Immune Responses to Measles and Tetanus Vaccines Among Kenyan Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)-Infected Children Pre- and Post-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Revaccination

Departments of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal (Impact Factor: 2.72). 04/2009; 28(4):295-9. DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3181903ed3
Source: PubMed


: HIV-1-infected children have lower response rates after measles and tetanus immunization than uninfected children. We determined the extent to which highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) augments vaccine immunity and promotes responses to revaccination.
: Previously immunized, antiretroviral-naive HIV-1-infected children were evaluated for immunity against measles and tetanus. After 6 months on HAART, children meeting CD4% criteria (>15%) who were persistently antibody negative were revaccinated and immunity was reassessed.
: At enrollment, among 90 children with mean age of 4.9 years, 67% had negative measles IgG and 22% negative tetanus IgG. Among 62 children completing 6 months on HAART, 17 (40%) of 43 without protective measles IgG converted and 10 (53%) of 19 positive children lost measles responses (P = 0.3). Children who lost responses had significantly lower measles antibody concentrations than those who remained measles IgG positive during follow-up (7.1 vs. 20.3 mg/mL; P = 0.003). Three (23%) of 13 children negative for tetanus IgG spontaneously seroconverted on HAART, while 15 (31%) of 49 children lost tetanus antibody (P = 0.008). There was a nonsignificant trend for an association between spontaneous measles seroconversion and lower baseline HIV-1 viral load (P = 0.06). Tetanus seroconversion was associated with older age (P = 0.03). After revaccination, positive responses were observed in 78% and 75% of children reimmunized against measles and tetanus, respectively.
: After 6 months of HAART, more than half of previously immunized children still lacked positive measles antibody. With increased use of HAART in pediatric populations, revaccination against measles and tetanus should be considered to boost response rates and immunization coverage.

Download full-text


Available from: Grace John-Stewart
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An outbreak of measles occurred in an orphanage in Chiang Mai, Thailand where 44 HIV-infected and 19 HIV-uninfected children were accommodated. History of measles vaccination was significantly correlated with the risk of acquiring measles, where HIV infection status was not.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2009 · The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: No official recommendations have been made on whether children infected with HIV on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) should be revaccinated. We reviewed published work to establish whether these children have protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases and to assess short-term and long-term immune responses to vaccination of children given HAART. In general, children on HAART had low levels of immunity to vaccines given before treatment. Most children on HAART, however, responded to revaccination, although immune reconstitution was not sufficient to ensure long-term immunity for some children. These results suggest that children on HAART would benefit from revaccination, but levels of protective immunity might need to be monitored and some children might need additional vaccine doses to maintain protective immunity. Vaccination policies and strategies for children infected with HIV on HAART should be developed in regions of high HIV prevalence to ensure adequate individual and population immunity.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2010 · The Lancet Infectious Diseases
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children infected with HIV, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of the development and maintenance of memory T- and B-cell responses to pathogens after immune reconstitution is needed to assess the risk of infection. Knowledge of long-term immune responses after starting HAART is of particular importance for policies on revaccination of HIV-infected children, who may lose protective immunity to prior infections and immunizations. We review normal development of T- and B-cell memory responses to viruses and vaccines against viral pathogens, and contrast the immunological effects of perinatal HIV transmission with HIV infection acquired later in life. We then explore the potential benefits of antiretroviral therapy and revaccination, using measles virus as a model.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2011 · Future Virology
Show more