significant electric outputs (854 mV, 467 mW/m 2 kg and 114 mA/m 2 kg) after being reactivated two years later its setup thus demonstrating its potential as long-term operation energy system.
... Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-electrochemical system that dri~es current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature (Min et al., 2005). A microbial fuel cell is a device that converts chemical energy to electrical energy by the catalytic reaction of micro-organisms (Allen and Bennetto, 1993). A typical microbial fuel cell consists of anode and cathode compartments separated by a cation specific membrane. ...
Article
The application of graphene (Gr) to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cell (MECs) is considered a very promising approach in terms of enhancing their performance. The superior Gr properties of high electrical and thermal conductivities, along with: superior specific surface area, high electron mobility, and mechanical strength, are the key features that endorse this. Factors impeding the advancement of a microbial fuel cell into commercialization involve primarily the cost of their components, and their production on a small scale. Gr with such outstanding characteristics can help mitigate these challenges, when used as electrode material. The application of Gr as an anode material improves the efficiency of electron transfer and bacterial attachment. When used as a cathode material, it supports the oxygen reduction reaction. This investigation, presents a thorough analysis of the feasibility of Gr as an electrode material in both MFC and MEC applications - based on experimental results from the investigation. Current technological advancements in the implementation of Gr in MFC and MEC are also highlighted in this review. To summarise, the investigation exposes critical issues impeding the advancement of microbial fuel cells, and proposes possible solutions to mitigate these challenges.
Article
Application of microbial fuel cell (MFC) is coming to the forefront as a dual-purpose system for wastewater treatment and energy recovery. Future research should emphasize on developing low cost field-scale MFCs for removal of organic matter, nutrients, xenobiotic and recalcitrant compounds from wastewaters and powering low energy devices. For achieving this, low cost electrodes, low cost yet efficient cathode catalysts and proton exchange membrane (PEM) should be developed from waste-based resources to salvage the waste-derived material as much as possible, thereby reducing the fabrication cost of this device. Biochar is one such low cost material, which has wide range of applications. This review discusses different applications of biochar in MFC, viz. in the form of standalone electrodes, electrocatalyst and material for PEM in light of different characteristics of biochar. Further emphasis is given on the future direction of research for implementation of biochar-based PEMs and electrodes in field-scale MFCs.
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The numerous ability function of microbial fuel cells creates them more generative in research field at current era. This experimental study includes construction of fuel cell using microorganism in an efficient manner, and the test was carried out in dual chamber microbial fuel cell. In the investigation, dairy wastewater, sugar mill wastewater, and domestic waste effluent were used as waste matter substance. Wastewater characteristics such as total dissolved solids, chemical oxygen demand, and biochemical oxygen demand were observed prior to and later than process the wastewater effluent in microbial fuel cell using yeast as accelerator. In this case study, chemical oxygen demand and biochemical oxygen demand after deduction were established to be 82.68 and 57.52% for dairy wastewater effluent, 91.65 and 80.90% for sugar mill wastewater, 84.19 and 81.08% for domestic wastewater, respectively. The highest voltage generated throughout the experimental run of dairy wastewater was found to be 1.03, 0.098 and 0.081 V generated for the duration of the experimental run of domestic and sugar mill wastewater. In the experimental run, voltage generated during the treatment of dairy wastewater is more. The overall production showed that the organic matter has been successfully treated higher in the dairy wastewater and produces additional electrons when correlated to leather and domestic wastewater in the experimental run.
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Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) is an alternative to convent Victorian wastewater treatment approach. This case study work shows the MFC as an appreciable approach in the treatment of dairy waste effluent and electricity generation. The better design results are calculated by appraising the practical by taking distinct electrodes, with different electrodes, and their surface area with separate detention time. MFC in graphite, carbon rods, aluminum rod, and stainless steel are used as electrode, and Agar + Sodium Chloride salt bridge issued as protonex change membrane bridge and established as the better design at 10 days of detention time and generated energy of 359 mV to 1106 mV, respectively. The amount of removal efficiencies accomplished in this case study experimental setup for different wastewater parameters which are COD, BOD, and TDS are 93.98%, 90.63%, and 57.52%, respectively. Finally, the result is concluded that “Microbial Fuel Cell Technology” is good alternative for dairy wastewater treatment and simultaneous energy production.
Article
Waste generation is steadily growing in developing countries such as India due to the continuous growth of industrialization, urbanization, and population. Mismanagement of municipal solid waste (MSW) not only has negative environmental effects but also causes the risk to public health and raises some other socio-economic issues that are worth discussions. Therefore, it is essential to urgently enhance the handling of waste collection, segregation, and safe disposal. Waste-to-energy (WtE) technologies such as pyrolysis, gasification, incineration, and biomethanation can convert MSW, as an appropriate source of renewable energy, into useful energy (electricity and heat) in safe and eco-friendly ways. This review aims at (1) describing the challenges of MSW management, (2) summarizing the health significance of MSW management, (3) explaining the opportunities and requirements of energy recovery from MSW through WtE technologies, (4) explaining several WtE technologies in detail, and (5) discussing the current status of WtE technologies in India. The paper also discusses the challenges to WtE projects in India. Moreover, a number of recommendations are provided for improving the currently implemented solid waste management (SWM) in the Indian context. This review has the potential of helping scholars, researchers, authorities, and stakeholders working on MSW management to make effective decisions.
Article
Environmental pollution and energy shortage are two important concerns that may seriously impair the sustainable development of our society. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are attractive technology for the direct conversion of chemical energy of organic wastes into electric power to realize simultaneous electrical power recovery and environmental remediation. In comparison to organic wastewater, solid organic waste is more difficult to be degraded. Food waste as one of the important organic wastes has significant impact on our ecosystem. Here, by taking solid potato waste (SPW) as a typical solid food waste, the impact of waste activated sludge (WAS) as a second waste to introduce synergistic effects between them to enhance waste-to-power conversion in microbial fuel cell (MFC) was systematically investigated. For the MFCs with seven different mixing ratios of SPW and WAS, the MFC with mixing ratio of 6:1 produced the highest maximum current density and maximum power density of 320.1 mA/m² and 14.1 mW/m². Mixing larger ratios of WAS (2:1 and 4:1) resulted in only a very slight increase in coulombic efficiency; while mixing smaller ratios of WAS (6:1, 8:1 and 10:1) significantly increased the coulombic efficiency, and the coulombic efficiency showed an obvious increase as the WAS mixing ratio decreased. Less humic acid- and fulvic acid-like substances were formed from the hydrolysis and degradation of SPW and WAS, and most of dissolved macromolecular organic matters were hydrolyzed into organic fractions with small molecular weight. Principal component analysis indicated that the composition of dissolved organic matters was significantly influenced by different mixing ratios of SPW and WAS throughout the operation. The study provides a promising strategy for enhancing energy recovery from SPW in MFCs.
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Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) are two types of bioelectrochemical technology. These two systems each have a compact design, low cost, and renewable energy production. This chapter summarizes the latest literature regarding MFCs, soil MFCs, and PMFCs for wastewater treatment and soil remediation. The first part contains an introduction of the concepts, history, and principle involved. It shows that microorganisms play a key role in the electricity production of MFCs and PMFCs. Then, the relevant materials and configurations are also summarized. New materials, decoration, and modifications have improved the performance of MFCs and PMFCs. Afterward, based on these concepts, applying MFCs in treatment for domestic wastewater, agricultural wastewater, and industrial wastewater can remove pollutions and generate electricity. Soil MFCs for remediating organic pollutions and heavy metals can produce power through long‐term operation due to the large soil resources in the environment. The advantages of bioelectrochemical technology and plant uptake in PMFCs have multiple functions, and their mechanisms achieved high pollution removal for wastewater treatment and soil remediation. Finally, further research should be performed to optimize the designs, materials, soil properties, microorganisms, and plant species to improve the electrical generation, pollution removal, and applicability of such systems.
Article
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Soil has been used to generate electrical power in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and unveiled numerous potential applications. This study aims to disclose the outcome of soil properties on the generated electricity and the range of soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria. Soil samples will be studied across Nashik area and packed into air-cathode MFCs to generate electricity over a long duration such as 270 days period. The bacteria are cultured using the agar solution in the laboratory. Culturable strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria were isolated and identified phylogenetically. Their exoelectrogenic ability was evaluated by polarization measurement. The sequencing of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria showed that Clostridia were dominant in all soil samples. The expected outcomeof the study is that soil OC content had the most important effect on power generation and that the Clostridiaceae were the dominant exoelectrogenic bacterial group in soil. This study might lead to the discovery of more soil source exoelectrogenic bacteria species.
Article
Aims: Electroactive microorganisms play a significant role in microbial fuel cells. It is necessary to discover potential resources in plant endophytes. In this study, plant tissues were selected to isolate endophytic bacteria, and the electrochemical activity potential was evaluated. Methods and results: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is used to evaluate the electricity-producing activity of endophytic bacteria in plant tissues, and the species distribution of microorganisms in the anode of the MFC after inoculation of plant tissues is determined by high-throughput sequencing. Twenty-six strains of bacteria were isolated from plant tissues belonging to Angelica and Sweet Potato, of which 17 strains from 6 genera had electrochemical activity, including Bacillus sp., Pleomorphomonas sp., Rahnella sp., Shinella sp., Paenibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp.. Moreover, the electricity-producing microorganisms in the plant tissue are enriched. Pseudomonas and Clostridioides are the dominant genera of MFC anode inoculated with angelica tissue. Staphylococcus and Lachnoclostridium are the dominant genera in MFC anode inoculated with sweet potato tissue. And the most representative Gram-positive strain Staphylococcus succinus subsp. succinus H6 and plant tissue were further analyzed for electrochemical activity. And a strain numbered H6 and plant tissue had a good electrogenerating activity. Conclusion: This study is of great significance for expanding the resource pool of electricity-producing microorganisms and tapping the potential of plant endophytes for electricity-producing. Significance and impact of study: This is the first study to apply plant endophytes to MFC to explore the characteristics of electricity production. It is of great significance for exploring the diversity of plant endophytes and the relationship between electricity producing bacteria and plants.
Article
Possibility of pyrolyzing high-density polyethylene (HDPE) waste and activating the HDPE-derived carbon (HDC) to be utilized as an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst in microbial fuel cell (MFC) was explored. The Fourier transform infra-red spectrum of synthesized HDC indicated the presence of key surface functional groups that aid in catalyzing ORR, while the X-ray diffractogram indicated carbonization of HDC that enhanced electrical conductivity. Cyclic voltammogram and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of HDC demonstrated an ORR peak current density of − 2.46 mA cm‒2, which was found to be comparable with commercial activated carbon (AC, − 2.71 mA cm‒2). The MFC with HDC as cathode catalyst (MFC–HDC) rendered a power density (115 mW m‒2) that was only 25% lower than the MFC with commercial AC as a catalyst (MFC–AC). Organic matter removal efficiency of MFC–HDC was comparable to MFC–AC. Thus, the low-cost HDC electrocatalyst (0.025 $ g‒1) exhibited catalytic performance comparable with AC (12 $ g‒1) and difference between the performance of the two MFCs with HDC and AC as catalyst can be attributed to the lower specific surface area (232 m2 g‒1) of the HDC catalyst as compared to AC (1200 m2 g‒1). Thus, for future applications, the specific surface area of HDC catalyst need to be improved to make it competitive with commercial AC. HDPE-derived activated char (HDC) can act as an effective cathode catalystAcid (HNO3) activation enhances surface imperfections and incorporates nitro groupComparable electrochemical properties of HDC and commercial activated carbon (AC)MFC with HDC electrocatalyst showed notable electrical performancePower performance and organic matter removal of MFC using HDC comparable with AC HDPE-derived activated char (HDC) can act as an effective cathode catalyst Acid (HNO3) activation enhances surface imperfections and incorporates nitro group Comparable electrochemical properties of HDC and commercial activated carbon (AC) MFC with HDC electrocatalyst showed notable electrical performance Power performance and organic matter removal of MFC using HDC comparable with AC
Article
The generation of energy and its efficient use in industries and agriculture are critical to any country's growth. A country like India, which is still developing, faces a major challenge in terms of generating adequate electricity. With the current crisis and environmental concerns, the government must look past carbon-based energy sources and into long-term energy sources. Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a form of technology that can be used to both treat wastewater and generate electricity on a large scale. Researchers play a critical role in making this technology practical and effective enough to be implemented. However, since the charge of building microbial fuel cells is superior than the cost of fossil fuels, it is unlikely that power production will continually be aggressive with existing energy generation approaches. However, improvements in power densities and lower material expenses could render microbial fuel cells a viable option for energy making in the future. Following a thorough literature review, the analysis resumes the role of micro-organisms and substrates in the anode chamber. Microbial fuel cells are discussed in terms of their forms, materials, mechanism, and activity. This analysis discusses the various factors that influence microbial fuel cells, as well as contemporary challenges and applications in the development of sustainable electrical power.
Article
The present research deals with the development of Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cell (SMFC) using the organic wastes and their admixture in the presence of 0.01% fulvic acid. The organic wastes such as fallen leaves (FL), bamboo waste (BW), leaf mould (LM), rice bran (RB) and fulvic acid (FA) were used during the operation of SMFC. The anode and cathode materials were bamboo carbon (with iron winding) and granular activated carbon respectively. The study explored the possibilities of generating power due to the microbial degradation of chosen organic wastes and their admixtures. The polarization curves were plotted with the current – voltage and current – power characteristics for the influence of organic wastes and the admixtures in the presence of fulvic acid. The maximum electrical power of 1071 mWm⁻² was generated using the organic admixture containing BW, LM and RB in the presence of FA. The SMFC with different admixtures corroborated the microbial degradation of organic compounds and the subsequent power generation with respect to days. The admixture used in the SMFC was proved very effective as compost in growing Komatsuna seeds with a scope for recycling and zero disposal. The Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy study corroborated the influence of admixture compositions in the variation of resistance values. The characterization studies such as SEM (with EDS), FTIR, Raman and BET studies corroborated the changes caused to the surface of the bamboo carbon anode. The cost analysis confirmed that the fabrication of SMFC unit is inexpensive thanks to the consumables from sustainable sources.
Article
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Bioelectrochemical systems (BES) represent a wide range of different biofilm-based bioreactors that includes microbial fuel cells (MFCs), microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) and microbial desalination cells (MDCs). The first described bioelectrical bioreactor is the Microbial Fuel Cell and with the exception of MDCs, it is the only type of BES that actually produces harvestable amounts of electricity, rather than requiring an electrical input to function. For these reasons, this review article, with previously unpublished supporting data, focusses primarily on MFCs. Of relevance is the architecture of these bioreactors, the type of membrane they employ (if any) for separating the chambers along with the size, as well as the geometry and material composition of the electrodes which support biofilms. Finally, the structure, properties and growth rate of the microbial biofilms colonising anodic electrodes, are of critical importance for rendering these devices, functional living ‘engines’ for a wide range of applications.
Article
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Environmental and economic considerations suggest a more efficient and comprehensive use of biomass for bioenergy production. One of the most attractive technologies is the microbial fuel cell using the catabolic activity of microorganisms to generate electricity from organic matter. The microbial fuel cell (MFC) has operational benefits and higher performance than current technologies for producing energy from organic materials because it converts electricity from the substrate directly (at ambient temperature). However, MFCs are still not suitable for high energy demand due to practical limitations. The overall performance of an MFC depends on the electrode material, the reactor design, the operating parameters, substrates, and microorganisms. Furthermore, the optimization of the parameters will lead to the commercial development of this technology in the near future. The simultaneous effect of the parameters on each other (intensifier or attenuator) has also been investigated. The investigated parameters in this study include temperature, pH, flow rate and hydraulic retention time, mode, external resistance, and initial concentration. HIGHLIGHTS We discuss about operating parameters that affect MFC in this review.; Knowing different parameters.; Simultaneous effect of parameters on each other.; The concentration effect and the impact of nitrogen presence.; The flexibility of the system.; Optimize and design it better.;
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This work describes crucial steps LED lighting from a simple device microbial fuel cell without membrane, using a domestic wastewater. Firstly, wastewater from activated sludge of Beni Messous was analyzed to be inoculated in the MFC as a source of anodic electroactive biofilm AEB using acetate as substrate. The AEB revealed higher current densities exceeding 100 mA/m2, where, working electrode (WE) polarized at +0.155 V/SCE had given better result compared to −0.155/SCE and +0.3 V/SCE. The microbial analyses had demonstrated a microbial population diversify belonging to bacterial groups already studied and listed in the literature to be electroactive and that Gram negative bacteria were dominated more than Gram positive. Secondly, the performances of a membrane less MFC (ML-MFC) were investigated polarization curves study and demonstrated that ML-MFC had a reactor behavior to produce current. After 150 days of ML-MFC operation, the maximum power and current densities had reached 7.07 and 50 mA/m², respectively, with an internal resistance of 434 Ω. Through the present study, using Benimessous-STEP wastewater for the renewable energy (bioelectricity) production via a ML-MFC was considered as a feasible, economical, and sustainable process.
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Biotechnological processes for biohydrogen production have been developed in recent years, among which dark fermentation and the use of microbial electrolysis cells are two technologies with economic feasibility for the production of organic acids and gaseous fuels such as hydrogen. One of the advantages of these technologies is the possibility of using organic waste as a substrate for the application of the bioprocess. In this chapter, the background, fundamentals and applications of both technologies are presented. Dark fermentation can produce hydrogen, CO2, and volatile fatty acids as final byproducts of the anaerobic conversion of substrates rich in carbohydrates. This process can be used as an initial step in a biorefinery for the treatment of waste and production of energy and value-added subproducts. Microbial electrolysis cells combine electrochemical cell elements such as electrodes and an external energy source with characteristics of biological reactors to produce energy in the form of electrical current, biogas and hydrogen. Hydrogen gas is formed through the combination of abiotic and biological electrochemical reactions, the latter being catalyzed by electroactive microorganisms. Microbial electrolysis cells represent a flexible technology that provides multiple routes to take advantage of residual biomass for energy production; the focus in this chapter is to describe relevant aspects that characterize this technology.
Article
The requirement for a low-cost option for wastewater treatment and simultaneous bioenergy and resource recovery from the wastewater to make treatment sustainable has prompted the researchers to seek innovative technologies. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is one of the bio-based novel technologies that converts the chemical energy of substrate into electrical energy using electrochemically active bacteria as biocatalyst. With the forefront energy crisis, the MFC has gained widespread popularity due to its capability to harvest direct electricity, while simultaneously treating wastewater. To make this technology scalable, significant efforts and modifications have been attempted by the researchers, including improved design, hybrid concepts, use of low-cost materials for the basic components (electrodes, membrane), establishing innovative low-cost catalysts, identifying several microorganisms as exoelectrogens and methods of pre-treatment of mixed anaerobic sludge to enrich electrogens, etc. This review summarises some of these recent advances pertaining to the MFC and few upscaling applications of MFC. Furthermore, a concise future scope is elaborated in the view of common challenges in the field of MFC for wastewater treatment.
Article
In this study, the zeolitic imidazolate framework-67 (ZIF-67) and electrospinning polyacrylonitrile membrane were combined to prepare electrospinning carbon nanofibers composite cathode (ZIF-67/CNFs) which could enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) cathode. The optimum electrode 3 wt.% ZIF-67/CNFs revealed the excellent ORR performance with a half-wave potential of -0.03 V vs. Ag/AgCl, which was more positive than Pt/C-CC (-0.09 V vs. Ag/AgCl). The highest output voltage (607 ± 9 mV) and maximum power density (1.191 ± 0.017 W m⁻²) were obtained when the prepared ZIF-67/CNFs electrode was applied to the cathode of MFC (ZIF-67/CNFs-MFC). In addition, ZIF-67/CNFs-MFC showed the best pollutant removal effect. Geobacter was the highest proportion of microbial in ZIF-67/CNFs-MFC. The results have shown that the application of ZIF-67/CNFs electrode to MFC cathode is promising.
Article
Phenol is one of the most commonly known chemical compound found as a pollutant in the chemical industrial wastewater. This pollutant has potential threat for human health and environment, as it can be easily absorbed by the skin and the mucous. Here, we prepared dual chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC) sensor for the detection of phenol. Varying concentration of phenol (100 mg/l, 250 mg/l, 500 mg/l, and 1000 mg/l) was applied as a substrate to the MFC and their change in output voltage was also measured. After adding 100 mg/l, 250 mg/l, 500 mg/l, and 1000 mg/l of phenol as sole substrate to the MFC, the maximum voltage output was obtained as 360 ± 10 mV, 395 ± 8 mV, 320 ± 7 mV, 350 ± 5 mV respectively. This biosensor was operated using industrial wastewater isolated microbes as a sensing element and phenol was used as a sole substrate. The topologies of ANN were analyzed to get the best model to predict the power output of MFCs and the training algorithms were compared with their convergence rates in training and test results. Time series model was used for regression analysis to predict the future values based on previously observed values. Two types of mathematical modeling i.e. Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG) algorithm and Time-series model was used with 44 experimental data with varying phenol concentration and varying synthetic wastewater concentration to optimize the biosensor performance. Both SCG and time series showing the best results with R2 value 0.98802 and 0.99115.
Article
The chemical energy contained in wastewater can be considered as a promising sustainable energy source and can be recovered using microbial fuel cell technology by means of electro-active bacteria. There are several brewery industries releasing wastewater into the environment, posing serious environmental issues. Herein, we demonstrated treatment of brewery wastewater and production of bioelectricity simultaneously using double chamber MFCs by inoculating locally isolated microorganisms. Microorganisms were locally isolated from brewery waste sludge (named as BSGB1 and BSGB2), brewery wastewater (BWGB3 and BWGB4) and food processing industry waste sludge (FSGB5 and FSGB6). Total dissolved solids (TDS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were determined before and after treatment of brewery wastewater by locally isolated microorganisms. The results revealed that the microorganisms isolated from brewery waste sludge outperformed the bacteria isolated from brewery wastewater and food processing industry waste sludge. The maximum power density of 0.8 W/m 3 and 0.35 W/m 3 was generated by MFC inoculated with locally isolated microorganisms from brewery waste sludge using the synthetic and real-brewery wastewater, respectively. The removal efficiency of COD was 79− 83%, indicating significant treatment of brewery waste-water by locally isolated microorganisms while generating sustainable and clean energy.
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Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are emerging environmental biotechnologies that involve microbial interfacial electron transfer and electrochemical transformations for achieving sustainable energy and carbon neutrality. BESs provide an excellent strategy for the processes based on microbial metabolic oxidation and reduction in comparison to conventional chemical and environmental processes. Thus, a plethora of applications including electricity production via oxidation of the waste biodegradable substrates in the anode compartment and the use of this electricity (along with additional required energy) for production of chemicals and energy carriers (such as H2) in the cathode compartment has sparked a great interest in BESs. In this chapter, a brief introduction to BESs is provided along with reviews about microbial, technological, and thermodynamic fundamentals of the BES technology, and different applications and the latest progress in the field of BESs are briefly discussed.
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Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are emerging technologies that are based on catalyzing (bio-)anode and (bio-)cathode reactions from waste biomass by exoelectrogenic microorganisms. Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which is one of the BESs’ technologies, is typically used to degrade organic wastes or wastewater for bioenergy recovery and biosynthesis. As one of the promising biotechnologies for resource recovery, value-added products have been obtained by MEC- or ME-integrated systems, such as hydrogen, methane, ethanol, etc. The fundamental reactions of (bio-)electron transport through anodic oxidation are well understood and allow us to increase reactor performance and efficiency. More attentions have been recently paid to cathode reactions on proton/electron transport and recovery, with or without microbial activities. Biogas upgrading systems have also been promoted in integrated systems, by combining bioelectrochemistry with various anaerobic processes. This chapter will focus on energy gas generation from waste organics involved in bioelectrochemical pathways and give an overview of bottlenecks and challenges related to this technology.
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Water-energy crisis and wastewater treatment (WWT) issues can be addressed simultaneously in microbial fuel cell (MFC). Being a microbial electrochemical technology, it provides flexible platform for both aerobic and anoxic treatment processes and hence provides efficient WWT solution. Simple substrate to complex industrial wastewater can be effectively treated in such system. Over the advancement in research, MFC is capable to harvest electricity from nW to kW/m³ with use of high redox catalysts and novel electrodes. The output electrical energy is sufficient to operate the different electronic appliances. With biostimulation approach, MFC can be a good option as biosensor to detect the concentration of heavy metals, COD dose, pH. Additionally, MFC attracts attention for by-product recovery during WWT. Valuable products and resources such as struvite from urine, manure, H2O2, NaOH, H2 and methane gas, and other chemicals can be recovered during electrochemical reactions. According to various applications, MFC can be used for carbon capture and sequestration (in microbial carbon capture cells), for desalination of saline water (in microbial desalination cells), for biohydrogen production (in MFC-electrolysis coupled cell), for utilizing sediment as carbon source (in benthic MFC), for sanitation (in bioelectric toilet), and so on. In advance WWT system, MFC can be pre-treatment or post-treatment obtain for efficient WWT. Thus, it can be solution for biological oxidation process and as a tertiary treatment for disinfection, denitrification, aeration to make effluent suitable for discharge. Thus, MFC provides efficient and effective solution for WWT along with electricity and by-product recovery for sustainable development.
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