Antioxidant-Based Lead Discovery for Cancer Chemoprevention: The Case of Resveratrol (Retracted Article. See vol 52, pg 6504, 2009)
State Key Laboratory of Applied Organic Chemistry, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu, China. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
(Impact Factor: 5.45).
05/2009; 52(7):1963-74. DOI: 10.1021/jm8015415
Resveratrol is a well-known natural antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive agent that has attracted much interest in the past decade. Resveratrol-directed compounds were synthesized, and their antioxidant effects against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced DNA damage, their prooxidant effects on DNA damage in the presence cupric ions, and their cytotoxic and apoptosis-inducing effects on human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells were investigated in vitro. It was found that the compounds bearing o-diphenoxyl groups exhibited remarkably higher activities in inhibiting ROS-induced DNA damage, accelerating DNA damage in the presence cupric ions, and inducing apoptosis of HL-60 cells compared with the ones bearing no such groups. The detail mechanism of the structure-activity relationship was also studied by the oxidative product analysis of resveratrol and its analogues with galvinoxyl radical or cupric ions and UV-visible spectra change in the presence cupric ions. This study reveals a good and interesting correlation between antioxidant and prooxidant activity, as well as cytotoxicity and apoptosis-inducing activity against HL-60 cells, and provides an idea for designing antioxidant-based cancer chemoprevention agents.
Available from: Gustavo de Campos Dieamant
- "Resveratrol, another well-known antioxidant molecule (Bastianetto et al., 2010), is a phytoalexin isolated mainly from grapes (Jagdeo et al., 2010). As a very promising natural drug, resveratrol has been widely explored in the last years to fight aging and age-associated disturbes with consistent in vivo applications (for recent review, seeBaur and Sinclair, 2006) and different mechanisms of action, including: (1) reduction of intracellular hydrogen peroxide-upregulated ROS (Jagdeo et al., 2010), (2) activation of sirtuin – in special SIRT1 that is capable of deacetylate histones promoting increased DNA stability and persis- tent survival in mammals–and cellular protection against UV damages via modulation of p53 and JNK pathways (Cao et al., 2009), and (3) significant cancer chemopreventive potential (Qian et al., 2009). "
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ABSTRACT: The decisive role of the epidermis in maintaining body homeostasis prompted studies to evaluate the changes in epidermal structure and functionality over the lifetime. This development, along with the identification of molecular mechanisms of epidermal signaling, maintenance, and differentiation, points to a need for new therapeutic alternatives to treat and prevent skin aging. In addition to recovering age- and sun-compromised functions, proper treatment of the epidermis has important aesthetic implications. This study reviews active ingredients capable of counteracting symptoms of epidermal aging, organized according to the regulation of specific age-affected epidermal functions: 1) several compounds, other than retinoids and derivatives, act on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, supporting the protective barrier against mechanical and chemical insults; 2) natural lipidic compounds, as well as glycerol and urea, are described as agents for maintaining water-ion balance; 3) regulation of immunological pathogen defense can be reinforced by natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and 4) antioxidant exogenous sources enriched with flavonoids and vitamin C, for example, improve solar radiation protection and epidermal antioxidant activity. The main objective is to provide a functional classification of active ingredients as regulatory elements of epidermal homeostasis, with potential cosmetic and/or dermatological applications.
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ABSTRACT: Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene, 3,5,4'-THS) is a well-known natural antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive agent that has attracted much interest in the past decade. To find a more active antioxidant and investigate the antioxidative mechanism with resveratrol as the lead compound, we synthesized 3,5-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,5-DHS), 4-hydroxy-trans-stilbene (4-HS) 3,4-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene (3,4-DHS), 4,4'-dihydroxy-trans-stilbene (4,4'-DHS), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-trans-stilbene (3-MeO-4-HS), 4-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-trans-stilbene (4'-MeO-4-HS), 4-hydroxy-4'-methyl-trans-stilbene (4'-Me-4-HS), 4-hydroxy-4'-nitro-trans-stilbene (4'-NO(2)-4-HS), and 4-hydroxy-4'-trifluoromethyl-trans-stilbene (4'-CF(3)-4-HS). The radical-scavenging activity and detailed mechanism of resveratrol and its analogues (ArOHs) were investigated by the reaction kinetics with galvinoxyl (GO(*)) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) radicals in ethanol and ethyl acetate at 25 degrees C, using UV-vis spectroscopy. It was found that the reaction rates increase with increasing the electron-rich environment in the molecules, and the compound bearing o-dihydroxyl groups (3,4-DHS) is the most reactive one among the examined resveratrol analogues. The effect of added acetic acid on the measured rate constant for GO(*)-scavenging reaction reveals that in ethanol that supports ionization solvent besides hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), the kinetics of the process is partially governed by sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET). In contrast to GO(*), DPPH(*) has a relatively high reduction potential and therefore enhances the proportion of SPLET in ethanol. The relatively low rate constants for the reactions of ArOHs with GO(*) or DPPH(*) in ethyl acetate compared with the rate constants in ethanol prove that in ethyl acetate these reactions occur primarily by the HAT mechanism. The contribution of SPLET and HAT mechanism depends on the ability of the solvent to ionize ArOH and the reduction potential of the free radical involved. Furthermore, the fate of the ArOH-derived radicals, i.e., the phenoxyl radicals, was investigated by the oxidative product analysis of ArOHs and GO(*) in ethanol. The major products were dihydrofuran dimers in the case of resveratrol, 4,4'-DHS, and 4-HS and a dioxane-like dimer in the case of 3,4-DHS. It is suggested from the oxidative products of these ArOHs that the hydroxyl group at the 4-position is much easier to subject to oxidation than other hydroxyl groups, and the dioxane-like dimer is formed via an o-quinone intermediate.
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