Article

Application of Hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.) Oil in the Treatment of Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Disorders

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Abstract

Hempseed oil was dispensed in an open clinical trial involving in- and outpatients, for the treatment of chronic Ear, Nose and Throat disorders (external otitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis), acute external otitis, and one case of trauma, for a total of 117 cases. The application of hempseed oil made it possible to reduce the period of treatment of all mentioned cases by eight days (9%), compared with standard treatments. The results allowed us to consider hempseed oil as an effective means for treating ENT disorders as well as injuries resulting from traumas or burns.

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... It was shown that the ingestion of hempseed oil increases the EFAs, linoleic acids, and improves the dryness and itchiness of atopic skin [22]. Previous clinical studies demonstrated that topically applied hemp oil is beneficial in mucosal skin wound healing [23]. Hempseed oil reactivates the natural barrier function to protect the dry and scaly skin while boosting the moisture balance. ...
... For this purpose, we electrospun four types of PCL patches with smooth, porous, random, and aligned fibers to analyze the influence of membrane architecture on long-term oil release. Porous fibers were obtained through phase separation by the addition of DMSO to the PCL solution [23], and increasing humidity up to 70% [24]. The higher diameter of sPCL compared to pPCL fibers was mainly due to different solvents used for the preparation of polymer solution. ...
... The higher diameter of sPCL compared to pPCL fibers was mainly due to different solvents used for the preparation of polymer solution. The addition of DMSO increased polymer solution conductivity that resulted in decreased pPCL fibers diameter [23]. The 5 cm increase in distance between nozzle and collector while electrospinning of pPCL fibers, elongated the time of fibers drying and stretching leading to pPCL fiber diameter decrease before reaching the collector [25]. ...
Article
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Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, inflammatory skin condition, caused by wide genetic, environmental, or immunologic factors. AD is very common in children but can occur at any age. The lack of long-term treatments forces the development of new strategies for skin regeneration. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a well-developed, tissue-compatible biomaterial showing also good mechanical properties. In our study, we designed the electrospun PCL patches with controlled architecture and topography for long-term release in time. Hemp oil shows anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, increasing also the skin moisture without clogging the pores. It can be used as an alternative cure for patients that do not respond to traditional treatments. In the study, we tested the mechanical properties of PCL fibers, and the hemp oil spreading together with the release in time measured on skin model and human skin. The PCL membranes are suitable material as patches or bandages, characterized by good mechanical properties and high permeability. Importantly, PCL patches showed release of hemp oil up to 55% within 6 h, increasing also the skin moisture up to 25%. Our results confirmed that electrospun PCL patches are great material as oil carriers indicating a high potential to be used as skin patches for AD skin treatment.
... Varieties of hemp, Cannabis sativa L., are cultivated for oilseed and fibre in many areas of the world (Lozano 2001) and hempseeds have been used to treat various disorders in both Arabic (Lozano 2001) and traditional folk medicine (Grigoriev 2002). Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of hempseed oil to treat ear, nose, and throat disorders (Grigoriev 2002) and atopic dermatitis (Callaway et al. 2005). ...
... Varieties of hemp, Cannabis sativa L., are cultivated for oilseed and fibre in many areas of the world (Lozano 2001) and hempseeds have been used to treat various disorders in both Arabic (Lozano 2001) and traditional folk medicine (Grigoriev 2002). Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the ability of hempseed oil to treat ear, nose, and throat disorders (Grigoriev 2002) and atopic dermatitis (Callaway et al. 2005). The nutritional benefits of hempseed may be due to its complement of PUFAs. ...
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Hypercholesterolemia indirectly increases the risk for myocardial infarction by enhancing the ability of platelets to aggregate. Diets enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce the detrimental effects of cholesterol on platelet aggregation. This study investigated whether dietary hempseed, a rich source of PUFAs, inhibits platelet aggregation under normal and hypercholesterolemic conditions. Male New Zealand white rabbits were fed one of 6 dietary interventions: regular control diet (RG); control diet + 10% hempseed (HP); control diet + 10% partially delipidated hempseed (DHP); control diet + 0.5% cholesterol (OL); control diet + 0.5% cholesterol + 10% hempseed (OLHP); control diet + 5% coconut oil (CO). After 8 weeks, blood was collected to measure ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and plasma levels of fatty acids, cholesterol, and triglycerides. The hempseed-fed animals (HP and OLHP) displayed elevated plasma levels of PUFAs and a prominent enhancement in 18:3n-6 (gamma-linolenic acid, GLA) levels, a unique PUFA found in hempseed. The cholesterol-supplemented groups (OL and OLHP) had significantly elevated plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but platelet aggregation was significantly augmented only in the OL group. The addition of hempseed to this diet (OLHP) normalized aggregation. The direct addition of GLA to the OL platelet samples blocked the cholesterol-induced stimulation of platelet aggregation. The results of this study demonstrate that when hempseed is added to a cholesterol-enriched diet, cholesterol-induced platelet aggregation returns to control levels. This normalization is not due to a reduction in plasma cholesterol levels, but may be partly due to increased levels of plasma GLA.
... There is limited scientific knowledge on the health-related benefits of hempseed. Its use has been documented in Arabic (22) and folk (23) medicine; however, this information must be viewed cautiously. In the past, hempseed most likely contained higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol, a psychoactive substance, which may have given the impression of a beneficial effect. ...
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Hempseed is a novel functional food that contains several health-promoting polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFAs, such as those found in flaxseed and fish, have been shown to protect the heart against arrhythmias following ischemia/reperfusion. TO INVESTIGATE THE POTENTIAL OF DIETARY HEMPSEED AS A CARDIOPROTECTIVE AGENT AGAINST GLOBAL ISCHEMIA AND SUBSEQUENT REPERFUSION BY ASSESSING SEVERAL MEASUREMENTS OF CARDIAC PERFORMANCE: QT interval duration, left ventricular pressure, arrhythmia incidence and arrhythmia duration. MALE NEW ZEALAND WHITE RABBITS WERE FED ONE OF SIX DIETS: a control diet; or one supplemented with 10% hempseed, 10% delipidated hempseed, 0.5% cholesterol, 0.5% cholesterol plus 10% hempseed or 5% coconut oil. After eight weeks on their respective diets, the hearts were excised and subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 45 min of reperfusion. Electrocardiogram traces were recorded throughout the experiment and were subsequently analyzed for QT interval duration, left ventricular pressure, arrhythmia incidence and arrhythmia duration. Plasma and cardiac tissue were analyzed for fatty acid content and composition. Cholesterol-fed animals exhibited significantly higher PUFA levels in their plasma, but this did not directly translate into higher PUFA levels in their cardiac fractions. There were no significant differences among the groups in the incidence or duration of ischemia-derived arrhythmias. During reperfusion, there was a significant decrease in the incidence of fibrillation in the hearts obtained from cholesterol-fed and hempseed- plus cholesterol-fed rabbits compared with the hearts from delipidated hempseed-fed rabbits. Dietary hempseed induced limited beneficial effects on cardiac function during ischemia/reperfusion challenge. The present study does not support the use of dietary hempseed to protect the heart during ischemic insult in this experimental model.
... Whole plants, leaves and wood have environmental uses and bark, fiber and seed are also of ritual importance [2]. The hemp seeds oil was dispensed in an open clinical trial involving in an outpatients, for the treatment of chronic ear, nose and throat (ENT) disorders external otitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, acute external otitis, and trauma [3]. The effects of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) and its Cannabinoids DELTA-9-hydrocannabinol on bacterial, protozoa and viral infections, immunity, and cytokinin, studied in vitro and in vivo [4]. ...
Article
The present study was carried out on forty, male and female Wister white (albino) rats weighting 100-150 gm(s) to elucidate the hepatoprotective and toxicological effect of Cannabis Sativa oil on liver and Kidneys to explore the side effect of the oil for 4 weeks for toxicological parameter and 10 day for hepatoprotective activity. A daily doses of Cannabis sativa oil (0.01 ml/kg, 0.1 ml/kg and 1 ml/kg body weight/rat administered orally to three groups of rats (each group includes 10 rats) successively where a group of ten rats was taken as a control group. However, the results of study showed hepatorenal lesions but not causing death. Extracts of C. sativa showed no signs of abnormalities and no mortalities among off spring rats. No changes in the physiological behaviors were observed throughout the experiment. Moreover, the sections taken were characterized by pale kidney, generalized fatty changes in the liver during the experimental period (4 weeks). Also, the oil was tested for the hepatoprotective activity, the hepatotoixicty produced by administration of CCl4 in paraffin oil 1:9 at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg for 10 days, was found to be inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of oil of Cannabis sativa seeds at a dose 1 and 0.5 ml/kg for 10 days, with evidence of decreased level of serum AST, ALT, ALP, and billirubin. In addition the concurrent administration of oil with CCl4 for 10 days masked the liver changes induced by the hepatotoxic compound observed in the control rats and comparable with the hepatoprotective effect of the standard drug Silymarin.
... building block chemicals, fibres) and subsequent use of lowvalue bulk residues, e.g. for production of renewable energy carriers. Industrial hemp, with its high biomass yield (Paper I), high fibre content (van der Werf, 1994), oil-rich seeds with an interesting profile of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Vogl et al., 2004;Grigoriev, 2002) and antioxidants (Blade et al., 2006) and promising fermentation conversion efficiency (Paper II), is an interesting biomass source in this respect. 41. ...
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Bioenergy is currently the fastest growing source of renewable energy. Tighter sustainability criteria for the production of vehicle biofuels and an increasing interest in combined heat and power (CHP) production from biomass have led to a demand for high-yielding energy crops with good conversion efficiencies. Industrial hemp was studied as an energy crop for production of biogas and solid biofuel. Based on field trials, the development of biomass and energy yield, the specific methane yield and elemental composition of the biomass were studied over the growing and senescence period of the crop, i.e. from autumn to the following spring. The energy yield of hemp for both solid biofuel and biogas production proved similar or superior to that of most energy crops common in northern Europe. The high energy yield of biogas from hemp is based on a high biomass yield per hectare and good specific methane yield with large potential for increases by pretreatment of the biomass. The methane energy yield per hectare is highest in autumn when hemp biomass yield is highest. The energy yield per hectare of hemp for use as a solid biofuel is highest in autumn when the biomass yield is highest. However, important combustion-related fuel properties, such as moisture, alkali, chlorine and ash content and ash melting temperature, are significantly improved when industrial hemp is harvested in spring instead of in autumn. Major fuel properties of hemp are not significantly influenced by annual cultivation conditions, latitude or choice of cultivar. Net energy yields per hectare and energy output-to-input ratios of hemp are above-average in most applications, and are highest for use of hemp as solid biofuel. Use of hemp as a biogas substrate suffers from higher energy inputs and lower conversion efficiencies, but produces a high-quality vehicle fuel. Advantages over other energy crops are also found outside the energy balance, e.g. low pesticide requirements, good weed competition and suitability as break crop in cereal-oriented crop rotations. Improvements in hemp biomass and energy yields may strengthen its competitive position against maize and sugar beet for biogas production and against perennial energy crops for solid biofuel production.
... . Numerous folk medicines were concocted from sativa, although before the 1700s medicinal uses of Cannabis in Europe were mostly centuries-old repetitions of Greek and Islamic physicians.Dioscorides' prescription of hempseed oil as an analgesic eardrop was particularly repeated in European herbals. Modern research has found that hempseed oil is useful in treating ear, nose, and throat injuries209 .Fiber has always been the dominant aspect of western Eurasian Cannabis culture. Hemp rope and fabric became important commercial products in medieval Europe. ...
Book
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Cannabis, one of humanity’s first domesticated plants, has been utilized for spiritual, therapeutic, recreational, and even punitive reasons for thousands of years. Humans have excellent practical knowledge of Cannabis uses, yet limited understanding of its sociocultural consequences, past or present due to its widespread prohibition. In Cannabis, Chris Duvall explores the cultural history and geography of humanity’s most widely distributed crop, which supplies both hemp and marijuana. This book provides a global view of the plant, with coverage of little-studied regions including Africa and Australia. This book focuses on the plant’s currently most valuable product, the psychoactive drug marijuana. Cannabis also covers the history of hemp and its use as a fiber source for ropes and textiles; as a source of edible hempseeds; and as a source of industrial oil for paints and fuel. This book does not advocate either the prohibition or legalisation of the drug but challenges received wisdom on both sides of the debate. Cannabis explores and analyses a wide range of sources to provide a better understanding of its current prohibition, as well as of the diversity of human–Cannabis relationships across the globe. This, the author argues, is necessary to redress the oversimplistic portrayals of marijuana and hemp that dominate discourse on the subject, and ultimately to improve how the crop is managed worldwide. This highly accessible, richly illustrated volume is an essential read given rapidly evolving debates about prohibition, and in light of changes in the legality of marijuana in Uruguay, some U.S. states, and other jurisdictions worldwide.
... The high worldwide interest in hemp oil is due to the balanced and unique composition of polyunsatu rated fatty acids, which are essential in nutrition, effective as antioxidants, counteract the formation of thrombi in vessels, and reduce the level of cholesterol [12,13]. Linoleic acid with two double bonds and γ linolenic acid with three double bonds contained in the oil belong to ω 6 fatty acids; α linolenic acid with three double bonds and stearidonic acid (cis 6,9,12,15 octadecatetraenoic acid) with four double bonds belong to ω 3 fatty acids. ...
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The composition and content of fatty acids in oil of ruderal hemp seeds collected in the Volga, Southern, Urals, Siberian, and Far Eastern federal districts are studied. The content of tetrahydrocannabinol is assessed.
... In both allopathic and traditional forms of medicine, such improvements are considered as good indications of general health. A recent clinical study with topically applied hempseed oil has already demonstrated its usefulness in healing mucosal skin wounds after eye, nose and throat surgery (Grigoriev, 2002 ). This finding is in line with numerous other clinical studies that have demonstrated the utility of EFAs and other PUFAs in healing and immune response (Manku et al., 1982Manku et al., , 1984 Bordoni et al., 1988; Oliwiecki et al., 1991; Sakai et al., 1994; Yu & Björkstén, 1998; Derek & Meckling-Gill, 1999; Harbige et al., 2000; Harbige & Fisher, 2001; Horrobin, 2000; Simopoulos, 2002a,b). ...
Article
The seed of Cannabis sativa L. has been an important source of nutrition for thousands of years in Old World cultures. Non-drug varieties of Cannabis, commonly referred to as hemp, have not been studied extensively for their nutritional potential in recent years, nor has hempseed been utilized to any great extent by the industrial processes and food markets that have developed during the 20th century. Technically a nut, hempseed typically contains over 30% oil and about 25% protein, with considerable amounts of dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals. Hempseed oil is over 80% in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and is an exceptionally rich source of the two essential fatty acids (EFAs) linoleic acid (18:2 omega-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-3). The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio (n6/n3) in hempseed oil is normally between 2:1 and 3:1, which is considered to be optimal for human health. In addition, the biological metabolites of the two EFAs, gamma-linolenic acid (18:3 omega-6; GLA) and stearidonic acid (18:4 omega-3; SDA), are also present in hempseed oil. The two main proteins in hempseed are edestin and albumin. Both of these high-quality storage proteins are easily digested and contain nutritionally significant amounts of all essential amino acids. In addition, hempseed has exceptionally high levels of the amino acid arginine. Hempseed has been used to treat various disorders for thousands of years in traditional oriental medicine. Recent clinical trials have identified hempseed oil as a functional food, and animal feeding studies demonstrate the long-standing utility of hempseed as an important food resource.
Chapter
Hempseed is a well-known source of highly digestible protein (edestin and albumin). It has significant amounts of all essential amino acids, bioactive compounds along with dietary fibre, vitamins and minerals. The hempseed oil extracted from the achenes of cannabis usually has more than 80% of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Particularly, it is a rich source of α-linolenic acid and linoleic acid and has been used as a replacement for fish oil. Moreover, various clinical trials carried out on hempseed oil have signified its importance as a functional food and are often used for the treatment of disorders. The moisture content present in the seed at various stages such as harvest and pressing is typically around 15 and 10%, respectively. The presence of excess moisture content during processing would favour mould growth and is a possible reason for reduced shelf life. This article covers the challenges and adverse effects associated with the use of hempseed that include long-term stability issues and toxicity. One among the significant adverse effects includes the presence of a psychoactive compound such as Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Thus, the scope of this review is to highlight and focus on the significant findings that will contribute to broadening the application of hempseed for food applications and related health benefits.
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Hempseed oil is a highly unsaturated product that is pressed or extracted from the achenes of Cannabis, which are also a source of highly digestible protein. The tiny nut is an exceptionally good source of nutrition. The food-quality of hempseed oil tastes and smells delicious, and it is extremely rich in lipid nutrients. Hempseed oil that is used for human consumption is ideally produced from fresh, well-cleaned seeds that were air-dried at low temperatures over several days or weeks. Hempseed and hempseed meal are excellent sources of digestible protein. Hempseed is an incredibly rich source of beneficial dietary components. The primary non-food industrial use for hempseed oil originates from its high level of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), which readily polymerize upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen. Such drying oils are useful for the production of paints, varnishes, sealants, and such durable goods as floor coverings, and other bio-plastics.
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After alcohol, marijuana is the most popular recreational drug in North America. Its effects are largely predictable in type, but not in degree, although they do appear in a roughly dose-dependent manner. The effects discussed here make a very convincing case for the potential for marijuana to impair driving, although as noted, the extent to which that potential is realized in a given case will be related to many other factors.
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Marijuana is the most frequently used illegal drug in the world today. Some 146 million people, or 3.7% of the population 15–64 years of age, consumed Cannabis in 2001–2003 (1). In the United States, 95 million Americans over the age of 12 have tried marijuana at least once. In 2002, an estimated 15 million Americans had used the drug in the month before a survey (2), representing 6.2% of the population age 12 years and older. Marijuana was used either alone or in combination with other drugs by 75% of the current illicit drug users. Approximately 2-3 million new users of marijuana are added each year, with about 1.1% becoming clinically dependent on it (3). In the case of young people, according to a recent survey of high school students known as Monitoring the Future, supported by the US National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) and conducted yearly, at least 19% of 8th graders had tried marijuana at least once and 18% of 10th graders were “current” drug users (i.e., had used the drug within the past month before the survey). Among 12th graders, nearly 48% had tried marijuana at least once, and approx 21% were “current”marijuana users (4). Marijuana use by young people has increased or decreased at various times during the last decade, possibly as a result of its potency, which has been on the rise, although nonsignificantly from a 3% concentration of Δ9-tetrahyrocannabinol (THC; marijuana’s active chemical constituent) in 1991 to 4.4% in 1997—possibly because of changes in the perceptions of youths about marijuana’s dangers or other unknown factors. Research suggests that marijuana use usually peaks in the late teens to early 20s, and then declines in later years (5).
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Cannabis plants produce many compounds of possible medical importance. This chapter briefly explains the life cycle, origin, early evolution, and domestication of Cannabis, plus provides a brief history of drug Cannabis breeding and looks into the future of Cannabis as a source of medicines. Cannabis is among the very oldest of economic plants providing humans with fiber for spinning, weaving cloth, and making paper; seed for human foods and animal feeds; and aromatic resin containing compounds of recreational and medicinal value. Human selection for varying uses and natural selection pressures imposed by diverse introduced climates have resulted in a wide variety of growth forms and chemical compositions. Innovative classical breeding techniques have been used to improve recreational drug forms of Cannabis, resulting in many cannabinoid-rich cultivars suitable for medical use. The biosynthesis of cannabinoid compounds is unique to Cannabis, and cultivars with specific chemical profiles are being developed for diverse industrial and pharmaceutical uses.
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Il seme di Cannabis sativa L. è stato una importante fonte di nutrimento nelle culture del Mondo Antico per migliaia di anni. Consumati crudi, cotti o arrostiti, questi semi sono stati utilizzati come fonte di nutrimento già in età preistorica e probabilmente anche da ominidi più antichi. In Cina l' olio di semi di canapa viene utilizzato come alimento e come rimedio da almeno 3000 anni. L' olio di semi di canapa, con circa l'80-90% di acidi grassi insaturi, rivaleggiava anticamente con l' olio semi di lino per la produzione di pitture a olio e di vernici. La peculiarità di questo seme a cui vengono attribuite proprietà curative, sta nella sua composizione ricca di acidi grassi insaturi di cui gli essenziali ω3 e ω6, di amminoacidi essenziali e proteine facilmente digeribili.
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Having originated in Central Asia, Cannabis plant also known as Bhanga, Indrasana, Vijaya or Jaya in hindi and Sanskrit is a popular plant in India despite of its notorious property. It enjoys unique cultural significance apart from its food, medicinal and fiber properties for long. Traditional use of Cannabis (bhanga) seed in cuisine of Kumaun region is still very popular. Scanty archaeobotanical reports as well as literary evidences are available to give the antiquity of Cannabis in India that traces its antiquity in India to the third millennium BCE. Yet, the results are inadequate to decipher its use as seed or fiber. Based on literature search this paper aims to evaluate efficacy of Cannabis seed concerning its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and other ethnobotanical uses. Although studies supporting health benefits of cannabis seed consumption are few, researches available on nutritional profile indicate promise for future. As food, the species has tremendous nutritional potential for human well-being as well as animal and poultry feed. However there are few incidences recorded for the allergic reaction to either hemp pollen or THC. Despite its prehistoric significance, limited researches have been done as it was banned for cultivation.Keeping its future potential in view, there is a need to undertake more coordinated researches to establish its significance in nutrition and also validation studies so that applicability of cannabis could be established properly against various diseases.
Chapter
Much has been written about the history of the medical uses of cannabis (1). In the past two centuries, there have been numerous references to the use of cannabis extracts for a wide range of disorders (2). In the early part of the 20th century, a standardized cannabis elixir was marketed in the United States. Following the introduction of synthetic drugs such as barbiturates and opioids into medicine, interest in cannabis elixir declined. The discovery of the primary active constitutent in marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), in 1964 (3) rekindled interest in the area. However, the emphasis shifted to synthetic cannabinoids rather than the plant or plant extracts. For example, in the 1970s, clinical studies were conducted in an effort to determine the efficacy of THC as an analgesic (4), antiemetic (5), antidepressant (6,7), appetite stimulant (7), and for treatment of glaucoma (8). These efforts resulted in the approval of THC (dronabinol, Marinol™) for treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in 1985 and for appetite stimulation in 1992.
Article
The present study was carried out on forty, male and female Wister white (albino) rats weighting 100-150 gm(s) to elucidate the hepatoprotective and toxicological effect of Cannabis Sativa oil on liver and Kidneys to explore the side effect of the oil for 4 weeks for toxicological parameter and 10 day for hepatoprotective activity. A daily doses of Cannabis sativa oil (0.01 ml/kg, 0.1 ml/kg and 1 ml/kg body weight/rat administered orally to three groups of rats (each group includes 10 rats) successively where a group of ten rats was taken as a control group. However, the results of study showed hepatorenal lesions but not causing death. Extracts of C. sativa showed no signs of abnormalities and no mortalities among off spring rats. No changes in the physiological behaviors were observed throughout the experiment. Moreover, the sections taken were characterized by pale kidney, generalized fatty changes in the liver during the experimental period (4 weeks). Also, the oil was tested for the hepatoprotective activity, the hepatotoixicty produced by administration of CCl 4 in paraffin oil 1:9 at a dose of 0.2 ml/kg for 10 days, was found to be inhibited by simultaneous oral administration of oil of Cannabis sativa seeds at a dose 1 and 0.5 ml/kg for 10 days, with evidence of decreased level of serum AST, ALT, ALP, and billirubin. In addition the concurrent administration of oil with CCl 4 for 10 days masked the liver changes induced by the hepatotoxic compound observed in the control rats and comparable with the hepatoprotective effect of the standard drug Silymarin.
Chapter
Currently hemp and flaxseed oils are produced and marketed as specialty products. They are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. The renewable interest in these oils is due to the health benefits associated with omega-3 rich oils. This chapter provides an extensive review of the latest developments in the field. Chemical and physical properties, health benefits, processing aspects, and applications of hemp and flaxseed oil are included in the chapter.
Article
In this study the wound healing effect of the methanol and petroleum ether extract of Punica granatum fruits was investigated on open skin wound model in rats. Thirty Swiss Wistar Albino rats of either sex weighing 90-120g were used during the study. Hair of the lower back and right flank of the animal was completely shaved. Full-thickness circular excision wound one cm in diameter was made on the shaved area. Methanolic and petroleum ether extract of Punica granatum was added to ointment to give 2% (w/w) in Polyethylene Glycol. Tetracycline ointment 3% was used as standard control; both ointments were applied twice daily. Two trials were performed; the first using three groups of non-infected rats and the second using three groups of artificially infected rats with standardized Staphylococcus aureus. Treated groups were compared with non-treated (control group). Healing was determined by reduction in wound area. The results of this study confirmed that the 2% Punica granatum fruits ointment is a potent healing agent even better than the tested Tetracycline ointment 3%. Also methanol extracts of Punica granatum fruits belonging to the family Punicaceae were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Gram positive organisms, Gram negative organism and fungi. The extract pronounced antibacterial activity (20-25 mm) against Bacillus Subtilis moderate activity (18-19 mm) against Escherichia coli, (19-20 mm) Pseudomonas aeruginosa and high activity (25-30) against Staphylococcus aureus, and fungi Aspergillus niger (20-20 mm).
Chapter
This chapter describes the published mass spectrometric (MS) methods that have proven most effective for quantitative measurement of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and its major metabolites in physiological specimens. Because determination of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCA) in urine continues to be the most frequently used indicator of marijuana use, the first portion of the chapter will discuss methods for measurement of THCA in urine. However, the major portion of the chapter is devoted to the most recent developments for measuring THC and its metabolites in other biological specimens including blood, plasma, meconium, oral fluids, hair, and other tissues. Table 1–7 are designed to facilitate location of references describing analytical methods involving key components for analysis of cannabinoids in various matrices.
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1998. Physical evidence for the antiquity of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Journal of the International Hemp Association 5(2): 80-92. Cannabis has been an important economic crop plant for six millennia. Its uses for fiber, food, oil, medicine, and as a recreational/religious drug have been prevalent throughout this period. Recent palynological research into the agricultural and environmental history of Cannabis has produced curves for Cannabaceae pollen at a number of sites in Europe and America. Additional archaeological remains and written records provide evidence for both Old and New World occurrences. This paper discusses the origin, domestication and migration of hemp as a crop plant as documented by palynological and archaeological evidence. In addition, the comparative morphology of Cannabis and Humulus pollen grains is described, and the problems of interpreting Cannabaceae pollen in the stratigraphic record are discussed.
Disorders of lipid peroxidase and microcirculation in nose-eye trauma and methods of correction Occurrence of " omega-3 " stearidonic acid (cis-6
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Bezshapochny S., Lobunec V., Bilibina I., Pocherniaeva V., 1991. Disorders of lipid peroxidase and microcirculation in nose-eye trauma and methods of correction. Vestnik otorinolaringologii 5: 25. Callaway J., Tennila T., Pate D., 1996. Occurrence of " omega-3 " stearidonic acid (cis-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid) in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed. Journal of the International Hemp Association 3: 61-63.
Oil content, its quality and content of other matters in hemp seeds. Ph.D. thesis. Leningrad, Russia. Grigoryev S Evaluation of cold-resistance of hemp Catheterization and forced drainage of accessory nasal sinus
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Gorbacheva R., 1980. Oil content, its quality and content of other matters in hemp seeds. Ph.D. thesis. Leningrad, Russia. Grigoryev S., 2000. Evaluation of cold-resistance of hemp. Krasnodar, Russia. Lopatin A., Piskunov G., 1995. Catheterization and forced drainage of accessory nasal sinus. Russian Rhinology 1: 34-35.
Clinical significance of lipid peroxidization
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Experience of natural volatile oil applica-tion in children's chronic pharyngitis Standards of Medical Help for Hospitals
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Shevrygin B., Fiodorova T., Pekli F., 1999. Experience of natural volatile oil applica-tion in children's chronic pharyngitis. Vestnik otorinolaringologii 2: 52-53. Standards of Medical Help for Hospitals, 1994. Belgorod, Russia. RECEIVED: 11 May 2001 ACCEPTED IN REVISED FORM: 25 January 2002