Effects of Field Location, Time in Competition, and Phase of Play on Injury Severity in High School Football
This study evaluated the effects of competitive intensity, represented by the variables time in competition, phase of play, and field location, on injury severity in U.S. high school football. The injury rate was higher in competition than practice (RR = 4.75, 95% CI: 4.34-5.20). Mild and moderate injuries were frequently lower leg/foot/ankle sprains/strains and concussions. Severe injuries were frequently knee Sprains/strains and arm fractures. Severe injuries composed a greater proportion of injuries sustained during the beginning and middle of competition compared with injuries sustained during the end/overtime (IPR = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.25-2.69). Compared with injuries sustained during general play, a greater proportion of kickoff/punt injuries were severe (IPR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.07-2.68) or were concussions (IPR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.05-3.30). Identifying factors contributing to severe injury is a crucial first step toward developing targeted evidence-based interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of severe injuries among the millions of high school football players.
Available from: Ewald M Hennig
- "Injury rates are much higher during games as compared with practices in soccer (Agel, Evans, Dick, Putukian, & Marshall, 2007; Babwah, 2009) as well as American football (Yard & Comstock, 2009). A prospective study on 266 elite players from five European countries found 30.5 soccer injuries for 1,000 playing hours in a match and 5.8 injuries for 1,000 training hours (Walden, Hagglund, & Ekstrand, 2005). "
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ABSTRACT: Although soccer is the most popular sport in the world, little research has been published in the field of soccer biomechanics, particularly on the importance of footwear for the game. The traction properties of soccer shoes on natural and artificial turf have been speculated to be responsible for acute and chronic injuries in soccer. This article reviewed the current knowledge on how soccer shoes influence the risk of injuries and how they may serve to improve player performance. Comfort is the highest priority that players want from their shoes, followed by traction and stability. Cleat design and arrangement are important shoe features that allow for fast accelerations and stops, rapid cuts, and turns. Soccer shoe design can influence shooting speed and, even more important for the game of soccer, kicking accuracy. To combine shoe characteristics for injury prevention and better performance will be a challenge for future research on optimizing soccer shoes.
Available from: ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Available from: Sergej Ostojic
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ABSTRACT: Stretching exercises are regularly recommended as a part of football-training sessions and in preparation for competition. There is little sound empirical evidence, however, to substantiate the role of stretching exercises and consequently increased flexibility on injury prevention in football. Furthermore, in the last decade or so, fundamental research has shed some light on the biomechanical adaptation of the muscle-tendon unit following different stretching protocols, improving knowledge about the topic and enabling better understanding of the stretching-injury relationship. The purpose of this review is to examine the literature on the role of stretching and/or increased flexibility on injury prevention in football, with presented results analyzed in the context of the up-to-date basic science research evidence.
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