A Randomized Trial to Increase Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors

Department of Medicine, SIU School of Medicine, Springfield, IL 62794-9636, USA.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise (Impact Factor: 3.98). 05/2009; 41(4):935-46. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818e0e1b
Source: PubMed


Interventions to increase physical activity among breast cancer survivors are needed to improve health and quality of life and possibly to reduce the risk of disease recurrence and early mortality. Therefore, we report the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of a pilot randomized trial designed to increase physical activity in sedentary breast cancer survivors receiving hormone therapy.
Forty-one sedentary women on estrogen receptor modulators or aromatase inhibitors for stage I, II, or IIIA breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive a 12-wk multidisciplinary physical activity behavior change intervention or usual care.
Recruitment was 34%, intervention adherence was 99%, and complete follow-up data were obtained on 93%. Most participants (93%) were white with mean age of 53 +/- 9 yr. Differences favoring the intervention group were noted for accelerometer physical activity counts (mean difference = 72,103; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 25,383-119,000; effect size (d) = 1.02; P = 0.004), aerobic fitness (mean difference = 2.9; 95% CI = -0.1 to 5.8; d = 0.64; P = 0.058), back/leg muscle strength (mean difference = 12.3; 95% CI = 0.4-15.9; d = 0.81; P = 0.017), waist-to-hip ratio (mean difference = -0.05; 95% CI = -0.01 to -0.08; d = -0.77; P = 0.018), and social well-being (mean difference = 2.0; 95% CI = 0.3-3.8; d = 0.76; P = 0.03). However, the intervention group also reported a greater increase in joint stiffness (mean difference = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.1-2.2; d = 0.70; P = 0.04).
A behavior change intervention for breast cancer survivors based on the social cognitive theory is feasible and results in potentially meaningful improvements in physical activity and selected health outcomes. Confirmation in a larger study is warranted.

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    • "Significant intervention effects on objectively assessed physical activity behaviour change were reported in two [37, 40] out of the four studies that utilised an objective measure, ranging from the short midterm. Interestingly, there was incongruence between the objective and self-report measures employed in all four studies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Health outcome trials have provided strong evidence that participating in regular physical activity can improve the quality of life and health of post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Focus is now needed on how to promote changes in physical activity behaviour among this group. This systematic review examines the efficacy of behavioural interventions for promoting physical activity among post-treatment breast cancer survivors. Behavioural intervention studies published up until July 2012 were identified through a systematic search of two databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL, and by searching reference lists of relevant publications and scanning citation libraries of project staff. Eight out of the ten identified studies reported positive intervention effects on aerobic physical activity behaviour, ranging from during the intervention period to 6 months post-intervention. Only two studies reported intervention effect sizes. The identification of factors related to efficacy was not possible because of the limited number and heterogeneity of studies included, as well as the lack of effect sizes reported. Nonetheless, an examination of the eight studies that did yield significant intervention effects suggests that 12-week interventions employing behaviour change techniques (e.g., self-monitoring and goal setting) derived from a variety of theories and delivered in a variety of settings (i.e., one-on-one, group or home) can be effective at changing the aerobic physical activity behaviour of breast cancer survivors in the mid- to long terms. Behavioural interventions do hold promise for effectively changing physical activity behaviour among breast cancer survivors. However, future research is needed to address the lack of studies exploring long-term intervention effects, mediators of intervention effects and interventions promoting resistance-training activity, and to address issues impacting on validity, such as the limited use of objective physical activity measures and the use of convenience samples. Identifying effective ways of assisting breast cancer survivors to adopt and maintain physical activity is important for enhancing the well-being and health outcomes of this group.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Journal of Cancer Survivorship
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    • "According to Bandura (2004), the core determinants that influence an individual's behaviour include knowledge of the health risks and benefits (which is a pre-condition for change), self-efficacy (a person's confidence in their control over performing a particular behaviour, which plays a central role in behaviour change), outcome expectations about the expected costs and benefits of performing the behaviour (which impacts on motivation), goals people set for themselves and their plans for achieving set goals (which provides self-incentive and guides action), and perceived facilitators and impediments to making behaviour changes, which can be behavioural, personal and/or environmental in nature (Bandura, 2004). Whilst SCT is a promising theory and has been used to guide effective interventions (Demark-Wahnefried et al., 2006; Matthews et al., 2007; Pinto et al., 2005; Rogers et al., 2009), the application of SCT to the promotion of PA among breast cancer survivors is still in its infancy (Pinto and Ciccolo, 2011). For interventions to be evidence-based, further research is needed to explore what specifically should be addressed within each construct (i.e., to operationalize SCT for intervention development). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: The majority of post treatment breast cancer survivors do not engage in physical activity (PA) at the recommended level. The promotion of PA among this group has the potential to dramatically improve quality of life and health outcomes. To maximise effectiveness, programs should be theory-based and address key determinants of PA behaviour. Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) has shown particular promise for developing and guiding PA interventions, but future research regarding how each SCT construct relates to PA among this group is needed. This study aims to explore how core SCT constructs impact on PA participation among post treatment breast cancer survivors, and gain greater insights into how to shape PA program strategies that will be appealing and effective for this group. Methods: Post treatment breast cancer survivors were recruited from the Breast Cancer Network Australia's review and survey group. Semi-structured telephone interviews examined PA patterns and SCT constructs and data were analysed thematically. Results: Eight post treatment breast cancer survivors participated in the study. Changes in activity level since diagnosis were common; in most cases this reflected a decline in PA. Key social cognitive and environmental influences on PA were described under the following themes: knowledge, outcome expectations, self-efficacy and personal, behavioural and environment facilitators and inhibitors. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the utility of SCT for guiding PA programs. Insight into how social cognitive factors may influence PA behaviour in this group is offered and direction for how oncology-based health professionals can promote PA among breast cancer survivors is provided.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · European journal of oncology nursing: the official journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
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    • "Three studies did not achieve statistically significant changes for daily step counts [[25,26], Knols RH, de Bruin ED, Uebelhart D, Aufdemkampe G, Schanz U, Stenner-Liewen F, Hitz F, Taverna C, Aaronson NK: Effects of an outpatient physical exercise program in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation recipients: a randomized clinical trial, unpublished]. A daily step goal definition was used in only one of these latter studies (table 2) [25]. Two reports from the Yale Exercise and Survivorship study [28,29] provided additional information on the outcome of interest. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer patients may benefit from physical exercise programs. It is unclear, however, how sustained levels of physical activity are best achieved in this population. A systematic review was performed to summarize the current evidence of the effect of physical activity interventions on daily walking activity enhancement in cancer survivors, and to review the literature for its methodological quality. A search in Medline, PEDro and the Cochrane databases was performed for English literature citations (randomized controlled trials; 'RCTs'). In a first step, one reviewer abstracted data from the included studies on patients, physical activity interventions and outcomes. Two independent reviewers reviewed the methodological quality of these studies. Data were pooled using random-effects calculations. Our search identified 201 citations. Five RCTs that reported changes in daily step activity over time were identified, and were reviewed for methodological quality and substantive results. The median score across studies for methodological quality based on the PEDro criteria was 8. These 5 RCTs evaluated 660 participants with a mean age of 53.6 (SD 4.2) years. The mean change in daily step activity for patients with a physical exercise intervention was 526 daily steps (SD 537), with a range from -92 to 1299 daily steps. The data of three studies reporting the effect of combined physical activity and counseling on daily walking activity in breast cancer survivors were pooled, however; the I(2) was 79%, indicating statistical heterogeneity between the three trials. The 5 RCTs reviewed were of good methodological quality. Together they suggest that combined physical activity and counseling improves daily step activity in (breast) cancer survivors. Studies that define a step goal appear to be more effective in improving daily walking activity than studies that do not do so. However, the current results should be interpreted with caution because of the observed clinical and statistical heterogeneity. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the effects of goal targeted physical activity, with or without counseling, on daily walking in various cancer populations.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2010 · BMC Cancer
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