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Engagement in Classroom Learning: Creating Temporal Participation Incentives for Extrinsically Motivated Students Through Bonus Credits

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Abstract

Extrinsic inducements to adjust students’ learning motivations have evolved within 2 opposing paradigms. Cognitive evaluation theories claim that controlling factors embedded in extrinsic rewards dissipate intrinsic aspirations. Behavioral theorists contend that if engagement is voluntary, extrinsic reinforcements enhance learning without ill effects. The author offers a simple engagement bonus awarding strategy highly adaptable to learners. The model is an application of the labor supply theory and is an extension of the impact of premium wages on incentives to work overtime. Empirical results support the hypothesis that incentives to engage substantially increase as bonus scores increase the opportunity costs of leisure.

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... Palabras clave: Bonificaciones, Estadística, incentivos any studies have argued the negative effects of external rewards on internal motivation (Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, & Little, 2004;Harlow, Harlow, & Meyer, 1950;Leper, 1983;Rummell & Fielding, 1988), while others assert that external motivation does not necessarily undermine intrinsic motivation (Pittman, Boggiano, & Ruble, 1983;Vansteenkiste, Lens, & Deci, 2006), including the Cameron, Banko, and Pierce (2001) synthesis of 145 motivational studies. The current literature further refines the external reward into that which is either coerced and controlling (Rassouli, 2012) with words such as "should," "ought," and "have to" (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006) or a reward that that is brought to fruition by autonomous motivation which is optional, volitional, and personally relevant (Black & Deci, 2000;Vansteenkiste et al., 2006;Vasteenkiste, Lens, DeWitte, DeWitte, & Deci, 2004;Rassouli, 2012). Behavioral theorists assert that when engagement is autonomous and voluntary, the extrinsic rewards enhance learning without ill effects (Rassouli, 2012). ...
... Palabras clave: Bonificaciones, Estadística, incentivos any studies have argued the negative effects of external rewards on internal motivation (Akin-Little, Eckert, Lovett, & Little, 2004;Harlow, Harlow, & Meyer, 1950;Leper, 1983;Rummell & Fielding, 1988), while others assert that external motivation does not necessarily undermine intrinsic motivation (Pittman, Boggiano, & Ruble, 1983;Vansteenkiste, Lens, & Deci, 2006), including the Cameron, Banko, and Pierce (2001) synthesis of 145 motivational studies. The current literature further refines the external reward into that which is either coerced and controlling (Rassouli, 2012) with words such as "should," "ought," and "have to" (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006) or a reward that that is brought to fruition by autonomous motivation which is optional, volitional, and personally relevant (Black & Deci, 2000;Vansteenkiste et al., 2006;Vasteenkiste, Lens, DeWitte, DeWitte, & Deci, 2004;Rassouli, 2012). Behavioral theorists assert that when engagement is autonomous and voluntary, the extrinsic rewards enhance learning without ill effects (Rassouli, 2012). ...
... The current literature further refines the external reward into that which is either coerced and controlling (Rassouli, 2012) with words such as "should," "ought," and "have to" (Vansteenkiste et al., 2006) or a reward that that is brought to fruition by autonomous motivation which is optional, volitional, and personally relevant (Black & Deci, 2000;Vansteenkiste et al., 2006;Vasteenkiste, Lens, DeWitte, DeWitte, & Deci, 2004;Rassouli, 2012). Behavioral theorists assert that when engagement is autonomous and voluntary, the extrinsic rewards enhance learning without ill effects (Rassouli, 2012). Autonomy-supportive contexts allow instructors to "empathize with the learner's perspective, allow opportunities for selfinitiation and choice, … refrain from the use of pressures and contingencies to motivate behavior…" (Deci et. ...
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Many studies have argued the negative effects of external rewards on internal motivation while others assert that external motivation does not necessarily undermine intrinsic motivation. At a private university, students were given the option to earn bonus points for achieving mastery in the online homework systems associated with Statistics and Pre-Calculus courses. The results showed a significant difference in online homework grades and final exam scores, dependent upon when the incentive was given. The findings of this research suggest that college students thrive when incentivized. When compared to the students who were not incentivized, the incentivized group had a statistically significantly higher mean for both online homework scores and final exam scores. Many of the incentivized students chose to take the opportunity to earn the bonus points to increase the final semester grade, which apparently also helped to increase the content knowledge necessary for the final exam.
... More recent evidence, however, suggests that extrinsic motivation, in combination with intrinsic motivation may promote deep learning (Mo, 2011). Also, extrinsic motivation may trigger intrinsic motivation and thereby strengthen deep learning (Rassuli, 2012) and lead to better academic performance (Tasgin & Coskun, 2018). This is also supported by recent research in a business studies context, where accounting students with high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation tended to be more engaged in deep learning (Everaert et al., 2017). ...
... Combined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among business students was found to be positively related to deep learning approaches (suggesting acceptance of H2c), but the effect from combined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was lower than for intrinsic motivation alone. Thereby, contrary to earlier studies (Mo, 2011;Rassuli, 2012) including research in business studies contexts (Everaert et al., 2017), no evidence is found that suggests that combinations of motivational forms support learning generally. Our findings thereby support the suggestion that high extrinsic motivation does not support intrinsic motivation, but slightly distracts students from deep learning. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper brings new material to the understanding of interlinkages between motivation, learning and performance in academic contexts. By investigating these interlinkages in a new context – students of business and management at a Swedish university college – it seeks to answer the following research questions: How do students’ degree and type of motivation relate to their learning strategies?; how do students’ degree and type of motivation and learning strategies relate to their academic success?; and how do student characteristics in terms of experience and gender influence the nature and strength of these relationships? Research methodology – The data used in this paper is based on student surveys and a centralised system of reporting and archiving academic results. The latter contains information on the academic performance of individual students, whereas the surveys gathered information on the students’ background characteristics (experience and gender), their motivation for pursuing academic studies and their learning strategies. The difference in proportion tests and OLS regressions were then applied to investigate differences between student groups and relationships between the different variables. Findings – The findings reveal that business students are more extrinsically than intrinsically motivated; that deep learning approaches lead to higher grades for particular examination forms, and that female students are typically more intrinsically motivated, engage more in deep learning approaches and perform better than their male counterparts. Practical implications – The findings suggest that practitioners in higher education involved with the business and/or university college students have good reasons to stimulate motivation generally, and intrinsic motivation in particular. However, this must be accompanied by examination forms that promote deep learning. Originality/Value – In contrast to most research, this paper focuses on the interlinkages between motivation, learning and performance among business students in a university college setting. This contrasts most research on this topic which tends to be focused on university students, particularly in the US, in other fields of study or accounting. Moreover, this paper also takes student characteristics into account and uses a variety of measures to operationalise academic performance.
... More recent evidence, however, suggest that extrinsic motivation in combination with intrinsic motivation may promote deep learning (Mo 2011). Also, extrinsic motivation may trigger intrinsic motivation and thereby strengthen deep learning (Rassuli 2012). The latter is also supported by recent research in a business studies context, where accounting students with high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation tended to be more engaged in deep learning (Everaert et al. 2017). ...
... Combined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among business students was found to be positively related to deep learning approaches (suggesting acceptance of H2c), but the effect from combined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was lower than for intrinsic motivation alone. Thereby, contrary to earlier studies (Mo 2011;Rassuli 2012) including research in business studies contexts (Evaert et al. 2017), we find no evidence that combinations of motivational forms support learning generally. Our findings thereby support the suggestion that high extrinsic motivation does not support intrinsic motivation, and rather distracts students from deep learning. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper brings new material to the understanding of interlinkages between motivation, learning and performance in academic contexts. In contrast to most research on this topic, we study these interlinkages among business students in a university college setting. Moreover, we take age, gender, experience and whether students are enrolled in more vocationally or academically oriented programs into account. Our findings confirming many notions found in prior research, such as high intrinsic motivation being associated with deep study strategies, while extrinsic motivation leads to surface study strategies. However, out study also reveals more novel findings, including that business students are more extrinsically than intrinsically motivated; that deep study strategies lead to higher grades for particular examination forms but not for others, and that female students are typically more intrinsically motivated, engage more in deep study strategies and perform better than their male counterparts. Another novel finding is that student enrolled in more vocationally oriented program do not differ from more students in more academically oriented programs in terms of motivation or study strategies.
... More recent evidence, however, suggest that extrinsic motivation in combination with intrinsic motivation may promote deep learning (Mo 2011). Also, extrinsic motivation may trigger intrinsic motivation and thereby strengthen deep learning (Rassuli 2012). The latter is also supported by recent research in a business studies context, where accounting students with high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation tended to be more engaged in deep learning (Everaert et al. 2017). ...
... Combined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among business students was found to be positively related to deep learning approaches (suggesting acceptance of H2c), but the effect from combined intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was lower than for intrinsic motivation alone. Thereby, contrary to earlier studies (Mo 2011;Rassuli 2012) including research in business studies contexts (Evaert et al. 2017), we find no evidence that combinations of motivational forms support learning generally. Our findings thereby support the suggestion that high extrinsic motivation does not support intrinsic motivation, and rather distracts students from deep learning. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This paper brings new material to the understanding of interlinkages between motivation, learning and performance in academic contexts. In contrast to most research on this topic, we study these interlinkages among business students in a university college setting. Moreover, we take age, gender, experience and whether students are enrolled in more vocationally or academically oriented programs into account. Our findings confirming many notions found in prior research, such as high intrinsic motivation being associated with deep study strategies, while extrinsic motivation leads to surface study strategies. However, out study also reveals more novel findings, including that business students are more extrinsically than intrinsically motivated; that deep study strategies lead to higher grades for particular examination forms but not for others, and that female students are typically more intrinsically motivated, engage more in deep study strategies and perform better than their male counterparts. Another novel finding is that student enrolled in more vocationally oriented program do not differ from more students in more academically oriented programs in terms of motivation or study strategies.
... In fact, there are many efforts that can be made to diversify the teaching method. For example, Rassuli (2012) finds that reward, such as bonus mark can motivate students in classroom setting for the college students. Meanwhile, Worm and Buch (2014) find that competition among students can be an influential teaching method that can increase students' performance. ...
... Debnath (2005) explains that a good teaching method should also involve task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and evaluation and feedback. In fact, other intervention can be organized to stimulate motivation to learn and student's performance, such as giving rewards for high achiever (Rassuli, 2012), and organizing competition among students (Worm & Buch, 2014). ...
... In fact, there are many efforts that can be made to diversify the teaching method. For example, Rassuli (2012) finds that reward, such as bonus mark can motivate students in classroom setting for the college students. Meanwhile, Worm and Buch (2014) find that competition among students can be an influential teaching method that can increase students' performance. ...
... Debnath (2005) explains that a good teaching method should also involve task variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and evaluation and feedback. In fact, other intervention can be organized to stimulate motivation to learn and student's performance, such as giving rewards for high achiever (Rassuli, 2012), and organizing competition among students (Worm & Buch, 2014). ...
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Some researchers find that learning intervention can stimulate learning motivation and performance through classroom characteristic. Ironically, research assessing classroom characteristic that can be used as potential learning intervention have received little attention especially among Malaysian undergraduates. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the mediation effect of motivation to learn on the relationship between classroom characteristic and students’ grade performance. A number of 173 undergraduate students in a large Malaysian’s public university were taken as sample; data were analysed using SPSS and AMOS. Findings indicated that teaching method, followed by lecturer quality, and classroom management were significantly correlated with students’ motivation to learn and performance; wherein, motivation to learn fully mediated the relationship between the classroom characteristics and students’ grade. This has verified that classroom characteristic truly stimulate learning motivation and performance; therefore, it can be used as potential learning intervention. © 2015 Canadian Center of Science and Education. All rights reserved.
... Although self-determination theory's nuanced perspective on human motivation has provided valuable insights in studies of motivation to learn in classroom setting, research in online learning environments has mainly conceptualized motivation to learn as one-dimensional construct, suggesting that students have either a lot or little motivation (e.g., Klein et al., 2006;van der Locht, van Dam, & Chiaburu, 2013). In line with growing research , Rienties et al., 20092012) we base our definition of motivation to learn on selfdetermination theory. In this vein our results support the reasoning that autonomous and controlled motivation to learn are distinctive constructs and affected differently by external events. ...
... Voluntariness refers to free choice, that is, to a student's option to choose freely to exhibit a particular behavior, without suffering any disadvantage if he or she chooses not to participate (on the effect of choice on motivation see, Zuckerman, Porac, Lathin, Smith, & Deci, 1978). In the context of the present study, one possibility of administering rewards in a way that is compatible with the principle of free choice was to offer bonus points that were not an integral part of that particular institution's evaluation scheme but granted in addition to the standard points (Rassuli, 2012). The rationale behind this choice was that small rewards support students' autonomy and thus strengthen autonomous motivation to learn. ...
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Rewarding students to enhance autonomous motivation to learn (i.e., intrinsic motivation and autonomous forms of extrinsic motivation) is a heavily debated topic in education studies. While previous research largely concentrated on the effects of different types of rewards on motivation, we focus on the smallness of rewards. Based on a quasi-experiment in an online learning environment, our research shows that small rewards enhance autonomous motivation. The behavioral measures used to assess autonomous and initial controlled motivation to learn suggest that a small number of bonus points increases persistence in rewarded behavior, as well as persistence and performance on nonrewarded behavior. Apart from its empirical contribution, our work also adds to the literature on this topic by integrating two previously unrelated perspectives. First, based on the concept of insufficient justification and on self-determination theory, we explain that in the case of small rewards that students perceive as inadequate justification for exerting effort, the informational aspect outweighs the controlling aspect.Our research also highlights the practical implications for online educators in that small rewards serve as a substitute for personal feedback, making it possible to achieve desirable learning outcomes in a learning context where personal interaction is limited.
... For instance, business students who were awarded certificates early in their bachelor's degree program demonstrated better performance than those who received them late (Ostermaier 2018). Grades also comprise an extrinsic factor (e.g., Rassuli 2012). Therefore, in addition to their role in student evaluation, they can also serve to enhance student task engagement. ...
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Student tasks are assigned frequently in higher education to facilitate learning. For the students, the task grade is one of the motivating components for successfully performing a task. In this study, we presented students with a hypothetical task under different but equivalent grade computations (framings). Based upon principles derived from behavioral economics, the grade computations were framed as a loss or gain and explicitly or implicitly. Responding to each of these framings, 365 undergraduates reported their level of task engagement, task completion, and their anticipated regret for not completing the task (student outcomes). Findings revealed that when the task grade was framed as producing a potential loss in points, respondents reported higher student outcome levels than when framed as producing a potential gain in the grade. Furthermore, framing the grade’s consequence explicitly (without requiring the students to calculate it) had a stronger positive effect on student outcomes than when framing it implicitly.
... In diesem Sinne kann es sinnvoll sein, die Partizipation am präsenzbasierten Lernprozess zu incentivieren, um durch derartige externe Stimuli zur Teilnahme zu motivieren (Abeysekera & Dawson, 2015). Ein derartiges Incentive kann die Vergabe von prüfungswirksamer Anerkennung (etwa in Form von Bonuspunkten) für die aktive Partizipation sein (Rassuli, 2012). Solche Wirkmechanismen sind jedoch durchaus ambivalent zu sehen (Deci, Koestner & Ryan, 2001) und bedürfen daher einer näheren Untersuchung. ...
Preprint
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Lehrveranstaltungen ohne Anwesenheitspflicht erleichtern Studierenden mit erschwerten Studienrahmenbedingungen die Absolvierung einer akademischen Ausbildung, haben unter didaktischen Gesichtspunkten aber oft Nachteile, da insbesondere auch Studierende fernbleiben, die grundsätzlich die Möglichkeit zur Teilnahme hätten. Eine Incentivierung der aktiven Teilnahme an derartigen Lehr-veranstaltungen durch die Möglichkeit prüfungswirksamer Zusatzleistungen kann positiv auf die Teilnahmebereitschaft wirken und im Sinne einer diversifizierten Leistungsfeststellung auch den Umgang mit der Heterogenität der Studierenden fördern. Offen ist in diesem Zusammenhang die Rolle der Gewichtung dieser Incentives in der abschließenden Beurteilung. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde deshalb die Wirkung unterschiedlicher Incentive-Gewichte auf die Partizipationsbereitschaft und die Prüfungsleistung explorativ untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen Hinweise, dass die Incentivierung die Partizipationsbereitschaft grundsätzlich steigert, weisen aber auch darauf hin, dass sich hohe Incentive-Gewichte für bestimmt Gruppen von Studierenden negativ auf die Prüfungsleistung auswirken können.
... In one study, students with higher grade points performed better in the activity-based learning environments (Hall, Kellar, & Weinstein, 2016). In another study, bonus credits were found to increase the motivation to participate in learning activities (Rassuli, 2012). The teaching strategy of team-based learning was also found to improve marketing student engagement (Chad, 2012). ...
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Student perceived engagement and student perceived learning are important concepts in today’s higher education classroom environment. Examining engagement from the students’ perspective is an important aspect to understand more about this multidimensional construct as a tool for active learning. A survey was administered to undergraduate business students to gain insight into multiple factors influencing perceived engagement. Students felt that engagement was enhanced by discussion of current events, positive instructor demeanor, and putting effort into course content. The survey revealed four groups of variables: student connection, pedagogical methods, classroom environment, and student motivation. Multidimensionality of this construct was supported, as well as the need to understand engagement from the learners’ perspective.
... (Ana, 7 th Grade) Extrinsic rewards have successfully been implemented in classrooms for decades, and are particularly effective when the rewards are aligned with students' intrinsic motivations (Slavin & Davis, 1997). The teachers in I AM STEM provided incentives to supplement classroom activities, generate interest, and help students rise to the challenge in developing their scientific and mathematical skills (Rassuli, 2012). Rubenstein and Wilson (2011) recommend that teachers include creative challenges in the classroom to encourage creative thinking, improve communication skills, and provide opportunities for students to master the content. ...
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This article discusses the research on the relations between achievement goals and develops a conceptual model based on a review of extant literature. The model distinguishes between moods and emotions and the relative roles of perceived classroom goal structures and personal goals. In this article, it is suggested that the relation between achievement goals and affect is asymmetrical and bidirectional. However, given differences in the conceptualization and measurement of affect, the empirical findings are somewhat inconsistent and difficult to interpret in some studies. Thus, there is a clear need for more research on the dynamics of achievement goals and affect in classroom settings.
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Interests and goals have been identified as two important motivational variables that impact individuals' academic performances, yet little is known about how best to utilize these variables to enhance childrens' learning. We first review recent developments in the two areas and then examine the connection between interests and goals. We argue that the polarization of situational and individual interest, extrinsic and intrinsic motivation, and performance and mastery goals must be reconsidered. In addition, although we acknowledge the positive effects of individual interest, intrinsic motivation, and the adoption of mastery goals, we urge educators and researchers to recognize the potential additional benefits of externally triggered situational interest, extrinsic motivation, and performance goals. Only by dealing with the multidimensional nature of motivational forces will we be able to help our academically unmotivated children.
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An evaluation of the use of learning sets, supported by an electronic mailing list, on a level 2 research module on a Business Information Systems undergraduate degree, raises issues about the place of group work in higher education. Two models are discussed: a team-based one, aimed largely at preparing students for employment and a group-based one, aimed primarily at supporting the learning process. Confusion between the two is seen to parallel a blurring in workplace practice and to result in a lack of clarity on the part of both students and staff. The wider use of groups for learning is commended, but clarity on the role and purpose of group work is urged.
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The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
The effects of task-contingent and performance-contingent extrinsic rewards upon subsequent intrinsic motivation are compared. Intrinsic motivation is measured by behavioral observation in a free time period and by rating scales. The results show, as expected, a higher rating of intrinsic motivation in the performance-contingent reward condition. The study further compares strength of intrinsic motivation in one- and two-session conditions. As hypothesized, a two-session condition, in which the subjects have a preexperience with the task without reward administration, leads to a higher rating of intrinsic motivation than a one-session condition without such a preexperience. The behavioral measure of intrinsic motivation is not significantly affected by the conditions. A post hoc analysis of the data indicates that there may be a different effect of extrinsic rewards on behavioral measures and on rating scale measures of intrinsic motivation.
Article
Self-determination theory (SDT) maintains that an understanding of human motivation requires a consideration of innate psychological needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. We discuss the SDT concept of needs as it relates to previous need theories, emphasizing that needs specify the necessary conditions for psychological growth, integrity, and well-being. This concept of needs leads to the hypotheses that different regulatory processes underlying goal pursuits are differentially associated with effective functioning and well-being and also that different goal contents have different relations to the quality of behavior and mental health, specifically because different regulatory processes and different goal contents are associated with differing degrees of need satisfaction. Social contexts and individual differences that support satisfaction of the basic needs facilitate natural growth processes including intrinsically motivated behavior and integration of extrinsic motivations, whereas those that forestall autonomy, competence, or relatedness are associated with poorer motivation, performance, and well-being. We also discuss the relation of the psychological needs to cultural values, evolutionary processes, and other contemporary motivation theories.
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The article presents a study that examined the nature of student participation in the mixed-age college classroom. For the purposes of the study, students in an undergraduate social science research methods course were trained in non- participant observation techniques. Eight courses were selected for observation. Four sessions of each of the eight courses were observed by a single observer in the first six weeks of the semester. Each instance of students' verbal participation was also recorded. By recording the number of interactions contributed by each student, the researchers were able to identify students who accepted the consolidation of responsibility for participation in classroom discussion. Observers also kept qualitative notes regarding interaction in the classroom. Finally, students and instructors in the observed courses were surveyed in the tenth and eleventh weeks of the semester. The participation of non-traditional students significantly exceeded the participation of traditional students. Note: Link is to the article in a subscription database available to users affiliated with Butler University. Appropriate login information will be required for access. Users not affiliated with Butler University should contact their local librarian for assistance in locating a copy of this article.
Article
Considerable attention has been given to the efficacy of team-learning pedagogy, yet the methodology remains underused among educators in institutions of higher education. We suggest that the perception of success is antecedent to greater acceptance and use of this teaching style. Educators and students alike must experience the value creation potential of team learning before they will endorse it. In this article, the authors investigated perceptions of success within the theoretical realms of cognition elaboration, effective collaboration, and motivation perspectives. In addition to rank-ordering the importance of these realms, the authors make recommendations and suggest policies to raise the likelihood of success in team-learning practice.
Article
Cooperative learning is a structured, systematic instructional technique in which students work together in small groups toward a common goal. The authors demonstrate the effectiveness of cooperative learning with an illustrative example for teaching the labor supply curve. Recommendations for introducing the technique, forming groups, the instructor's role during group work, grading, and extensions of cooperative learning to other topics are discussed. Copyright 1994 by Oxford University Press.
Contemporary labor economics
  • C R Mcconnell
  • S L Brue
  • D A Mcpherson
McConnell, C. R., Brue, S. L., & McPherson, D. A. (2009). Contemporary labor economics (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Why some groups fail: A survey of students' experiences with learning groups Collaborative learning: A sourcebook for higher educa-tion
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  • E A Davis
Fiechtner, S. B., & Davis, E. A. (1992). Why some groups fail: A survey of students' experiences with learning groups. In A. Goodsell, M. Maher, & V. Tinto (Eds.), Collaborative learning: A sourcebook for higher educa-tion (pp. 59–74). University Park, PA: National Center on Post-Secondary Teaching, Learning, & Assessment.