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The Effects of Lavender and Rosemary Essential Oils on Test-Taking Anxiety Among Graduate Nursing Students

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Abstract

Test taking in nursing school can produce stress that affects the ability of students to realize their goals of graduation. In this study, the use of lavender and rosemary essential oil sachets reduced test-taking stress in graduate nursing students as evidenced by lower scores on test anxiety measure, personal statements, and pulse rates.

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... Endorphins and serotonin have calming, soothing, and relaxing effects that can relieve anxiety (Singewald et al., 2015). Studies have found that essential oils, including lavender, rose, lemon, mint, and rosemary, are effective in reducing anxiety and depression, reducing stress, enhancing memory, and improving cognitive function (McCaffrey et al., 2009;Moss et al., 2018). Malloggi et al. (2022) found that inhalation of lavender essential oil can reduce arousal levels, improve sustained attention, and enhance cognitive function, which are related to the anti-anxiety effects of lavender. ...
... Test anxiety is a set of abnormal physiological and psychological phenomena caused by excessive worry about test results before, during, and after the test, manifested as inattention, memory difficulty, confusion, anxiety, and some physical symptoms such as muscle tension, rapid heartbeat, sweating, headache, and gastrointestinal disorder (McCaffrey et al., 2009;Qin et al., 2021). ...
... Lavender and lemon essential oil used alone had no effect on test anxiety, however. This was similar to the finding from a previous study by McCaffrey et al. (2009), which found that lavender and rosemary essential oils combined effectively lowered test anxiety in nursing postgraduates. Lavender essential oil encouraged calmness, while rosemary essential oil helped improve attention and memory. ...
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Objective Test anxiety is one of the common psychological and behavioral problems of college students, which can result in poor academic performance and even academic failure. Aromatherapy has been proposed as a promising method to reduce test anxiety in college students, but its precise efficacy has not been fully confirmed. This meta-analysis evaluated the effects of aromatherapy on the symptoms of test anxiety in college students to serve as a reference for future research and provide more scientific and exact evidence. Methods PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, CINAHL, Science Direct, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Science and Technology Journal Full-Text Database (VIP), and Wanfang Data were electronically searched from inception to June 2022 to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on aromatherapy for treating students’ test anxiety. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for RCTs was used by two reviewers to critically and independently assess the methodological quality of the included studies. Review Manager 5.4 was used for the meta-analysis. Stata 17.0 was used for sensitivity analysis and Egger’s test. Results Seven RCTs included 425 patients, with a moderate risk of bias in the included studies. The meta-analysis found that aromatherapy effectively reduced test anxiety in college students (SMD = −0.67, p < 0.01), with high heterogeneity of results ( I ² = 72%). The different types of essential oil devices used in the study are the source of inter-study heterogeneity. Subgroup analysis suggested that most effective methods were aromatherapy with compound essential oils (SMD = −0.91, p < 0.01), and using cloths or pads as the essential oil devices (SMD = −1.03, p < 0.01). There was no difference between aromatherapy and placebo control groups (SMD = −0.65, p = 0.25). Conclusion Aromatherapy with inhalation can help relieve test anxiety in college students, but more and higher-quality studies are needed. This study provides a reference for future research designs in terms of the selection of essential oil types and devices and the design of research groups. Systematic review registration [ https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ ], identifier [CRD42022345767].
... 3 By learning the causes and effects of test anxiety, as well as management strategies, students can benefit both academically and physically. [3][4][5][6] Aromatherapy is 1 strategy used to reduce anxiety by college students. 4,[6][7][8][9][10] The rise of natural alternatives has driven an increased availability and use of aromatherapy products. ...
... [3][4][5][6] Aromatherapy is 1 strategy used to reduce anxiety by college students. 4,[6][7][8][9][10] The rise of natural alternatives has driven an increased availability and use of aromatherapy products. Aromatherapy uses the chemical components of essential oils and their effects as potential natural remedies for a variety of ailments. ...
... An increase in exam scores is associated with implementation of aromatherapy. 6,15 A common way of aromatherapy inhalation is the use of personal aromatherapy devices, such as nasal inhaler First Published Online October 28 2022 stick. A nasal or aromatherapy inhaler, also known as an aromastick, is a device that is held under the nose and inhaled, encouraging deep breathing and relaxation. ...
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Objective: Test anxiety is a debilitating disorder that can impair cognitive performance and affect academic success. Aromatherapy is commonly used for relaxation therapy. The primary aim of the study was to determine if nasal inhaler aromatherapy, utilizing a blend of rosemary and lavender essential oils, could be a useful strategy to reduce testing anxiety in students. Methods: This study recruited first trimester chiropractic students enrolled in both Neuroanatomy I and Biochemistry I. A randomized crossover design was utilized over 2 study days during final exams, with a 2-day wash-out period. Participants were randomly assigned into groups based on results of test anxiety analysis. On each day, students were given a nasal inhaler with either an aromatherapy blend of lavender and rosemary essential oils or distilled water as the control. Students completed pretest surveys and posttest surveys to rate their anxiety levels. Paired sample t-tests were performed to determine group differences in test anxiety. Both intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. Results: Forty-five students were randomly assigned into the study, whereas only 38 completed per-protocol. Between group comparisons showed no statistically significant difference between change in anxiety scores between aromatherapy and control for both intention-to-treat (p =.10) and per-protocol (p =.07). Conclusion: Use of personal inhalers and aromatherapy diffusers were not shown to reduce test anxiety in a chiropractic population under high-stakes examination. Other options should be explored for future research.
... Test anxiety is defined as the experience of distress, worry, or fear before, during, or after a test that can cause mental distraction, difficulty with memory recall, and physical symptoms, such as nausea, diarrhea, headache, and tachycardia, and may result in poor performance. 1,2 Among college students, test anxiety may contribute to decreased academic performance. [2][3][4][5] Test anxiety can also impact a person's ability to learn, stimulate task-irrelevant thinking, and reduce intrinsic motivation and cognitive capabilities available for tasks, thus decreasing academic achievement. ...
... 1,2 Among college students, test anxiety may contribute to decreased academic performance. [2][3][4][5] Test anxiety can also impact a person's ability to learn, stimulate task-irrelevant thinking, and reduce intrinsic motivation and cognitive capabilities available for tasks, thus decreasing academic achievement. 6 Various interventions have been studied to identify strategies to reduce test anxiety. ...
... 10 Aromatherapy has been shown to be an effective way to reduce test anxiety in college students. 2,[10][11][12] Aromatherapy is a natural treatment using the chemical structure and effects of essential oils that are extracted and distilled from a plant's flower, bark, stems, roots, peel, or leaf. 11,[13][14][15] It has been linked to positive physiological effects and improved exam scores in nursing students. ...
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Objective Up to 85% of college students experience test anxiety, which may contribute to decreased academic performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of recruiting chiropractic students for a randomized trial involving aromatherapy for anxiety reduction. Methods This study enrolled chiropractic students who were randomly assigned to separate rooms during a biochemistry test. Waterless diffusers dispersed a lemon and rosemary blend of essential oils in the experimental room and water in the control room. Students completed pretest surveys rating current and general anxiety. Posttest surveys included rating current anxiety. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was preformed to determine within- and between-group differences for current anxiety. Feasibility was the primary aim, and the statistical significance of anxiety test scores between rooms was the secondary aim. Results Sixty-four students were included in the study. The feasibility of research methods was noted for adherence to the study protocol (informed consent, randomization, and survey distribution and completion) and resource allocation. Design improvements are required in recruitment methods, follow-up surveys, and intervention blinding. ANCOVA for between-group comparisons showed no statistically significant difference between groups' pre- and posttest anxiety scores ( p = .22). Two reported side effects, eye and sinus irritation, could not be attributed to treatment group. Most students were willing to use aromatherapy for test anxiety in the future. Conclusion We demonstrated feasibility in conducting a randomized study to measure the influence of aromatherapy on test anxiety in chiropractic students. A powered, randomized study is needed to determine if aromatherapy may be effective in reducing test anxiety.
... Vocational skills labs, which prepare nursing students for clinical practice, include safe care practices to close the gap between theory and practice. Today, almost all universities are using the OSCE (Objective Structured Clinical Exam), an examination testing students' level of competency in vocational skills learned at the skills labs during the academic year [8]. The applying knowledge, sequencing, verbal and behavioral communication, and psycho-motor skills [9]. ...
... The literature highlights the importance of stress reduction for allowing students to maximize their learning of practical skills in the vocational education process. Techniques such as music therapy, cognitive therapy, emotional freedom techniques (EFT), breathing techniques, mind cleansing, aromatherapy, and relaxation of muscles have been used to reduce the anxiety levels of nursing students [2,4,8,[12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study has compared these interventions to assess whether they can reduce situational anxiety experienced by nursing students before an OSCE. ...
... Likewise, test anxiety experienced by nursing students around the world is one of the most significant problems that hinder the acquisition of professional skills [2,4]. It has been found that students in most nursing programs show poor exam performance in OSCEs due to their test anxiety [4,8,11]. Studies on test anxiety also show a negative relationship between test anxiety and academic performance [12,13]. ...
... lavender and fennel) has been shown to be promising in the control of the sympathetic nervous and the endocrine systems, providing potential positive effects in reducing stress, and treating sleep and mood disorders (e.g. anxiety and depression) [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
... Studies suggest that the inhalation of lavender essential oils can reduce the perception of and the response to stress [11]. Additionally, lavender essential oil reduces high cortisol levels and blood pressure in patients with essential or idiopathic hypertension [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Moreover, lavender essential oil promotes relaxation [12], benefits the coronary circulation [19] and decreases heartbeat and skin temperature [20]. ...
... Additionally, lavender essential oil reduces high cortisol levels and blood pressure in patients with essential or idiopathic hypertension [10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. Moreover, lavender essential oil promotes relaxation [12], benefits the coronary circulation [19] and decreases heartbeat and skin temperature [20]. The same effects were observed in patients in dental treatment [21] and in intensive care units [22]. ...
Article
Introduction Chronic stress and sleeping disorders have long been associated with anxiety. Pharmacological treatment includes benzodiazepines and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The adverse effects associated with these medicines do, however, call for safer alternatives, including aromatherapy. The current study assesses the effect of intranasal administration of essential oils obtained from lavender, French lavender and fennel (Pinetonina™), on chronic stress. Methods Forty-five patients were divided in 3 groups: Group 1 (CTRL) received saline in nasal spray form; Group 2 (P30) received 30 % Pinetonina™ in buffered vehicle for intranasal spray; Group 3 (P50), 50 % Pinetonina™ in the same vehicle. All groups used the product for 3 months, once daily (before bedtime), using a spray-puff in each nostril. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in the beginning and at the end of the study. Quality of sleep, level of anxiety, perceived stress, and overall quality of life were measured through self-reported questionnaires. Results In P30 and P50, total salivary cortisol levels were significantly reduced by 37 % and 54 % respectively. Changes in perceived stress and overall quality of life showed no significant differences among the 3 groups, but P50 showed significant improvement in the quality of sleep index, as evaluated with the PSQI questionnaire. Salivary cortisol levels at time-zero and after 3 months of use were compared. Significant changes in the salivary cortisol levels for 30 % and 50 % of Pinetonina were seen after 3 months, unlike the control that showed no significant changes. Additionally, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index when compared at baseline with the end of the study for the placebo and 30 % and 50 % Pinetonina. Significant changes in the quality of sleep were shown. Conclusions Daily intranasal use of Pinetonina™ before sleep was shown to significantly reduce salivary cortisol levels and improve quality of sleep based upon the significant differences found in the study.
... However, it is only recently that aromatherapy is gaining prominence in the researching world. Most research on aromatherapy has been carried out on lavender [9][10][11][12]. This might be due to the fact that the earliest published work on aromatherapy, written by French perfumer and chemist René-Maurice Gattefossé, focused on the healing potential of lavender [13]. ...
... Aromatherapy has also been reported to reduce stress, anxiety and depression levels [16]. For example, McCaffrey et al. [9] managed to reduce stress levels among graduate nursing students via aromatherapy. Polianthes tuberosa, a flowering plant native to Mexico, has the potential to reduce students' test anxiety [17]. ...
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Preserving mental health during the COVID-19 crisis should be a priority for individuals worldwide. In this regard, mental health professionals should advise the general public on the actions/activities that they can take to prevent mental health issues from becoming the next pandemic. However, the general public should also actively take measures to improve their mental wellbeing. Music therapy, aromatherapy or indoor nature therapy may or may not have the potential to preserve mental wellbeing, but individuals should experiment with them to ascertain the effects on themselves.
... The sample size included 120 nursing students. The findings of this study showed that inhaling the Rosemary aroma has increased the concentration of students in the test sessions and significantly reduced stress (31). In the study of Atsumi and Tonosaki the inhalation of rosemary and lavenders oils had a significant decreased on salivary cortisol levels in the intervention group compared to the control group. ...
... McCaffrey research results also show the beneficial effects of aromatherapy using rosemary mix with lavender in reducing nursing student's test anxiety (31). The findings of Park and Lee's study are consistent with the results of the present study, so that inhaling Rosemary oil, Lavender, Mint, and Marjoram has reduced the anxiety of nursing students (30). ...
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Background: The prevalence of stress and anxiety in pre-hospital emergency personnel is high. Objectives: The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of inhaling the Aroma of Rosemary essential oil on stress and anxiety of emergency medical personnel. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 8 pre-hospital emergency stations affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences in Birjand city were randomly selected. Then, 4 stations were randomly allocated to the intervention group and 4 stations were assigned to the control group. In the next step, among personnel of each station about 8-10 participants were selected according to the inclusion criteria (39 participants in each group). Afterwards, these participants completed demographic and DASS-42 questionnaires (stress and anxiety subscales). Badges with 25% rosemary essential oil in the intervention group and badges impregnated with refined sweet almond oil were used in the control group for two hours in 3 shifts per week for one month. The anxiety and stress subscales of the DASS-42 questionnaire were completed by the participants one hour as well as 30 days after the last intervention in each group. In this study, chi-square, Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests were used. Results: The statistical analysisshowedthat themeanstressandanxiety scores in thetwogroups did nothave significant differences before intervention (P > 0.05). One hour after the last intervention, statistical analysis showed that the mean of stress scores in the intervention group was significantly reduced compared to the control group (P < 0.05). One month after the intervention, no significant changes occurred in the mean scores of stress in intervention group (P > 0.05). In the case of anxiety, one hour after the intervention the mean scores in the intervention group were significantly decreased compared to the control group (P < 0.05). One months after the intervention, no significant changes occurred in the mean scores of anxiety in intervention group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Aromatherapy with rosemary essential oil can have positive effects in reducing stress and anxiety in pre-hospital emergency personnel.
... Bitter orange, lavender, and geranium are common types of aromatherapy plants. [47,48] These three plants have effectively reduced climacteric symptoms such as hot flashes and depression and improved sexual function. [47] A review of the literature found no study examining the human and inhalation effects of BEO on sexual dysfunction, anxiety, or depression. ...
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Background: Due to the importance of psychological support for women during menopause as a period with a high prevalence of mental health problems, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of the essential oil of lavender-Bergamot (La-Ber) and Mindfulness-Based Intervention (MBI) on sexual function, anxiety (primary outcome), and depression score (secondary outcome) in postmenopausal women with sexual dysfunction. Materials and methods: This controlled randomized trial with a factorial design was performed on 132 postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly allocated into four equal groups: Aromatherapy-Routine Care (Aroma-RC), MBI-Placebo (MBI-P), Aromatherapy-MBI (Aroma-MBI), or Routine Care-Placebo (RC-P). Two to three drops of La-Ber or a similar placebo were inhaled three times a day for 8 weeks. Eight sessions of MBI intervention were conducted. At the end of the intervention and eight weeks afterward, the outcomes were assessed. Results: The sexual function score improved significantly in Aroma-MBI (adjusted Mean Difference [aMD]: 2.4, 95% CI: 0.01 to 4.80) and MBI-P (aMD: 2.6, 95% CI: 0.2 to 5.1) groups compared to the RC-P group. The anxiety score was reduced in the Aroma-RC group at the end of the intervention (aMD: -4.12, 95% CI: -7.41 to -0.72; p = 0.020) and eight weeks later as well as in the Aroma-MBI group. In terms of depression, the mean score of depression was significantly lower than the RC-P group in the Aroma-RC group at the end of the intervention (p = 0.011). Conclusions: MBI and aromatherapy seem effective on sexual function and menopausal anxiety. MBI improves sexual function, while aromatherapy ameliorated anxiety and depression.
... The aroma of rosemary oil reduced test-taking stress in graduate students. Carnosic acid may improve cell viability and improve blood flow to the brain, based on in vitro experiments Moss et al., 2003;Adsersen et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2006;Orhan et al., 2008;Park et al., 2008;Satoh et al., 2008;McCaffrey et al., 2009;Machado et al., 2009 Vascular health-rosemary extract could inhibit oxidation of LDL cholesterol in a biologically relevant human cell culture system Pearson et al., 1997;Kwon et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2007;Naemura et al., 2008 Blood glucose control-Rosemary activates PPARgamma, which plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular function and metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose and is a potential inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, which may help reduce sugar absorption; also inhibit AGEs (advanced glycation end products) formation in vitro Rau et al., 2006;Kwon et al., 2006;Hsieh et al., 2007;Bakirel et al., 2008; Bioactives from culinary spices and herbs: a review Embuscado ...
... The aroma of rosemary oil reduced test-taking stress in graduate students. Carnosic acid may improve cell viability and improve blood flow to the brain, based on in vitro experiments Moss et al., 2003;Adsersen et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2006;Orhan et al., 2008;Park et al., 2008;Satoh et al., 2008;McCaffrey et al., 2009;Machado et al., 2009 Vascular health-rosemary extract could inhibit oxidation of LDL cholesterol in a biologically relevant human cell culture system Pearson et al., 1997;Kwon et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2007;Naemura et al., 2008 Blood glucose control-Rosemary activates PPARgamma, which plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular function and metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose and is a potential inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, which may help reduce sugar absorption; also inhibit AGEs (advanced glycation end products) formation in vitro Rau et al., 2006;Kwon et al., 2006;Hsieh et al., 2007;Bakirel et al., 2008; Bioactives from culinary spices and herbs: a review Embuscado ...
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Culinary spices and herbs have been used in food and beverages to enhance aroma, flavor, and color. They are rich in phytochemicals that provide significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. There is growing interest in identifying compounds from spices and herbs responsible for modulating oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This contribution will provide an overview of culinary spices and herbs, their classification , their sources or origins and more importantly, their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and their impacts on human health based on important and recent studies.
... Olfactory cues of a loved one, in this way, may improve sleep (Hofer and Chen 2020) and particular smells are released intentionally both inside and outside shops to nudge consumers into purchasing products (Jellinek 1997;Sandell 2019) by tapping into conditioned pleasant associations. Evidence further shows that smells have the potential to impact mood (Gottfried 2010;Herz 2009;Lehrner et al. 2005), memory (Gottfried 2010), task reaction times (Moss et al. 2003), anxiety (Lehrner et al. 2005;McCaffrey et al. 2009), cognitive performance (Moss et al. 2008) and pain perception (Gedney et al. 2004;Kim et al. 2006). Olfaction has also been found to impact the amount of effort exerted in a task (Herz et al. 2004) and interpersonal preferences (Li et al. 2007). ...
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Background It is well known that, owing to associative processing, olfactory cues can impact memory, emotion and behaviour. Research also points to a link between the smells of particular substances and craving. Yet, to date, little research has investigated how smell may impact other cognitive processes that are known to drive alcohol consumption. Aim To assess how exposure to alcohol-related (vodka) relative to neutral (citrus) olfactory cues impacts inhibitory control and attentional bias. Method Participants took part in a go/no-go (Study 1) and Stroop task (Study 2) while wearing masks that were pre-treated with vodka or citrus oil of equivalent intensity. Study 1 results Response error rates were higher in participants in the alcohol-related (versus neutral) olfactory condition, with no interaction between olfactory and visual cue. Study 2 results Responses to alcohol-related versus neutral words were similar, while performance appeared significantly impaired among participants wearing alcohol (relative to citrus) infused masks. Conclusion The smell of alcohol may impair signal detection performance on the go/no-go and Stroop task. As inhibitory control and attentional processes are known to be associated with decisions to drink or exercise restraint, these results may have implications for our understanding of alcohol consumption and for tailoring interventions.
... It has been widely used to ease stress and to improve the perception of comfort in houses and public buildings [5]. The effects of ambient essential oil on stress relief [6,7], malodor elimination [5,8], and heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) reduction [9] have been reported in previous studies. However, essential oil is a kind of volatile organic compound (VOC) composed of hundreds of aromatic chemicals [10]. ...
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It is still unknown whether long-term inhalation of indoor air pollutants from ambient essential oil is associated with increased cardiopulmonary events. We recruited 200 healthy homemakers to conduct a prospective observation study in Northern Taiwan. We measured heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and indoor air pollutants four times per year for each participant between 2008 and 2018. Moreover, a questionnaire related to essential oil usage, home characteristics, and health status was filled out with each participant. The association between essential oil usage and cardiopulmonary health was determined using mixed-effects models. The mixed-effects models showed a significant association between essential oil usage and adverse cardiopulmonary effects including increased HR and BP and decreased % predicted PEFR among participants with heavy use of essential oils. No significant association between essential oils usage and adverse cardiopulmonary effects was observed among participants without essential oils usage or participants with mild use of essential oils (less than one hour per day). We concluded that exposure to indoor air pollution related to essential oils was associated with adverse cardiopulmonary effects among participants with essential oil usage more than one hour per day.
... As this research conducted experiments in real-life settings, data collection was subject to severe constraints. Real-life setting data collections is a strong asset of this study (Leenders, Smidts, and Haji 2019;Roschk et al. 2020), especially because studies on ambient scents have often been conducted in controlled environments (McCaffrey, Thomas, and Orth Kinzelman 2009;Moore 2014), which tends to overestimate the effects of scents (Roschk et al. 2020). Yet, the limited collection time and operational constraints prevented the study of other individual variables between different consumers (age, income level, relationship to interpersonal touch) (Orth, Bouzdine-Chameeva, and Brand 2013;Webb and Peck 2015). ...
Article
Many sales and service interactions with frontline employees take place in scented places. This research focuses on the effect of ambient scents on consumer comfort with frontline employees and subsequently on the perceived quality of product and service offers. Two experimental studies carried out in actual setting in Paris, in taxis (242 respondents interacting with drivers) and in a small shop (120 respondents interacting with advisors), show that consumer comfort with frontline employees and perceived quality are higher (lower) in the presence of an ambient scent when the frontline employees maintain strong (low) physical proximity with consumers. This study shows the impact of ambient scents in consumers-employee’s relationships and questions their relevance when social interactions are constrained by distancing rules.
... e CPO odor did not affect the BP and blood oxygen saturation of the participants. is was similar to a previous study that rosemary and lavender oil could help relieve anxiety and reduce radial pulse but did not reduce the BP of participants during a math test [36]. In another study, significant changes in BP were observed in the lavender oil group postoperatively [37]. ...
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Background: Aromatherapy has been proved to be effective in alleviating anxiety in practices and research. Recently, copaiba oil (CPO) is popular in the market and is recommended for anxiety relief in aromatherapy practice. However, relevant scientific research is still lacking. Methods: A randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the anxiety-relieving effect of CPO inhalation in 22 adults. Jojoba oil was used as the control treatment. N-back and mental arithmetic tasks were used as stress stimulation. CPO or control intervention was carried out after the n-back training phase. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), EEG activities, physiological indexes including heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), blood oxygen saturation, and salivary cortisol were assessed in different phases of the experimental process. Results: There was no significant difference in the change of HR and BP between the CPO and control groups before odor intervention. The S-AI scores of the CPO treated participants decreased after the n-back and mental arithmetic tests and were significantly lower than those of the participants who received control treatments. The HR and salivary cortisol of participants who received CPO intervention significantly decreased during the n-back and mental arithmetic tests. Furthermore, a remarkable decrease of beta wave activity was observed in the left midfrontal region (F3) when the participant received the CPO intervention. Conclusion: The study's findings supported that the CPO odor showed beneficial effects on alleviating anxiety based on several indicators in subjective, physiological, and EEG measurements.
... In a clinical study, inhalation of rosemary and lavender essential oil sachets reduced anxiety, and, in particular, rosemary increased focus and concentration and promoted a sense of clarity [258]. Solhi, et al. (2013) demonstrated the effectiveness of rosemary in the improvement of sleep and reduction of insomnia in a clinical trial of 81 patients with opium withdrawal syndrome divided into control group (treated with methadone and placebo for 4 weeks) and case group (treated with methadone and rosemary capsules filled with 300 mg of dried powdered leaves) [259]. ...
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Anxiety and insomnia are among the most common mental health disorders and are a major cause of disability around the world. Traditional herbal medicines are receiving significant attention in global health debates. Several Italian regions maintain rural traditions and are among the most extensively studied areas of Europe regarding medicinal plant uses. The present overview aims to highlight the use of wild and cultivated plants, specifically as sedatives and for insomnia treatment in Italy, and to collect, analyze, and summarize the available literature about their pharmacological activity as well as clinical and pre-clinical studies concerning the most cited plants. In total, 106 wild taxa are used in Italy for sedative purposes. The plant species belong to 76 genera and 32 families, of which the most cited are Asteraceae (24.2%) and Lamiaceae (21.1%). Leaves (29%) and flowers (27%) are the plant parts mostly used as infusion (70%) and decoction (25%). Out of 106 taxa documented, only the most cited are analyzed in this overview (A. arvensis L., C. nepeta L., C. monogyna Jacq., H. lupulus L., L. nobilis L., L. angustifolia Mill., M. sylvestris L., M. chamomilla L., M. officinalis L., O. basilicum L., P. rhoeas L., P. somniferum L., R. officinalis L., T. platyphyllus Scop., and V. officinalis L.). Among the fifteen species selected, only seven have been studied for their pharmacological activity as hypnotic-sedatives. Future pre-clinical and clinical studies are needed to better clarify the mechanism of action of bioactive compounds and confirm the potential of these alternative therapies.
... Bergamot essential oil used in elementary school has been reported to positively effect the autonomic nervous system of teachers (4). Additionally, in university a mixture of lavender and rosemary is reported to reduce feelings of anxiety and improve cognitive performance of students (5). Knowing that aromas alter mood, reduce stress and increase cognitive performance, the aim of this study was to investigate the behavior of high school students participating in class with and without aroma. ...
... Many essential oils affect the autonomic nervous system by stimulation (increased sympathetic activity) or soothing (increased parasympathetic activity). Previous studies have also confirmed essential oils with a stimulating effect, such as grapefruit (Horii et al., 2015), peppermint, estragon, and fennel (Haze et al., 2002), while other essential oils such as lavender, geranium, chamomile, sandalwood, bergamot, rosemary, and similar, have soothing effects (Chang & Shen, 2011;McCaffrey et al., 2009;Seo, 2009). The fragrance is an essential oil that stimulated the olfactory system and thus affected brain waves (Lorig & Schwartz 1988) or stimulated or inhibited brain functions (Manley 1993). ...
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This study compares the effects of the uptake or inhalation of 50uL Mentha piperita (MP) essential oil for 10 days on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiopulmonary regulation during various exercise intensities. Forty-eight healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to MP uptake (MPU; n=16), MP inhalation (MPI; n=16), and control group (C; n=16). All participants were measured resting HRV, respiratory, cardiovascular, and metabolic parameters during aerobic, anaero- bic, and graded exercise tests (GXT) before and after treatment. There were significant increases in the low-frequency area (LFa; 1.8±0.1 vs 2.2±0.2 ms²), the ratio of low frequency to respiration frequency area (LFa/RFa; 0.9±0.1 vs 1.3±0.1) at resting and carbon dioxide production (VCO 2 ; 41.2±4.0 vs 49.2±6.8 mL/min -1 /kg -1 ), ventilation per minute (V E ; 80.2±4.3 vs 97.5±5.5 L/min -1 ), and respiratory rate (RR; 38.2±1.9 to 44.3±2.1 breath/min -1 ) in an anaerobic test following MPU inter- vention. In GXT, maximal carbon dioxide production (VCO 2max; 51.9±3.5 to 59.1±6.4 mL/min -1 /kg -1 ), maximal ventilation per minute (V Emax ; 126.4±6.5 to 138.4±5.4 L/min -1 ) and maximal respiratory rate (RR max ; 52.7±3.6 to 60.1±2.3 breath/min -1 ) significantly increased in MPU. The correlations of ΔLFa with ΔVCO 2max , ΔV Emax , and ΔRR max in the MPU group were signifi- cant. Continuous uptake or inhalation of 50uL MP oil for 10 days does not improve aerobic capacity and maximal exercise performance, but 10 days’ uptake of MP essential oil increased sympathetic activity at rest and may relate to respiratory regulation under high-intensity exercise.
... Multiple studies report that inhaling rosemary essential oil improves memory, gives a sense of clarity and enhances the ability to focus (McCaffrey et al. 2009;Moss and Oliver 2002;Filiptsova et al. 2017). Furthermore, other studies such as the ones conducted by Saeki (2001) and Rahimi et al. (2019) associate the use of rosemary with decreasing stress and anxiety levels. ...
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This study looks at the effects of the combined practice of mindful meditation and aromatherapy on the wellbeing of MCAST ICS lecturers, potentially providing resources that can help them deal with various stressors. Each practice is supported with literature underlining its effects towards a holistic wellbeing. The researcher uses a qualitative narrative inquiry approach to draw meaning and understanding out of the participants’ experiences. Three MCAST ICS lecturers participated in this study. Their background in health care enables them to relate better with the benefits of mindful meditation and aromatherapy. The research design of this study consists of four stages; a pre-session held with the three participants, weekly mindful meditation sessions for six weeks, individual interviews with each participant, followed by a focus group. Three of the six sessions included aromatherapy and a mindful journal was kept throughout the sessions. The analysis format could either develop as an analysis of narrative or narrative of analysis. In this study both formats were used, however, due to the word count limit only the analysis of narrative is seen. The researcher elicited whole segments from the individual transcripts to develop various themes. To examine the data for the emergent themes the researcher chose to use thematic narrative analysis as it focuses on the ‘told’ (Riessman 2008). In this case the ‘told’ is what helped identify the common patterns found across the narratives. As themes started to emerge, whenever possible the researcher used the MAXQDA software to facilitate the process. Mindful meditation was found to lead to a series of events that enhance self-awareness, thus enhancing holistic wellbeing and positively effecting the individual’s approach towards work and family. This can be achieved because mindful meditation has the potential to enhance one’s social skills, soft skills, and emotional intelligence. Furthermore, combining aromatherapy with mindful meditation was found to positively enhance one’s experience. However, it was not the only decisive factor since the ambience was also an influencer.
... Moreover, tests carried out on murine models of depression have demonstrated an antidepressant capacity of rosemary extract that was compared to fluoxetine effect (7)(8)(9). However, it is important to note that although this traditionally well-known use of rosemary as medicinal plant, most of our knowledge about its therapeutic benefits on human mental health comes only from epidemiological data attributing to this plant virtues to treat the symptoms of migraine (10) and to play the role of anxiolytic (11). Moreover, considering the very low average rate of successful translation from in vivo and in vitro results to clinical trials, the extreme complexity of biological activities of humans that cannot be mimed by the animal models experiments and also the practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, we choose to perform a preliminary intervention study on healthy volunteers to evaluate whether rosemary tea consumption modulates the depression and anxiety biomarkers before to assay it on depressed patients. ...
Article
Background: Rosmarinus officinalis L.is traditionally used as an infusion in the treatment of several diseases and in particular against neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression. It was established that rosemary extracts show an antidepressant effect on animal models. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no scientific data that highlights the therapeutic effects of rosemary intake on human mental health. Aim:This study investigated whether rosemary tea consumption affects the plasma levels of anxiety and depression biomarkers in healthy volunteers. Methods:Twenty-two healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 50 years old consumed rosemary tea prepared from 5 g of dried rosemary in 100 mL boiled water once a day for 10 days. Plasma concentrations of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Interleukine-6 (IL-6), Interleukine-4 (IL-4), Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha (TNF-α), Interferon-gamma (IFNϒ), and cortisol were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using commercial ELISA kits (R&D systems) before rosemary consumption and at the end of the experiment. Results:Rosemary tea consumption significantly increased the concentration of BDNF([BDNF]D0 = 22363.86 ± 12987.66 pg/mL, [BDNF]D10 = 41803.64 ± 28109.19, p = 0.006) and TNF-α([TNF-α] D0 = 39.49 ± 14.44 pg/mL, [TNF-α] D10 = 56.24 ± 39.01, p = 0.016). However, a slight variation that was statistically non-significant in INFϒ, cortisol, IL-4, IL-6 levels and in the ratio IL-4/INFϒ was observed (p > 0.05). Conclusion:Our findings highlight the promising anxiolytic and/or antidepressant effects of rosemary tea consumption in healthy volunteers since it increases the level of the most reliable depression biomarker BDNF. However, more powerful studies with larger sample size, carefully-chosen target population and, an extended intervention period are required. Keywords: Rosemary teaBDNFanxietydepressioncytokinecortisol
... Therefore, it is important for them to realize their concerns and use effective coping methods to control these issues (Bowie, 2010;Dehkordi et al., 2009). When the literature was examined, studies evaluating the effect of music therapy, muscle relaxation exercises, cognitive therapy, emotional freedom technique, breathing exercises, mind purification, and aromatherapy for reducing the anxiety level in the nursing students were found (Chen et al., 2013;Dehkordi et al., 2009;İnce & Çevik, 2017;Kang et al., 2009;Malinski & Todaro-Franceschi, 2011;McCaffrey et al., 2009;Patterson, 2016;Torabizadeh et al., 2016). However, there was no study in which the effects of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation exercises in nursing students were applied as methods for dealing with anxiety before clinical practice. ...
Article
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AIM: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation exercise on the state and trait anxiety levels before their first clinical practice in nursing students. METHOD: This randomized controlled experimental study sample consisted of 86 nursing students who will be firstly applied to clinical practice. The students were randomly assigned to music (n=30), exercise (n=28), and control (n=28) groups. The data of the study were collected with Student Information Form and State-Trait Anxiety Scale. The music therapy intervention was applied to the music group three times a week for the first 2 weeks. Progressive muscle relaxation exercise was applied alone to the exercise group three times a week for the first 2 weeks in a separate room. No intervention was applied to the control group. This study RCT number is: NCT04540172 RESULTS: The majority of the students was female (81.4%), and the mean age was 19.74±1.38 years. After the interventions, there was a statistical difference between the groups, and this difference was created by the control group (p<0.05). The pre-test and post- test results were compared in the experimental groups, and the state anxiety levels had decreased (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the trait anxiety levels between the groups (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Music therapy and muscle relaxation exercises can be used to reduce the state anxiety levels in nursing students before their first clinical practice experience.
... These static measurements can skew results depending on scent intensity, and frequency. Mccaffrey's et al. [7] study with both lavender and rosemary essential oils for test anxiety reduction in graduate nursing students found that a consistent aroma of lavender was relaxing but some students experienced decreased focus on test questions. Self-reported evaluations are also subjectable to skewed data with users not accurately recalling the experience. ...
Conference Paper
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Anxiety is classified as one of the most common and relatable reactions to stress that every person will experience in their lifetime. Stress and anxiety can be developed due to the uniqueness of each person’s genetics, brain chemistry, personality and events within their lives. This extended abstract proposes a solution to assist users in learning how to self-regulate while promoting proper mental health techniques such as mindfulness. Incorporating an EEG device with an olfactory application can provide users with a dynamic approach to self-regulation for memory recall and relaxation. An introduction to the current understanding of olfactory-based computing systems will be presented to support the impact of smell stimulus’ on improving both behavioral and cognitive patterns. Lastly, this paper will also explore and discuss a proposed immersive sensory system to combat negative physical, emotional, and mental manifestations.
... The inhalation of rosemary oil in 144 healthy volunteers induced subjective effects on mood as well as objective effects on cognitive performance (43). In another study, the aroma of rosemary oil improved performance in exam students by enhancing free radical scavenging activity and decreasing cortisol levels (44). In a study by Pengelly et al. 2012, rosemary powder (750 mg), the dose nearest to the normal culinary consumption, showed positive influences on the speed of memory, the time taken to effectively regain information from both episodic and working memory, on 28 older adults (mean age, 75 years) which is a useful predictor of cognitive function during aging (45). ...
Article
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Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is an evergreen bushy shrub which grows along the Mediterranean Sea, and sub-Himalayan areas. In folk medicine, it has been used as an antispasmodic, mild analgesic, to cure intercostal neuralgia, headaches, migraine, insomnia emotional upset, and depression. Different investigations have highlighted rosemary neuropharmacological properties as their main topics. Rosemary has significant antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumorigenic, antinociceptive, and neuroprotective properties. Furthermore, it shows important clinical effects on mood, learning, memory, pain, anxiety, and sleep. The aim of the current work is to review the potential neuropharmacological effects of different rosemary extracts and its active constituents on nervous system disorders, their relevant mechanisms and its preclinical application to recall the therapeutic potential of this herb and more directions of future research projects. The data were gathered by searching the English articles in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The keywords used as search terms were ‘Rosmarinus officinalis’, ‘rosemary’, ‘nervous system’, ‘depression’, ‘memory’, ‘Alzheimer’s disease’ ‘epilepsy’, ‘addiction’, ‘neuropathic pain’, and ‘disorders’. All kinds of related articles, abstracts and books were included. No time limitation was considered. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were subjected to this investigation. This review authenticates that rosemary has appeared as a worthy source for curing inflammation, analgesic, anti-anxiety, and memory boosting. It also arranges new perception for further investigations on isolated constituents, especially carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and essential oil to find exquisite therapeutics and support drug discovery with fewer side effects to help people suffering from nervous system disorders.
... McCaffrey et al. (2009) also made a study to evaluate the effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on nursing students' TA and found that in both groups, the posttest values of students' TA were significantly lower than the pretest values. However, they did not perform between-group comparisons regarding students' TA [23]. ...
Article
Background: Test anxiety (TA) can hinder students’ academic achievement and cause them educational decline and psychological problems. Objective: The effect of inhalation aromatherapy with lavender essential oil on nursing students’ test anxiety was investigated. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study was conducted on 33 nursing students who had taken the Community Health Nursing II course and were going to take its final exam. Before taking the exam of the course, the students were allocated to the aromatherapy (n = 16) and the control groups (n = 17). For the aromatherapy group, ten drops of lavender essential oil was added to one liter of water and the solution was distributed in the room space for fifteen minutes by using a humidifier. However, the humidifier which was used for the control group included of only pure water without any essential oil. The students’ test anxiety was measured both before and after the study intervention by employing the Test Anxiety Inventory. Results: There was no significant difference between the study groups regarding the participating students’ demographic characteristics as well as the pretest and the posttest values of test anxiety. However, within-group comparisons indicated that in the aromatherapy group, the posttest value of test anxiety was significantly lower than the pretest value. Conclusions: The findings indicated that inhalation aromatherapy with lavender essential oil had no positive effects on students’ test anxiety. However, as the level of test anxiety in the aromatherapy group decreased significantly after the intervention and the students in this group reported that aromatherapy was pleasant to them. Aromatherapy is probably insignificant in alleviating acute or state anxieties.
... There are many other essential oils used in aromatherapy reported to exert an anxiolytic effect in clinical trials, such as sandalwood (Santalum album) oil [71], Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) oil [72], rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) oil [73], lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) oil [74], and pelargonium oil [75]. However, only a few studies have examined the constituents of these essential oils in relation to their anxiolytic activity. ...
Chapter
In our society, anxiety and depression are serious health issues that affect a large proportion of the population. Unfortunately, drug therapies are not always effective and can lead to drug abuse, delay of therapeutic effect, dependence, and tolerance. Traditionally, aromatherapy has also been used for anxiety relief and mood improvement. The use of essential oils, in relieving anxiety and depression, does not have the disadvantages associated with currently used drug therapies. In-vivo studies on animal models have verified the anxiolytic effects of these essential oils and the interactions of their major components with central nervous system receptors. Therefore, it seems reasonable to argue that the modulation of glutamate and GABA neurotransmitter systems are likely to be the critical mechanisms responsible for the sedative, anxiolytic, and anticonvulsant proprieties of linalool and essential oils containing linalool in significant proportions. Popular anxiolytic essential oils are generally rich in terpenoid alcohols like linalool, geraniol and citronellol, and the monoterpene limonene (or citral). Therefore, other essential oils or formulations that contain these terpenoids as major components may serve as important aromatherapeutics for relief of anxiety.
... Belonging to the family Lamiaceae, lavender is a herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean area and is widely cultivated [1]. It has been suggested that lavender aroma may be associated with improved mood, reduced mental stress and anxiety, sedation, and good sleep [2][3][4][5][6][7]. In addition, it has been reported that topical application of lavender cream (containing 1.25% essential oils) reduces stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women [8]. ...
Article
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Introduction: Aromatherapy is prominent in complementary and alternative medicine. Little endocrinological evidence, however, of the effects of aromatherapy has yet been presented. We used salivary stress marker chromogranin A (CgA) to examine the effects of lavender aroma on women watching a stressful video. Methods: Healthy female university students (n = 23) aged 20-22 years old were randomly assigned to two groups: an aroma group exposed to lavender and an unexposed control group. Both groups watched a stressful video for 10 min. During the protocol, the aroma group was exposed to lavender aroma. Samples of salivary chromogranin A (CgA) were collected immediately before and after watching the video, and at 5 and 10 min after that. Results: In the aroma group, the levels of CgA statistically significantly decreased throughout the experimental period. In the control group, there was no such change. Conclusion: The findings suggest that lavender aroma may reduce the stress effects of watching a stressful video.
... This study confirmed that rosemary extract improved cognitive functions (Jimbo, Kimura, Taniguchi, Inoue, & Urakami, 2009). Also, rosemary oil sachets lowered test anxiety measure, personal statements, and pulse rates (McCaffrey et al., 2009). For anxiety and depression, common symptoms in cancer patients, aromatherapy massages were tested in almost 300 patients. ...
Article
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Rosmarinus species are aromatic plants that mainly grow in the Mediterranean region. They are widely used in folk medicine, food, and flavor industries and represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds (e.g., terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids). The extraction of rosemary essential oil is being done using three main methods: carbon dioxide supercritical extraction, steam distillation, and hydrodistillation. Furthermore, interesting antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antileishmanial, anthelmintic, anticancer, anti‐inflammatory, antidepressant, and antiamnesic effects have also been broadly recognized for rosemary plant extracts. Thus the present review summarized data on economically important Rosmarinus officinalis species, including isolation, extraction techniques, chemical composition, pharmaceutical, and food applications. Rosmarinus species are aromatic plants that mainly grow in the Mediterranean region. They are widely used in folk medicine, food, and flavor industries and represent a valuable source of biologically active compounds (e.g., terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids). The extraction of rosemary essential oil is being done using three main methods: carbon dioxide supercritical extraction, steam distillation, and hydrodistillation.
... The use of complementary therapies as a low-risk, cost-effective, easy-to-use treatment with limited side effects is expanding in healthcare settings (14)(15)(16). Aromatherapy is one of the methods of complementary and alternative medicine (17). Various studies have shown that aromatherapy can be useful in relieving pain and fatigue, as well as in wound healing. ...
Article
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Background: Few studies assessed the association of weight of premature infant and aromatherapy as a secondary outcome. Aim of study was to evaluate all clinical trials on the association of weight of premature infant and aromatherapy.
... The aroma of rosemary oil reduced test-taking stress in graduate students. Carnosic acid may improve cell viability and improve blood flow to the brain, based on in vitro experiments Moss et al., 2003;Adsersen et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2006;Orhan et al., 2008;Park et al., 2008;Satoh et al., 2008;McCaffrey et al., 2009;Machado et al., 2009 Vascular health-rosemary extract could inhibit oxidation of LDL cholesterol in a biologically relevant human cell culture system Pearson et al., 1997;Kwon et al., 2006;Lee et al., 2007;Naemura et al., 2008 Blood glucose control-Rosemary activates PPARgamma, which plays an essential role in the regulation of cellular function and metabolism, leading to lower blood levels of fatty acids and glucose and is a potential inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase, which may help reduce sugar absorption; also inhibit AGEs (advanced glycation end products) formation in vitro Rau et al., 2006;Kwon et al., 2006;Hsieh et al., 2007;Bakirel et al., 2008; Bioactives from culinary spices and herbs: a review Embuscado ...
Article
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Culinary spices and herbs have been used in food and beverages to enhance aroma, flavor, and color. They are rich in phytochemicals that provide significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. There is growing interest in identifying compounds from spices and herbs responsible for modulating oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This contribution will provide an overview of culinary spices and herbs, their classification, their sources or origins and more importantly, their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and their impacts on human health based on important and recent studies.
... [7][8][9] Aromatherapy is also useful for controlling withdrawal symptoms, such as cough, phlegm, and anxiety. 10,11 According to a survey of Korean medical practitioners, acupuncture, herbal medicines, and aromatherapy were chosen as effective Korean medicine interventions for cessation treatment. 12 In real-world clinical practice, combining multiple methods is more effective than a single intervention for increasing the cessation success rate. ...
Article
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Background: Smoking is associated with many preventable diseases and deaths. Globally, more than 6 million deaths per year are related to smoking. This study aimed to evaluate the pragmatic effectiveness of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) interventions for the smoking cessation treatment and to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of these interventions. Methods: The study design was a pragmatic, open-label randomized trial. The hypothesis of this trial was that the smoking cessation success rate increases with the addition of T&CM methods. The intervention group was provided T&CM interventions in addition to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and counseling, whereas the control group was treated with only NRT and counseling. Individuals received treatment for 4 weeks, then follow-up care for 20 weeks. Results: Forty-one participants were enrolled and assigned to either an intervention group or a control group at a ratio of 1:1. The odds ratio values at 4 weeks were 1.96 (0.51-8.51) in intention-to-treat analysis and 3.27 (0.75-17.75) in per-protocol analysis. The amount of smoking (cigarettes) decreased in both groups: from 17.2 ± 10.31 (baseline) to 1.7 ± 3.02 (4 weeks) in the intervention group and from 12.9 ± 5.47 (baseline) to 3.3 ± 5.96 (4 weeks) in the control group. The total medical costs per patient were $212.20 USD in the intervention group and $170.80 in the control group. The adjusted ICER of T&CM interventions was $13,355. Conclusions: This pilot study evaluated the clinical feasibility of T&CM used in conjunction with NRT and counseling for the smoking cessation treatment. However, there was no statistically significant effectiveness of T&CM interventions to raise cessation success rate. This study demonstrates the necessity for further studies based on large-scale randomized controlled trials.
... A study among students of Iran, revealed a reduction in test-related anxiety with the use of Polianthes tuberosa essential oil [16]. Similar study in students of Florida Atlantic University proved the vital effects of aroma oils and recommended the use of rosemary and lavender oil during exams for reducing stress level [17]. In addition, lavender oil has been reported as stress reducer and to produce relaxation during exams [18]. ...
Article
Introduction: Academic stress is prevalent among pharmacy students. Several factors such as hectic schedules, courses and exam load as well as lack of recreational time during semester have been reported as determinants of academic stress. Studies revealed; the use of aroma oils especially with relaxant properties may help ease stress. Methods: This study aimed to investigate the effect of lavender oil on academic stress during exams in pharmacy students. A randomized-single-blind placebo-controlled trial providing aromatherapy with lavender oil as an intervention was conducted in male pharmacy students. The outcomes assessed included stress, stool pattern, headache and vital signs that comprised of systolic, diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and heart rate (HR). The study was approved from concerned authority and registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT#03460626). Results: The placebo and experimental group showed a significant (p < 0.01) difference in stress score (F = 244.865, p < 0.0001), headache VAS score (F = 8.187, p < 0.0001), SBP (F = 11.141, p < 0.0001), DBP (F = 3.873, p < 0.001) and HR (F = 8.537, p < 0.0001); at during-exam time-point as compared to control group. No significance was achieved; among three treatment groups in stool pattern (F = 2.143, p > 0.05) and, at post-exam time-point (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Aromatherapy with lavender oil did not have any effect on academic stress. Trial registration: The study was registered prospectively on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT#03460626) on 19th February 2018.
... Cognition, mental health, and neuroprotection.-Inhalation of rosemary and lavender oils enhanced cognitive function in a randomized study of 140 subjects using a cognitive assessment battery test and self-assessment mood scale (246). The aroma of rosemary oil reduced test-taking stress in graduate students (247). Rosemary extract had an antidepressant-like effect through an interaction with the monoaminergic system in a rat study (248). ...
Article
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Spices and herbs have been in use for centuries both for culinary and medicinal purposes. Spices not only enhance the flavor, aroma, and color of food and beverages, but they can also protect from acute and chronic diseases. More Americans are considering the use of spices and herbs for medicinal and therapeutic/remedy use, especially for various chronic conditions. There is now ample evidence that spices and herbs possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antitumorigenic, anticarcinogenic, and glucose- and cholesterol-lowering activities as well as properties that affect cognition and mood. Research over the past decade has reported on the diverse range of health properties that they possess via their bioactive constituents, including sulfur-containing compounds, tannins, alkaloids, phenolic diterpenes, and vitamins, especially flavonoids and polyphenols. Spices and herbs such as clove, rosemary, sage, oregano, and cinnamon are excellent sources of antioxidants with their high content of phenolic compounds. It is evident that frequent consumption of spicy foods was also linked to a lower risk of death from cancer and ischemic heart and respiratory system diseases. However, the actual role of spices and herbs in the maintenance of health, specifically with regards to protecting against the development of chronic, noncommunicable diseases, is currently unclear. This review highlights potential health benefits of commonly used spices and herbs such as chili pepper, cinnamon, ginger, black pepper, turmeric, fenugreek, rosemary, and garlic.
Article
Background Rosemary has shown antidepressant and anxiolytic properties. Thus, the present study aimed at assessing the therapeutic effects of orally administered rosemary capsules in patients with major depressive disorder. Materials and Methods Rosmarinic acid content of rosemary was determined using high performance liquid chromatography method. Hard gelatin capsules of rosemary were prepared, and their physicochemical properties were assessed. In this clinical trial, patients with major depressive disorder were randomly divided into rosemary and control groups. They received one capsule of rosemary or placebo twice a day for 8 weeks. The anxiety subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory - Second Edition were respectively used to measure the symptoms of anxiety and depression in the patients before initiating the treatment and four and eight weeks after the treatment. Results The amount of rosmarinic acid in rosemary was found to be 21.13 ± 0.56 mg/g dried plant. The scores of anxiety subscale of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory significantly decreased in the rosemary group compared to those in the control group 8 weeks after the treatment. Memory improvement was a beneficial side effect observed in the study. Conclusion The use of rosemary as an adjunctive therapy could improve the symptoms of anxiety and depression in people with major depression.
Article
Taste and olfaction elicit conscious feelings by direct connection with the neural circuits of emotions that affects physiological responses in the body (e.g., heart rate and skin conductance). While sensory attributes are strong determinants of food liking, other factors such as emotional reactions to foods may be better predictors of consumer choices even for products that are equally-liked. Thus, important insights can be gained for understanding the full spectrum of emotional reactions to foods that inform the activities of product developers and marketers, eating psychologist and nutritionists, and policy makers. Today, self-reported questionnaires and physiological measures are the most common tools applied to study variations in emotional perception. The present review discusses these methodological approaches, underlining their different strengths and weaknesses. We also discuss a small, emerging literature suggesting that individual differences and genetic variations in taste and smell perception, like the genetic ability to perceive the bitter compound PROP, may also play a role in emotional reactions to aromas and foods.
Article
Purpose This study examines the effectiveness of lemon essential oil in reducing test anxiety in first-year nursing students. Method A randomized, pre-test-post-test design was used in this study. The study included 46 first-year students from the Faculty of Medical Sciences of a private university in Istanbul, Turkey. Students were divided into two groups through randomisation (Intervention, N = 22; Control, N = 24). In the pre-test, a personal information form, State Test Anxiety Scale (STAS) and Test Anxiety Schedule (TAS) were administered to students in both groups. The students in the intervention group smelled lemon essential oil for 15 minutes. The study was completed by applying STAS and TAS as post-test. Results After smelling lemon essential oil, a significant difference was found between the mean pre-test and post-test scores for STAS, its sub-dimensions and TAS (p < 0.01) in the intervention group. It was observed that the nursing students’ mean scores for STAS, its sub-dimensions and TAS decreased after smelling lemon essential oil (p<0.05). It was found that the intervention group's mean post-test scores for STAS, cognitive sub-dimension and TAS were lower than those of the control group. Mean post-test scores of physiological sub-dimension in the intervention group were also significantly lower than the control group. It was concluded that lemon essential oil reduced test anxiety by 43.3%. Conclusion Lemon essential oil was found to be effective in reducing test anxiety in nursing students.
Article
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Olfactory marketing is a phenomenon that is in the current trend of usage by marketing experts to ensure that consumers are more involved in the purchase decision-making process under its influence. Past studies have revealed that customer today look for more than the product itself during their purchasing process and thus gives a lot of importance to the atmosphere where the product or service is being consumed. Hence it became invariably important for the marketer to create an ambiance for the consumers where they could feel at ease at the same time relaxes and has a soothing shopping experience. Through this systematic literature review, the researcher extensively studies 34 articles more pertinent to olfactory marketing, which were published across various scientific journals. This review would aim to discuss the upcoming themes, the methodologies used, the analytical approaches and the variables identified along with the theoretical foundations.
Chapter
Plants, principally spices and herbs, have been given much more attention because they are considered important for flavoring and coloring foods and their use as condiments. Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and also to treat ailments since they are full of medicinal and antioxidant properties and contain bioactive compounds like tannins, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, polyphenols, and vitamins, which help in healing diseases. Spices and herbs contain biomolecules that play a crucial role in healthcare and fitness levels. Spices and herbs have been considered as esoteric food adjuncts as they play numerous roles like being coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives, and having uses in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Full-text available
Olfactory marketing is a phenomenon that is in the current trend of usage by marketing experts to ensure that consumers are more involved in the purchase decision-making process under its influence. Past studies have revealed that customer today look for more than the product itself during their purchasing process and thus gives a lot of importance to the atmosphere where the product or service is being consumed. Hence it became invariably important for the marketer to create an ambiance for the consumers where they could feel at ease at the same time relaxes and has a soothing shopping experience. Through this systematic literature review, the researcher extensively studies 34 articles more pertinent to olfactory marketing, which were published across various scientific journals. This review would aim to discuss the upcoming themes, the methodologies used, the analytical approaches and the variables identified along with the theoretical foundations.
Article
Purpose This study examined the effect of EO diffusion in the clinical setting on nurses' mood. Design Interventional interrupted time series study with two data collection points: prior to, and in the second week of diffusion. Methods Self‐report questionnaires measured the impact of EO diffusion on nurses' stress, depression, anxiety, distress, and mood. Three EOs (Citrus Bliss, Grapefruit, Wild Orange) were diffused in 2‐week blocks, with a 1‐week wash‐out period. Descriptive statistics and paired sample t test were performed. Results A paired sample was returned for 39 participants. There were significant improvements after diffusion of Citrus Bliss for stress (mean difference [MD]: 2.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.82, 4.35), depression (MD: 1.83; 95% CI: 0.03, 3.64), distress (MD: 2.39; 95% CI: 0.58, 4.19) and mood (MD: 4.89; 95% CI: 0.52, 9.27). A large effect (Cohen's d effect >0.80) for depression and distress was observed for nurses who had previously used EOs and those with no reported external stressors. Conclusion Diffusion of citrus EOs in the clinical setting positively affected nurses' mood. Future studies could also explore effect for patients and visitors.
Chapter
Rosmarinus officinalis L. (family Lamiaceae; common name rosemary) is an aromatic, evergreen, medicinally important plant species. The species is widely used for cooking, consumed as an herbal tea, preparation of cosmetics, as well as traditional and modern medicine system (viz. cold, cough, rheumatism, etc). In addition, essential oil of the species has antibacterial and cytotoxic properties and reported good sources of 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, linalool, myrcenol, camphor, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, verbinone, piperitone and β-pinene. Due to the presence of several secondary metabolites species showed antimutagenic properties, antiinflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, antiatherosclerotic, antithrombotic, hepatoprotective, and hypocholesterolemic effects. Numerous reports highlighted the importance of the species and suggested utilization for to treat depression, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, etc. Besides this, further studies and clinical trials are needed for knowing the impact of rosemary on CNS-related diseases or disorders. Therefore, detailed investigation of pharmacological and clinical studies is essentially required for future utilization.
Chapter
Full-text available
Plants, principally spices and herbs, have been given much more attention because they are considered important for flavoring and coloring foods and their use as condiments. Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and also to treat ailments since they are full of medicinal and antioxidant properties and contain bioactive compounds like tannins, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, polyphenols, and vitamins, which help in healing diseases. Spices and herbs contain biomolecules that play a crucial role in healthcare and fitness levels. Spices and herbs have been considered as esoteric food adjuncts as they play numerous roles like being coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives, and having uses in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Background Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) and Salvia officinalis L. (Sage) are two Mediterranean species growing spontaneously in some area in Morocco. They are used in traditional and complementary medicine to treat numerous disorders. The aim of this work was to assess the in vitro antitumoral effect of the methanolic total extract prepared from rosemary and sage on human glioblastoma cell line (42 GMBA), conjointly with their antioxidant activity. Methods The accelerated solvent extractor was used to obtain the total extract of the studied plants. The antitumor activity was performed using the microculture tetrazolium cytotoxique assay while the antioxidant effect was evaluated using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Results Our results show that the total extract of R.O and S.O have a cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma but not on cortical neurons. On the other hand, the results obtained in the FRAP and DPPH tests show a dose-dependent antioxidant activity correlated with an important level of phenols and flavonoids. Conclusion Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L. were found to have an antitumoral activity which may be linked, probably, to an antioxidant process.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine if aromatherapy hand massage (HM) could improve test anxiety and self-efficacy in nursing students. Participants were randomized to receive aromatherapy hand massage (AHM), unscented HM, or no intervention (C) 60 minutes before an examination. No significant differences were found, but analysis of the percentage change from the means demonstrated the largest decrease in test anxiety in the AHM group (AHM = −12.4%, HM = −8.63%, C = −1.76%). Self-efficacy trends followed a similar pattern (AHM = 5.93%, HM = −3.03%, C = 0.52%). The trends in the percentage change from the means indicate that a larger sample may show improvements in test anxiety and self-efficacy with the use of AHM, which could improve nursing students’ academic performance and decrease attrition rates.
Article
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Background Anxiety is one of the uprising psychiatric disorders of the last decades and lavender administration has been traditionally suggested as a possible treatment. The objective of this review is to assess the efficacy of lavender, in any form and way of administration, on anxiety and anxiety-related conditions. Methods The PRISMA guidelines were followed. Retrieved data were qualitatively and quantitatively synthesized. Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Non-Randomized Studies (NRSs) which investigated the efficacy of lavender, in any form and way of administration, on patients with anxiety, involved in anxiety-inducing settings or undergoing anxiety-inducing activities, compared to any type of control, without language restrictions, were identified through electronic database searches. Medline via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were systematically searched. All databases were screened up to November, 2018. Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool and the following domains were considered: randomisation, allocation sequence concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other biases. Results 65 RCTs (7993 participants) and 25 NRSs (1200 participants) were included in the qualitative synthesis and 37 RCTs (3964 participants) were included in the quantitative synthesis. Overall, the qualitative synthesis indicated that 54 RCTs and 17 NRSs reported at least a significant result in favor of lavender use for anxiety. The quantitative synthesis showed that lavender inhalation can significantly reduce anxiety levels measured with any validated scale (Hedges’ g = − 0.73 [95% CI − 1.00 to − 0.46], p < 0.00001, 1682 participants), as well as state anxiety (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI)-State mean difference = − 5.99 [95% CI − 9.39 to − 2.59], p < 0.001, 901 participants) and trait anxiety (STAI-Trait mean difference = − 8.14 [95% CI − 14.44 to − 1.84], p < 0.05, 196 participants). Lavender inhalation did not show a significant effect in reducing systolic blood pressure as a physiological parameter of anxiety. A significant effect in diminishing anxiety levels was also found in favor of the use of oral Silexan® 80 mg/die for at least 6 weeks (Hamilton Anxiety Scale mean difference = − 2.90 [95% CI − 4.86 to − 0.95], p = 0.004, 1173 participants; Zung Self-rating Anxiety Scale mean difference = − 2.62 [95% CI − 4.84 to − 0.39], p < 0.05, 451 participants) or of the administration of massage with lavender oil (Hedges’ g = − 0.66 [95% CI − 0.97 to − 0.35], p < 0.0001, 448 participants). Discussion The most important limitation of this review is the low average quality of available studies on the topic. The majority of included RCTs were characterized by a high overall risk of bias. Another limitation regards the heterogeneity of study designs, especially with regard to non-oral ways of administration. Overall, oral administration of lavender essential oil proves to be effective in the treatment of anxiety, whereas for inhalation there is only an indication of an effect of reasonable size, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. Lavender essential oil administered through massage appears effective, but available studies are not sufficient to determine whether the benefit is due to a specific effect of lavender. Further high-quality RCTs with more homogeneous study designs are needed to confirm these findings. Available information outlines a safe profile for lavender-based interventions, although more attention should be paid to the collection and reporting of safety data in future studies. Considering these findings, since treatments with lavender essential oil generally seem safe, and, in the case of inhalation, also simple and inexpensive, they are a therapeutic option which may be considered in some clinical contexts. Other The present systematic review was not funded and was registered in PROSPERO under the following number: CRD42019130126.
Article
Background: This study was conducted to determine the effects of lavender oil on the levels of anxiety and vital signs in benign prostate hyperplasia patients (BPH) in their preoperative period. Method: This was a quasi-experimental study and a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The population of the study consisted of elderly male patients who were hospitalized at the urology clinic of a hospital in Turkey, eligible for inclusion, and who were scheduled to undergo BPH surgery. These patients had a prostate mass >30 g on which medical treatment and minimal surgical treatment had not been succesful but which could be cured through open prostatectomy surgery and transurethral resection of the prostate. The sample consisted of 110 patients selected by the convenience sampling method and determined based on power analysis. Results: According to data analysis, both groups showed significantly reduced anxiety after the smelling lavender oil. However, the experimental group reported a significantly higher decrease in anxiety [mean change: -38.47 (SD 8.68) vs -2.78 (SD 3.27)] in comparison to the control group (p < 0.001). The posttest mean vital signs of the groups were compared and there was a statistically significant decrease in respiration and increase in oxygen saturation (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The findings showed that lavender oil inhalation reduced anxiety levels and had effects on the vital signs of BPH patients in their preoperative period.
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Essential oils are usually used in aromatherapy to alleviate anxiety symptoms. Compared to traditional drugs, essential oils have fewer side effects and more diversified application ways including inhalation. This review provides a comprehensive overview of studies on anxiolytic effects of essential oils in preclinical and clinical trials. Most of the essential oils that used in clinical researches had been proved to be anxiolytic in animal models. Inhalation and oral administration were two common methods for essential oil administration in preclinical and clinical trials. Massage was only used in the clinical trials while intraperitoneal injection was only used in the preclinical trails. In addition to essential oils that are commonly used in aromatherapy, essential oils from many folk medicinal plants have also been reported to be anxiolytic. More than 20 compounds derived from essential oils have shown anxiolytic effect in rodents, while two-thirds of them are alcohols and terpenes. Monoamine neurotransmitters, amino acid neurotransmitters and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are thought to play important roles in the anxiolytic effects of essential oils.
Conference Paper
This work introduces a novel wearable olfactory display that provides just-in-time release of scents based on the physiological state of the wearer. The device can release up to three scents and passively captures subtle chest vibrations associated with the beating of the heart and respiration through clothes.BioEssenceiscontrolledviaacustom-madesmartphone app that allows the creation of physiological rules to trigger different scents (e.g., when the heart rate is above 80 beats per minute, release lavender scent). The device is wireless and lightweight, and it is designed to be used during daily life, clipped on clothes around the sternum area or used as a necklace. We provide a description of the design and implementation of the prototype and potential use cases in the context of mental wellbeing.
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The global essential oil market has been steadily increasing in size over the past few years, and is estimated to reach ca. $7.5 billion USD per annum by 2018. Lavenders (Lavandula; Lamiaceae) contribute significantly to this market, yielding ca. 1500 tons of essential oils which are primarily used in cosmetics, personal care products, and medicines. Recent literature indicates that these oils may also have applications in food preservation and pest control, among others. The medicinal and pharmaceutical properties of lavenders are chiefly due their essential oils, in particular the major essential oil constituents linalool and linalyl acetate, although certain activities have been attributed to the phenolic compounds. In addition, there is evidence that the major and minor essential oil constituents act synergistically to provide various biological effects. A substantial amount of current research focuses on evaluating the biological activities of lavender essential oils for potential use in traditional and complementary medicine, food systems, cosmetic and fragrance formulations, and insect control products. This review examines recent progress in these areas, and highlights the current and future implications for these economically and medicinally valuable plants. © Copyright 2018 Natural Product Communciations Inc. All Rights Reserved.
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This study was designed to assess the olfactory impact of the essential oils of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and rosemary (Rosmarlnus officinalis) on cognitive performance and mood in healthy volunteers. One hundred and forty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of three independent groups, and subsequently performed the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery in a cubicle containing either one of the two odors or no odor (control). Visual analogue mood questionnaires were completed prior to exposure to the odor, and subsequently after completion of the test battery. The participants were deceived as to the genuine aim of the study until the completion of testing to prevent expectancy effects from possibly influencing the data. The outcome variables from the nine tasks that constitute the CDR core battery feed into six factors that represent different aspects of cognitive functioning. Analysis of performance revealed that lavender produced a significant decrement in performance of working memory, and impaired reaction times for both memory and attention based tasks compared to controls. In contrast, rosemary produced a significant enhancement of performance for overall quality of memory and secondary memory factors, but also produced an impairment of speed of memory compared to controls. With regard to mood, comparisons of the change in ratings from baseline to post-test revealed that following the completion of the cognitive assessment battery, both the control and lavender groups were significantly less alert than the rosemary condition; however, the control group was significantly less content than both rosemary and lavender conditions. These findings indicate that the olfactory properties of these essential oils can produce objective effects on cognitive performance, as well as subjective effects on mood.
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This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on the anxiety and self-esteem experienced by Korean elderly women. A quasi-experimental, control group, pretest-posttest design was used. The subjects comprised 36 elderly females: 16 in the experimental group and 20 in the control group. Aromatherapy massage using lavender, chamomile, rosemary, and lemon was given to the experimental group only. Each massage session lasted 20 min, and was performed 3 times per week for two 3-week periods with an intervening 1-week break. The intervention produced significant differences in the anxiety and self-esteem and no significant differences in blood pressure or pulse rate between the two groups. These results suggest that aromatherapy massage exerts positive effects on anxiety and self-esteem. However, more objective, clinical measures should be applied in a future study with a randomized placebo-controlled design.
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Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.
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The ingestion of a foreign body that penetrates the gastric wall and migrates to the liver, where it causes an abscess is uncommon. A case of an ingested rosemary twig perforating the gastric antrum, then migrating to the liver, complicated by hepatic abscess and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis is reported. A 59-year-old man without a history of foreign body ingestion was admitted to our hospital because of sepsis and epigastralgia, which had progressively worsened. No foreign body was identified at preoperative imaging, but a rosemary twig was discovered during laparotomy. The liver abscess and sepsis were controlled successfully with surgery and antibiotics. This unusual condition should be kept in mind when dealing with cases of hepatic abscess, or even sepsis of unknown origin. Despite the improvement of non-surgical techniques such as percutaneous drainage and interventional endoscopy, surgery still remains important in the treatment of hepatic abscess caused by an ingested foreign body.
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To clarify whether or not inhaling fragnance of lavender, rosemary or citronella affects physiological conditions, responses of the autonomic nervous system were evaluated by measuring R-wave intervals on an electrocardiogram, blood pressure, blood flow in the fingertip and galvanic skin conductance. Heart rate variability was also examined using spectral analysis.Lavender was the most effective fragnance in terms of eliciting calmness and relaxation. When inhaled for 10 minutes, lavender produced an increase in blood flow and decrease in galvanic skin conductance and systolic blood pressure, indicating a reduction in sympathetic nerve activity followed by decreased blood pressure. Rosemary, which is perceived as having a refreshing effect, decreased blood flow and increased systolic blood pressure immediately after inhalation, resulting from stimulating sympathetic nerve activity. Citronella produced an increase in R-R interval on the electrocardiogram and decreased blood flow and galvanic skin conductance. The high frequency component of spectral analysis, which reflects only parasympathetic nervous activity, was significantly increased following inhalation of lavender or citronella. The ratio of the low frequency/high frequency components, which reflects an autonomic balance, was increased significantly by rosemary or citronella inhalation, indicating that sympathetic nervous activity had become predominant. These results suggested that fragnances that cause feelings of calmness or relaxation, such as lavender, produce a relaxed condition in the autonomic nervous system by increasing parasympathetic whilst depressing sympathetic nervous activity in addition to mental or psychological effects. In contrast, refreshing fragnances, such as rosemary, stimulate sympathetic nervous activity. Citronella seems to activate both para-sympathetic and sympathetic nervous activity. Appreciation of citronella varies widely among individuals, which might be associated with its complex effects on the autonomic nervous system.
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The shortage of nurses in the United States remains a persistent problem. Faced with this reality, nursing programs in colleges and universities continue to struggle to expand enrollment levels to meet the spiraling demand. This research uses familiar tools in strategic management: the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and stakeholder analysis as initial steps to draw more students to the profession of nursing. In a 2-round modified Delphi survey, chief administrators of schools of nursing identify the main SWOT of schools of nursing and the important internal and external stakeholders that influence nursing school success. The authors of the research suggest ways to use that knowledge to increase the enrollment level of nursing students. Part I of this research focuses on the SWOT analyses.
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This paper presents evidence from three samples, two of college students and one of participants in a community smoking-cessation program, for the reliability and validity of a 14-item instrument, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), designed to measure the degree to which situations in one's life are appraised as stressful. The PSS showed adequate reliability and, as predicted, was correlated with life-event scores, depressive and physical symptomatology, utilization of health services, social anxiety, and smoking-reduction maintenance. In all comparisons, the PSS was a better predictor of the outcome in question than were life-event scores. When compared to a depressive symptomatology scale, the PSS was found to measure a different and independently predictive construct. Additional data indicate adequate reliability and validity of a four-item version of the PSS for telephone interviews. The PSS is suggested for examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress in the etiology of disease and behavioral disorders and as an outcome measure of experienced levels of stress.
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Previous research has validated finger pulse volume (FPV) as a measure of anxiety in response to threat of physical harm. The present study evaluated FPV as a measure of anxiety in response to a social-evaluative threat. Physiological and self-report measures of anxiety were recorded while subjects anticipated and responded to an interview in either high or low stress conditions. Results indicated that FPV was sensitive to the stress manipulation during both periods and was correlated with self-reported anxiety during the anticipation period. The findings were discussed in terms of FPV as a physiological index in the assessment of anxiety.
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This study measured the effect of an individualized stress-management program on nursing students who identified anxiety as interfering with academic performance in the nursing program. The quasi-experimental longitudinal study used a pretest, posttest, and follow-up test, control group design. Data were analyzed using t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVAS). In a 6-week counseling program students identified personal stress reactions and adapted coping strategies related to nutrition, exercise, progressive relaxation, cognitive control, time management, and testing skills to personal use. The program was effective in significantly increasing self-esteem and decreasing depression and anxiety. Grades improved sufficiently for student retention.
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Challenge examinations offer registered nurse students enrolled in our baccalaureate nursing programme the opportunity to demonstrate mastery of course content through a testing process. Successful students receive credit for the course while those who are unsuccessful must take the course to proceed in the programme. Faculty observations of registered nurse students during the challenge process suggested this testing was stressful. Therefore, a study was conducted to determine anxiety levels and coping strategies of on-campus and distance education registered nurse students at three different times during the challenge examination process. Differences between the two groups of nursing students on selected demographic variables, past academic performance, anxiety levels and coping strategies were assessed from the perspective of Folkman & Lazarus's (1984) theory of stress and coping. Significant differences were found in anxiety levels, coping strategies and past academic performance by age, marital status, employment and work setting. Several different coping strategies were used. However, problem solving was used extensively by both groups while social support was used more by the on-campus students. The results are discussed in terms of Folkman & Lazarus's theory of stress and coping, and implications for nurse educators are presented.
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The effect of the lavender odorant on a Japanese version of Cox and Mackay's stress/arousal adjective checklist for three groups was studied. One group of 14 was placed into a (2 x 2- x 3 m) sound protected room for 20 min without the presentation of an odor, an analogous group of 15 received the odor oil, and one group of 13 received a nonstressful condition. Analysis suggested that lavender odorants were associated with reduced mental stress and increased arousal rate.
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Essential oils distilled from members of the genus Lavandula have been used both cosmetically and therapeutically for centuries with the most commonly used species being L. angustifolia, L. latifolia, L. stoechas and L. x intermedia. Although there is considerable anecdotal information about the biological activity of these oils much of this has not been substantiated by scientific or clinical evidence. Among the claims made for lavender oil are that is it antibacterial, antifungal, carminative (smooth muscle relaxing), sedative, antidepressive and effective for burns and insect bites. In this review we detail the current state of knowledge about the effect of lavender oils on psychological and physiological parameters and its use as an antimicrobial agent. Although the data are still inconclusive and often controversial, there does seem to be both scientific and clinical data that support the traditional uses of lavender. However, methodological and oil identification problems have severely hampered the evaluation of the therapeutic significance of much of the research on Lavandula spp. These issues need to be resolved before we have a true picture of the biological activities of lavender essential oil.
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This study examined whether nursing students experience an unusual amount of debilitative anxiety in academic achievement, compared to general university students and provided senior psychiatric nursing students with a hands-on experience in research. A nonprobability convenience sample of 225 students was drawn from a university in the eastern United States. Alpert and Haber's Achievement Anxiety Test was administered to 94 nursing students and 131 general university students. Results indicated that nursing students do not have a statistically significantly higher debilitative anxiety than the general student population. However, all students experienced significantly higher levels of debilitative anxiety than were found by Alpert and Haber. Implications for academic nursing are discussed.
Article
The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of aroma inhalation on stress responses (physical symptoms, levels of anxiety, perceived stresses)of nursing students. This study was a quasi-experimental research using a non-equivalent pre-post design and was conducted from June 1 to June 5, 2002. The subjects consisted of 77 junior nursing students who were divided into 39 experimental group members and 38 control group members. A pretest and Post-test were conducted to measure body symptoms, the level of anxiety, and the level of perceived stress. In the experimental group, aromas were given using an aroma lamp, lavender, peppermint, rosemary and Clary-Sage. In the control group, the treatment was not administered. As a result of administering aroma inhalation to nursing students, their physical symptoms decreased, their anxiety scores were low, and their perceived stress scores were low, showing that aroma inhalation could be a very effective stress management method. Nursing educators should play an important role in contributing to college students' physical and psychological health by helping enhance their recognition of stress management and effectively relieving their stress using essential oils.
Article
Free radicals/reactive oxygen species are related to many biological phenomena such as inflammation, aging, and carcinogenesis. The body possesses various antioxidative systems (free radical scavenging activity, FRSA) for preventing oxidative stress, and saliva contains such activity. In the present study, we measured the total salivary FRSA induced after the smelling of lavender and rosemary essential oils that are widely used in aromatherapy. Various physiologically active substances in saliva such as cortisol, secretory IgA, and alpha-amylase activity were found to be correlated with aroma-induced FRSA. The subjects (22 healthy volunteers) sniffed aroma for 5 min, and each subject's saliva was collected immediately. FRSA was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. The FRSA values were increased by stimulation with low concentrations (1000 times dilution) of lavender or by high-concentrations (10 times dilution) of rosemary. In contrast, both lavender and rosemary stimulations decreased cortisol levels. A significant inverse correlation was observed between the FRSA values and the cortisol levels with each concentration of rosemary stimulation. No significant changes were noted in sIgA or alpha-amylase. These findings clarify that lavender and rosemary enhance FRSA and decrease the stress hormone, cortisol, which protects the body from oxidative stress.
Test anxiety inventory: a global measure of test taking anxiety
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A multifactorial study of test anxiety and coping responses during a challenge exam
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Reduction of mental stress with lavender odorant.
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Test anxiety inventory: a global measure of test taking anxiety.
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