Insulin receptor kinase-independent signaling via tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphatase PHLPP1
Department of Biochemistry and Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9142, USA.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (Impact Factor: 3.26). 05/2009; 107(1):65-75. DOI: 10.1002/jcb.22095
Most insulin responses correlate well with insulin receptor (IR) Tyr kinase activation; however, critical exceptions to this concept have been presented. Specific IR mutants and stimulatory IR antibodies demonstrate a lack of correlation between IR kinase activity and specific insulin responses in numerous independent studies. IR conformation changes in response to insulin observed with various IR antibodies define an IR kinase-independent signal that alters the C-terminus. IR-related receptors in lower eukaryotes that lack a Tyr kinase point to an alternative mechanism of IR signaling earlier in evolution. However, the implied IR kinase-independent signaling mechanism remained obscure at the molecular level. Here we begin to define the molecular basis of an IR-dependent but IR kinase-independent insulin signal that is equally transmitted by a kinase-inactive mutant IR. This insulin signal results in Tyr phosphorylation and catalytic activation of phosphatase PHLPP1 via a PI 3-kinase-independent, wortmannin-insensitive signaling pathway. Dimerized SH2B1/PSM is a critical activator of the IR kinase and the resulting established insulin signal. In contrast it is an inhibitor of the IR kinase-independent insulin signal and disruption of SH2B1/PSM dimer binding to IR potentiates this signal. Dephosphorylation of Akt2 by PHLPP1 provides an alternative, SH2B1/PSM-regulated insulin-signaling pathway from IR to Akt2 of opposite polarity and distinct from the established PI 3-kinase-dependent signaling pathway via IRS proteins. In combination, both pathways should allow the opposing regulation of Akt2 activity at two phosphorylation sites to specifically define the insulin signal in the background of interfering Akt-regulating signals, such as those controlling cell proliferation and survival.
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ABSTRACT: Obesity morbidity is associated with excess visceral adiposity, whereas sc adipose tissue is much less metabolically hazardous. Human abdominal sc preadipocytes have greater capacity for proliferation, differentiation, and survival than omental preadipocytes. IGF-I is a critical mediator of preadipocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival through multiple signaling pathways. We investigated IGF-I action in primary cultures of human preadipocytes isolated from sc and omental adipose tissue of obese subjects. IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis was significantly lower in omental compared with sc preadipocytes. IGF-I phosphorylation of the IGF-I receptor and the ERK pathway was comparable in sc and omental cells. However, omental preadipocytes had decreased insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 protein associated with increased IRS-1-serine(636/639) phosphorylation and degradation. IGF-I-stimulated phosphorylation of AKT on serine(473) but not threonine(308) was decreased in omental cells, and activation of downstream targets, including S6Kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3, and Forkhead box O1 was also impaired. CyclinD1 abundance was decreased in omental cells due to increased degradation. Over-expression of IRS-1 by lentivirus in omental preadipocytes increased IGF-I-stimulated AKT-serine(473) phosphorylation. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-Rictor complex regulates phosphorylation of AKT-serine(473) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, but knockdown of Rictor by lentivirus-delivered short hairpin RNA in sc preadipocytes did not affect AKT-serine(473) phosphorylation by IGF-I. These data reveal an intrinsic defect in IGF-I activation of the AKT pathway in omental preadipocytes from obese subjects that involves IRS-1 but probably not mTOR-Rictor complex. We conclude that impaired cell cycle regulation by AKT contributes to the distinct growth phenotype of preadipocytes in visceral fat of obese subjects.
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ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Protein phosphorylation participates in the regulation of all fundamental biological processes, and protein kinases have been intensively studied. However, while the focus was on catalytic activities, accumulating evidence suggests that non-catalytic properties of protein kinases are essential, and in some cases even sufficient for their functions. These non-catalytic functions include the scaffolding of protein complexes, the competition for protein interactions, allosteric effects on other enzymes, subcellular targeting, and DNA binding. This rich repertoire often is used to coordinate phosphorylation events and enhance the specificity of substrate phosphorylation, but also can adopt functions that do not rely on kinase activity. Here, we discuss such kinase independent functions of protein and lipid kinases focussing on kinases that play a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility.
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ABSTRACT: The recently discovered pleckstrin homology (PH) domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase (PHLPP) family is emerging as a central component in suppressing cell survival pathways. Originally discovered in a rational search for a phosphatase that directly dephosphorylates and inactivates Akt, PHLPP is now known to potently suppress cell survival both by inhibiting proliferative pathways and by promoting apoptotic pathways. In the first instance, PHLPP directly dephosphorylates a conserved regulatory site (termed the hydrophobic motif) on Akt, protein kinase C and S6 kinase, thereby terminating signalling by these pro-survival kinases. In the second instance, PHLPP dephosphorylates and thus activates the pro-apoptotic kinase Mst1, thereby promoting apoptosis. PHLPP is deleted in a large number of cancers and the genetic deletion of one isozyme in a PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homologue located on chromosome 1) +/- (or heterozygous) prostate cancer model results in increased tumourigenesis, underscoring the role of PHLPP as a tumour suppressor. This review summarizes the targets and cellular actions of PHLPP, with emphasis on its role as a tumour suppressor in the oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signalling cascade.
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