Design of a Near-Infrared Device for the Study of Glucose Concentration Measurements

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Maintaining healthy blood glucose concentration levels is advantageous for the prevention of diabetes and obesity. Present day technologies limit such monitoring to patients who already have diabetes. The purpose of this project is to suggest a non-invasive method for measuring blood glucose concentration levels. Such a method would provide useful for even people without illness, addressing preventive care. This project implements near-infrared light of wavelengths 1450nm and 2050nm through the use of light emitting diodes and measures transmittance through solutions of distilled water and d-glucose of concentrations 50mg/dL, 100mg/dL, 150mg/dL, and 200mg/dL by using an InGaAs photodiode. Regression analysis is done. Transmittance results were observed when using near-infrared light of wavelength 1450nm. As glucose concentration increases, output voltage from the photodiode also increases. The relation observed was linear. No significant transmittance results were obtained with the use of 2050nm infrared light due to high absorbance and low power. The use of 1450nm infrared light provides a means of measuring glucose concentration levels.

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... NIR sensor for blood glucose measurement has been widely explored. Sia used LEDs with 1450 and 2050 nm wavelength and photodiodes as means to measure voltage of solution with 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg/dl glucose concentrations [13]. Transmittance results were observed when using nearinfrared light of wavelength 1450nm. ...
... The 1450 nm wavelength was chosen because it is one of the wavelength where the glucose absorbance is higher, while the 940 nm LED was chosen because it is cheaper than the 1450 nm LED. Glucose has higher absorption in 1450 nm compare to 940 nm wavelength [13,15], however the 1450 nm LED was far more expensive then the 940 nm LED. A photodiode sensitive to 983 800-1700 nm wavelength was used to detect the NIR light. ...
... The 1450 nm sensor output voltages in Table 2 show that at the output voltages tend to lower when the glucose concentration is higher. This result is consistent with our previous result [21] and the other team results [13,14,22]. ...
... From a research conducted in McMaster University, it was found that NIR with higher wavelength (2050 nm) was able to penetrate deeper into the body tissue. However, too high of observance may cause other substances in the blood to interfere with the infrared signal [11]. In their experiments, the results obtained using NIR of 1450 nm proved that the NIR which was less than 2000 nm is more appropriate when implemented using Arduino. ...
... By doing so, the signal can be directed towards the receiver (photodiode) without being scattered to the surroundings. As for the consistency of the output voltage, the sensor should be kept fixed by using any aid of stabilizing apparatus [11]. Besides using the absorbance technique, the reflection technique can also be considered as another technique to design the device as it is also able to provide accurate measurements in glucose detection. ...
Conference Paper
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Diabetes is known as one of the life threatening diseases in the world that occurs not only among adults and elderly, but also among infants and children. Blood glucose measurements are essential for diabetes patients to determine their insulin dose intake and continuous monitoring is vital to ensure that glucose level is always within the normal range. The commonly used methods to measure glucose level in blood are invasive which are high in accuracy but are usually painful and has higher risk of infections. As an alternative, non-invasive techniques are introduced to develop pain free glucose measuring methods. In this paper, a portable non-invasive blood glucose monitoring device is developed using near infrared sensors. Besides being able to detect glucose concentration in blood, the device is also able to display the glucose level and the required insulin dose, corresponding to the body mass index (BMI) of the user. Several in vitro and in vivo experiments proved the reliability of the device. Results of the experiments proved that the device is reliable in glucose detection with 4%-16% accuracy compared to the common invasive finger-prick method.
... As glucose concentration increases, output voltage from photodiode also increases. The relations observed was linier [10]. Reddy et al developed a smart insulin device for non-invasive blood glucose levelmonitoring using 1550 nm NIR light on human fingertip. ...
... 2,3 Many researchers have tried to develop a noninvasive glucose monitoring device by using light intensity and spectrum to measure human biological properties. 4,5 This approach would provide a safer and a more convenient method to monitor and control diabetes. 6,7 The in vitro measurement of glucose in human physio-logical°uids is of great importance in clinical diagnosis of metabolic disorders. ...
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Noninvasive glucose monitoring development is critical for diabetic patient continuous monitoring. However, almost all the available devices are invasive and painful. Noninvasive methods such as using spectroscopy have shown some good results. Unfortunately, the drawback was that the tungsten halogen lamps usage that is impractical if applied on human skin. This paper compared the light emitting diode (LED) to traditional tungsten halogen lamps as light source for glucose detection where the type of light source plays an important role in achieving a good spectrum quality. Glucose concentration measurement has been developed as part of noninvasive technique using optical spectroscopy. Small change and overlapping in tungsten halogen results need to replace it with a more convenient light source such as LED. Based on the result obtained, the performance of LED for absorbance spectrum gives a significantly different and is directly proportional to the glucose concentration. The result shows a linear trend and successfully detects lowest at 60 to 160 mg/dL glucose concentration.
Conference Paper
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Previously, many researches had been done on non-invasive using near-infrared sensing. Sia had investigated near-infrared sensing using signal penetrating finger method. However, by using finger penetration, there are no results obtained. He only obtained signal using glucose concentration. Therefore the objectives of this research are to investigate the performance of three different wavelength of sensors; infrared 940nm and 950nm and also near-infrared 1450nm. Sensor that gave the best output had been chosen to design a non-invasive optical blood glucose measurement device. Generally, the overall system consists of three parts including sensor part, signal conditioning circuit, and also numerical display. The initial design tested by considering initial voltage 1.616V to 1.68V which referred to previous research by Sia as the output of the sensor. Then proceed by using test tube which contains various percentage of glucose concentration. The same methods had been used to the human samples fingers instead of test tube. From the experiment, output graph of the 950nm shows more consistent pattern compared to the 940nm. 950nm also has a larger range scale for voltage which from 5.016V to 5.4633V compare to the 940nm voltage range scale which from 5.0327V to 5.4201V. Further test on human finger had been done by using 950nm infrared but the output voltages were too small. The performance of the measurement can be improved by controlling the surrounding condition and fixed the path length between transmitter and receiver. Test using test tube showed that the near infrared and infrared were capable to predict different glucose concentration. By using circuit designed, it can be seen that the voltage reading became higher compared to before meal. Therefore, it can be concluded that the circuit design functions accordingly and also the non-invasive. During human sample test, increment pattern can be seen from fasting to non-fasting condition but the main effect is all samples have different fingers' diameter which each of user needs to be calibrated.
Conference Paper
This project uses a non-invasive method for measuring the blood glucose concentration levels. By implementing two infrared light with different wavelength; 940nm and 950nm based on the use of light emitting diodes and measure transmittance through solution of distilled water and d-glucose of concentration from 0mg/dL to 200mg/dL by using a 1000nm photodiode. It is observed that the output voltage from the photodiode increased proportionally to the increased of concentration levels. The relation observed was linear. Nine subjects with the same age but different body weight have been used to observe the glucose level during fasting and non-fasting. During fasting the voltage is about 0.13096V to 0.236V and during non-fasting the voltage range is about 0.12V to 0.256V. This method of measuring blood glucose level may become a preferably choice for diabetics because of the non-invasive and may extend to the general public. For having a large majority people able to monitor their blood glucose levels, it may prevent hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and perhaps the onset of diabetes.
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