Airway allergy and skin reactivity to aeroallergens in Riyadh

Department of Pathology, Immunology Unit, College of Medicine and King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Saudi medical journal (Impact Factor: 0.59). 04/2009; 30(3):392-6.
Source: PubMed


To determine the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to aeroallergens in patients with asthma and rhinitis (airway allergy) residing in Riyadh region.
This is a retrospective cross sectional study based on data analysis of skin prick test results of individuals with clinical diagnosis of airway allergy.Allergy skin prick test result data of 139 Saudi nationals from Riyadh region tested at King Khalid University Hospital between January 2003 and March 2004 was analyzed retrospectively. This group comprised of 53% females and 47% males, with a mean age of 27 +/- 12 years. A set of aeroallergens extracts for both indoor and outdoor allergens including fungal spores was used to test the patients.
Seventy-five percent (105) of patients reacted to one or more allergen extracts. The most frequently reacting indoor allergen was house dust mite (77.8%) followed by the cat (33.6%) and cockroach (19.2%). Among the outdoor allergens Prosopis juliflora was tested positive in 72.1%, Bermuda grass in 53.8%, Chenopodium album in 47.1%, Rye grass in 36.5% and Salsola kali in 36.5%. A significant proportion of patients were also found reacting to Moulds (18.2%) and Aspergillus fumigatus (18.2%) extracts.
Sensitivity to one or more aeroallergens was common in patients, indicating high level of aeroallergen sensitization in patients with airway allergy residing in Riyadh region.

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Available from: Adel Almogren, Dec 31, 2013
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    • "The spectrum of sensitization to inhalant allergens in patients with allergic asthma in Jeddah was predominated by HDMs followed by cat epithelia and German cockroach. Similar findings were reported by previous studies conducted in the Riyadh region and the eastern province of Saudi Arabia with a high level of inhalant allergen sensitization with varying rates of allergen sensitization[20,21]. In this context, it is also noteworthy that the prevalence of allergic asthma in a UK birth cohort at the age of 4 years was 44%. "

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    • "The prevalence of respiratory allergies caused by fungi is known to be about 12–42 % in atopic individuals (Barta et al. 2009; Almogren 2009). Studies based on the skin tests suggest that at least 3–10 % of adults and children worldwide are affected by fungal allergy (Bush and Portnoy 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Over the period 2002–2014, air temperature significantly increased regionally for Bratislava. However, no significant shifts have been observed in other meteorological parameters examined. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of significant temperature trends on timing, duration and intensity of Alternaria, Epicoccum and Stemphylium spore seasons. Aerobiological monitoring was conducted using a Burkard 7-day volumetric spore trap. Mann–Kendall tau test was used to determine trends in spore seasons characteristics, whereas Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated to establish the relationships between temperature and spore season time series. Spore seasons of analysed taxa changed throughout the years of study. Alternaria spore season now starts earlier, ends later and lasts longer. Start, end and peak dates as well as duration of Alternaria spore seasons were significantly correlated with recorded increases in winter temperatures. Despite significant lengthening of Alternaria spore seasons, the lack of rising trend in its spore season index has been registered. This phenomenon could be partly explained by the reduction in the source vegetation due to drop of agricultural land use areas in Bratislava. In contrast, the intensity of Stemphylium spore seasons significantly increased during the study period and was correlated with recorded increases in summer–autumn temperatures. Based on the results of this study, it could be concluded that changes in selected fungal spore season patterns in Bratislava (earlier start date, later end date and longer duration of Alternaria spore seasons and higher Stemphylium spore season indexes) might be caused by the recorded local change in air temperature.
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    • "Cockroach sensitivity among all the patients in our study was estimated at 18%. Approximately similar results were reported in two of Iran’s Arab neighboring countries: 19.2% in the city of Riyadh (139 patients with airway allergy)30 and 22.7% in Oman (689 patients).31 In contrast, a prevalence rate of 2.8% sensitivity to cockroaches was reported from Turkey;32 this finding is different from the rate reported in our country (2.8% versus 18%). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen in the last decades. The objective of this study was to determine the common allergens in children via the skin prick test. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 313 allergic children (4 months to 18 years old) referred to the Asthma and Allergy Clinic of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran. A questionnaire containing demographic data and patient history was completed. The Skin Prick Test (SPT) was selected according to the patients’ history of food and/or aeroallergen sensitivity. Results: Patients (62.4% male, 37.6% female) with symptoms of asthma (n=141, 57.1%), allergic rhinitis (n=50, 20.4%), atopic dermatitis (n=29, 11.7%), and urticaria (n=20, 8.1%) were studied. Positive skin prick test to at least one allergen was 58.1%. The most prevalent allergens were tree mix (26%), Alternaria alternata (26%), weed mix (23.6%), Dermatophagoides farinae (22.9%), Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (22.9%), milk (21.7%), eggs (20%), and wheat flour (18.3%). Also, common allergens in the patients with different symptoms of allergic disorders were as follows: asthma (tree mix, weed mix, and Dermatophagoides farinae); allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoides farinae, tree mix, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus); and atopic dermatitis (Alternaria alternata, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and cockroaches). Conclusion: Identifying allergens in each area is necessary and has an important role in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and possibility of performing immunotherapy. In this study, the most common aeroallergens were tree mix, Alternaria alternata, and weed mix and also the most common food allergens were milk, eggs, and wheat. Considering these data, appropriate preventive strategies can decrease the cost and morbidity of therapeutic actions.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
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