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Urban growth, policy and planning of public space

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Abstract

Under the pressure of the urbanizing tsunami, town planning and urban policies in Spain have given a residual treatment to public spaces in recent urban development. This work proposes a brief but comprehensive sociological analysis about social and morphological traits of public spaces – like paradigmatic social space – in order to show the city's irreplaceable role in citizen socialization processes. The network of streets and places, the city in this sense, make up the scenes of man's sociability. In this perspective, planning ought to be geared towards and for the city and redeem a civic impetus that pursues developing the whole instead of subjecting it.

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... Hal ini dapat dilihat dalam suatu daerah dimana kemajemukan dan aktivitas yang tumpang tindih dapat dinilai. Jaringan jalan dan tempat-tempat adalah suatu aktualisasi kota yang memperlihatkan sifat sosial masyarakatnya (Gutiérrez, 2011). Ruang publik merupakan suatu bentuk ruang pertemuan yang baru, modern, dan berkembang. ...
... Pada saat yang sama, teknologi komunikasi serupa seperti Internet menciptakan kemungkinan bagi warga untuk berinteraksi dengan jaringan mereka di luar gerbang, berdasarkan teknologi komunikasi. Gutiérrez (2011) meneliti mengenai nilai dan kepentingan sosial dalam perencanaan ruang publik serta konteksnya pada perkembangan urbanisasi di Spanyol. Pertumbuhan ekonomi mengakibatkan permintaan lahan perkotaan yang semakin meningkat. ...
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Ruang adalah bagian yang tak terpisahkan dari kehidupan manusia selama masa hidupnya. Bahkan konsepsi ruang tersebut masih ada pada manusia yang telah meninggalkan dunia ini walaupun konsepsi ruang itu sendiri sudah berbeda pada masing-masing penganut agama dan kepercayaan. Dari berbagai macam bentuk dan kategori seluruh ruang maka ruang publik adalah ruang yang paling banyak digunakan oleh semua orang baik sendiri maupun secara bersamaan. Begitu banyaknya aktivitas dan berbagai lapisan golongan masyarakat yang menggunakan ruang publik membawa interpretasi masing-masing yang cukup berbeda. Dari interpretasi inilah timbul begitu banyak ragam penggunaannya baik yang sesuai dengan fungsi maupun berdasarkan intrpretasinya masing-masing. Untuk memberi gambaran mengenai apa itu ruang publik maka dibuatlah suatu kajian dengan menganalisa beberapa tulisan dari beberapa artikel jurnal baik dalam maupun luar negeri. Dari kajian inilah nantinya didapat beberapa temuan yang bisa menjelaskan keberadaan ruang publik di dalam persepsi ruang lingkupnya.
... The location of these facilities should be formative rather than merely residual. The park has to be spatially distributed [30,31]. The European Environment Agency (EEA) recommends that people should have access to green space within 15min walking distance, which is roughly 900-1000m [32,33]. ...
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Accessibility to parks and open spaces plays an important role in the urban quality of life. Public parks play a vital role that affects all members of society regardless of their social ranking. Accessibility (visitation) to parks and recreational areas has increased significantly all over the world. This scenario to some extent is the same in Hail city, where the area allocated for parks and open spaces is very small. Parks in Hail are still suffering from many planning and design aspects that discourage people from frequent visitations. This study, therefore, aims to address this phenomenon by examining the area allocated for parks and park attributes. The study’s data are collected from the relevant literature regarding parks and their attributes. An assessment tool is designed and utilized to evaluate parks in Hail. Google maps software was used to measure the areas of neighborhoods and parks in addition to park distribution. This study shows that the areas allocated for parks are far below WHO requirements, and park attributes do not fully meet all visitors’ requirements.
... The location of these facilities had to support the environmental functions and serve a different user age group rather than merely stem from uses of vacant land (Malike, 2010). The location of these facilities should be formative rather than merely residual ones: Park has to be spatially distributed (Gutiérrez, 2011). Spatial accessibility to amenities generally refers to the ease with which amenities can be reached (Besler, 2011). ...
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Parks improve people's physical and mental well-being, strengthen communities, and make towns and neighborhoods more appealing places to live and work. Many reasons discourage frequent park visitations, such as poor park characteristics, poor management system, and the lack of programs to encourage park visitation. Participation in different outdoor activities has become a necessity for many people nowadays. However, many residents are not engaged in recreational activities in Khartoum, making parks an important element. Therefore, the study aimed at investigating parks characteristics and different patterns of users based on societal needs. The study concentrates on the residents' characteristics such as age, gender, income, education level; these characteristics are tested against park visitation patterns such as type of visitation, the best day for visitation, and visit frequency. A two hundred and fifty (250) participant questionnaire survey was carried out in Al Tifl Park to assess the park's visitation pattern based on the purposive sampling technique. The result shows that most of the visitation patterns were not frequent regardless of the visitors' characteristics. It proves that the visitation pattern was not based on the visitors' characteristics but rather on the park characteristics. The study recommends that the park's features be redesigned based on user affinity to improve visitation, visitor benefits, and income generation.
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En el contexto del derecho a la ciudad y de la recuperación de la vida comunitaria en ciudades cada vez más globalizadas, encontramos también ciudades inmersas en procesos de reconversión y regeneración de un pasado industrial que afrontan estrategias de planificación urbana. Desde un urbanismo humanizado, se otorga relevancia a los enfoques participativos que superen el reduccionismo de las políticas urbanísticas y distanciadas de la ciudadanía. En este paper se demuestra cómo el desarrollo identitario y la recuperación de la memoria colectiva ofrecen el contenido histórico, social-cultural y simbólico clave para las estrategias de desarrollo urbano consensuado y reflexivo. Se presenta el caso de la ciudad de Huelva (España) como paradigma de ciudad a la que el desarrollo industrial y económico en la 2ª mitad del s. XX despojó de identidad, memoria y sentido de pertenencia, traducido a un urbanismo fragmentado y una percepción de su población como la ciudad expoliada y herida. A través de una metodología cualitativa con entrevistas y grupos de discusión, se evidencia como la identidad y memoria son claves para la recuperación de espacios urbanos abandonados o destruidos que ambicionan una ciudad por recuperar y querida, así como un urbanismo cohesionado y con futuro.
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[fre] La notion de sociabilité ne se rapporte pas ici à une qualité personnelle de l'individu. On veut montrer comment les relations qu'on entretient avec autrui sont influencées par des facteurs sociaux, démographiques ou économiques. Synthétisant les résultats de plusieurs enquêtes, l'article présente d'abord quelques activités de sociabilité et les facteurs qui les influencent de façon prépondérante. On voit comment de nombreux critères déterminent l'adhésion aux associations, comment l'âge joue dans les relations avec les parents, la géographie dans les relations avec les voisins, comment le mode de garde des enfants dépend surtout de l'état matrimonial tandis que la pratique de la danse est liée à l'âge et à la classe sociale. Dans un deuxième temps, une analyse plus fine permet de distinguer une sociabilité « interne » (proche du foyer) d'une sociabilité « externe », ces deux modalités évoluant selon les cycles de la vie : en vieillissant, on abandonne la sociabilité externe pour la sociabilité interne et on diminue ses activités de sociabilité. Mais la catégorie sociale influence ce phénomène : un statut social élevé diminue la décroissance de la sociabilité avec l'âge. [eng] Sociability - In this article the concept of sociability does not refer to a personal quality of an individual. Rather, the article tries to show how the relationships an individual has with others are influenced by social, demographic, or economic factors. This article is a synthesis of several surveys, and begins by presenting some samples of activities involving sociability and the factors which have the greatest impact on these activities. There follows an analysis of a broad range of activities — the numerous factors which effect the decision to join a club or association, the role played by age in relationships with parents, the influence of geographical location in relationships with neighbors, the types of babysitting or day-care adopted as a function of parents' marital status, and the link between the pastime of dancing and age and social class. In a second part, a more detailed analysis makes it possible to distinguish between an « inner » sociability (near the home) and an « outer » sociability, each of which evolves throught the different ages of life. With age, outer sociability is abandoned progressively for inner sociability and activities of sociability decline in general. However, this phenomenon is influenced by factors of social class, as the higher the social standing, the less the tendency for sociability to decrease with age. [spa] La sociabilidad - La noción de sociabilidad no tiene aquí relación alguna con una cualidad del indivíduo. Se quiere demostrar de que manera las relaciones con los demás están influidas por factores sociales, demograficos o económicos. Sintetizando los resultados de varias encuestas, el artículo presenta en primer lugar unas cuantas actividades de sociabilidad y los factores que en ellas influyen de manera preponderante. Yemos como numerosos criterios determinan el ser miembros de asociaciones, en que forma la edad interviene en las relaciones entre hijos y padres, la geografía en las relaciones con el vecindario, como el modo de guardería infantil dépende mayormente del estado matrimonial mientras que la practica del baile esta vinculada con la edad y la categoría social. A continuación, un análisis más fino permite hacer una distinción entre una sociabilidad « interna » y una sociabilidad « externa » ya que ambas modalidades evolucionan en conformidad con los ciclos de la vida : al envejecer, se va dejando a un lado la sociabilidad externa para la sociabilidad interna y las actividades de sociabilidad van menguando. Mas la categoría social influye en este fenómeno : un etevado estatuto social aminora el decrecimiento de la sociabilidad a raiz del envejecimiento.
Article
A study of spatiality as applied to the community and to the public domain brings out the difference in principle between the common and public spaces. It explains why this opposition makes it essential for the community's political institution to escape all community reduction of public space. Having first defined the spatial paradigm governing community thought as figures of Mitsein or community personified, and having indicated the political implications of this, the author outlines the characteristic features of a public space of visibility where the different communities of experienced worlds are articulated to form a common world, not in the always specific form of a common reality but in the political register of a world endowed with a common appearance. L'examen de la spatialité dont relèvent la communauté et le domaine public permet de saisir la différence de principe entre un espace commun et un espace public, et d'élucider l'antagonisme en raison duquel l'institution politique de la communauté doit échapper à toute réduction communautaire de l'espace public. Après avoir montré à quel paradigme de l'espace obéit la pensée de la communauté sous les figures du Mitsein ou de la communauté incarnée, et ses implications politiques, il s'agit d'esquisser les traits distinctifs d'un espace public de visibilité qui articule entre eux les différentes communautés de mondes vécus en vue d'instituer un monde commun, non sur le mode toujours particulier d'un être-en-commun, mais sur le registre politique d'un apparaître commun du monde.
  • Joseph I.
  • Queré L.