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Aspectes biològics de l'esport en edat escolar

  • National Institute of Physical Education of Catalonia (INEFC), Universitat de Barcelona
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... According to territorial leaders, there is a need for increasing the presence of sport within the political and institutional debate, as well as providing more funding opportunities to be able to create a stronger system. There is a need of showing the importance of investing in sport and physical activity as a tool for preventing illnesses, creating a healthier society, and reducing the need of using public services such as doctors, hospitals, and drugs (Rodríguez, 1990). ...
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Particularly focused in Catalonia region, this article draws from a study carried out in order to show the impact of COVID-19 pandemic measures for sport schools in the region. The article also wants to highlight the enormous challenges that sport schools have faced and is going to face due to the recent COVID-19 pandemic emergency measures. Following government calls for general public isolation, school sporting associations, sport for all and other amateur organisations have gone through the longest period of inactivity since the re-establishment of democracy. Having the potential participants locked down at home, it has forced professionals to explore new ways to connect with them. Public sector has joint in, raising awareness on the risk of inactivity and imposing a range of restrictive measures that have impacted sport, especially the one related to schools and grassroots levels. The situation has obliged one of the major School Sport organisations in Catalonia (UCEC) to reinvent strategies in order to survive and keep providing sport initiatives to more than 200.000 scholars and young adults across the region. Keywords: COVID-19, Sport School, sporting opportunities, sport equity, Physical Activity, Sport for All, Personal & Social Values
The evaluation of everyday activities is of relevance to several aspects of health, in particular to cardiovascular epidemiology, to the rehabilitation of cardiac and pulmonary patients, and to occupational medicine. Although there is no clearcut proof that physically active people are less prone to ischaemic heart diseases, they may nevertheless survive a cardiovascular episode more readily than sedentary people, and may also make a faster recovery to acceptable fitness levels. There is also some evidence that physical activity may retard the normal age-related decline of the cardiorespiratory, circulatory, and locomotor functions, but this hypothesis needs to be substantiated. Studies of habitual physical activity could also be useful in testing certain hypotheses, e.g., in determining whether sound physical activity habits are more easily developed and sustained if started during childhood and adolescence, and whether cardiovascular health may be improved even if physical activity habits are acquired later in life; also, whether obesity, diabetes, and the early stages of hypertension as cardiovascular risk factors may be ameliorated by physical activity through better utilization of lipids and carbohydrates and through the psychological, stress-relieving effect of physical exercise. Important hypotheses that have to be tested are whether cardiovascular health is better promoted by a relatively continuous and moderately high daily level of energy expenditure or rather by short, daily or weekly bouts of vigorous muscular exercise. In spite of the many studies that have been carried out in the past on the assessment of habitual physical activity and on its relationship to cardiovascular health, it is practically impossible to identify common trends by comparing the results from different surveys because no standard techniques have been used. In many studies, habitual physical activity was badly defined and the criteria used for assessment differed greatly and were often based on subjective interpretation. The problem that has to be solved first is that of standardized methodology. The most common ways of assessing habitual physical activity are: (a) activity recall questionnaires and diaries, either self-administered or by interview; (b) direct time and motion observation; (c) pedometers and accelerometers; (d) dietary surveys; (e) continuous tape recording of heart beats; (f) heart beat totalization by numerical counting or by chemical integration; (g) determination of frequency distribution of R-R interval lengths; (h) determination of oxygen consumption. However, each of these methods has at least one undesirable feature, such as excessive cost (in terms of equipment, staff, and maintenance), low degree of social acceptability, or limited reliability of the results. At the present stage of technical development, a combination of methods seems desirable. A suggested approach is heart rate recording by a pocket-size R-R interval digital recorder or a tape recorder (although the latter necessarily needs an expensive playback system to decode the tape), associated with an actometer or a simple activity diary, so as to allow identification of exercise-induced or emotion-induced heart rate changes. This approach would inconvenience the subject less than the determination of oxygen consumption and would still yield informative results.
Ninety-nine boys were tested annually on seven strength tests from 10 through 16 years. Three derivative measures were formed from the seven: composite, upper, and lower strength. The data were analyzed in three principal ways: raw strength, strength divided by body weight, and strength divided by body height. There were small but significant correlations between strength and both height and weight. The increments in strength from 10 to 16 years were statistically significant and were approximately 11% greater than would be predicted simply from growth in linear dimension. The maximum increment in strength occurred 1 year following both peak height velocity and peak weight velocity. With height or weight factored out, significant strength increases were still obtained. The stability of individual differences in strength was very high from year to year, although the magnitude of the correlation decreased as the duration of time separating any two measures increased. Factoring out height or weight resulted in a slight reduction in the degree of relationship between the strength measures. Upper and lower raw strength exhibited a high degree of generality over the age range of 10 through 16 years. The percentage of common variance ranged from a low of 50% at 10 years to a high of 72% at 15 years. Again, factoring out height or weight resulted in a reduction in the magnitude of the correlations. Early maturers had significantly greater strength than late maturers. When strength was divided by body height, the results remained unchanged. However, when the effects of weight were factored out, no differences existed among groups of different maturational levels.
Longitudinal changes associated with an enriched physical activity program were investigated and compared to that normally encountered. It appears the pubertal period is especially susceptible to training effects.
Girl Swimmers. With special reference to respiratory and circulatory adaptation and gynaecological and psych iatric aspects
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