Maternal prenatal folic acid supplementation is associated with a reduction in development of autistic disorder

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.
The Journal of pediatrics (Impact Factor: 3.79). 07/2013; 163(1):303-304. DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.04.060
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    • "both of which have the potential to dysregulate critical developmental genes that can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes [18] [19]. A growing body of literature indicates that similar disruption is observed in some autistic patients: both disrupted folate and homocysteine status [20] [21] [22] and epigenomic disruption of regulatory CpG islands have been associated with autism [23]. Furthermore, evidence suggests that exposure to environmental neurotoxins is a risk factor for autism [24]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aim: The present research work was aimed to produce gluten-free and casein free (GFCF) cupcakes for autistic children. Methods: Corn, rice, carrot, orange sweet potato and chickpea flours were used in different blends to formulate C 1 , C 2 , C 3 , P 1 , P 2 , and P 3 , respectively. Chemical, physical, textural and sensory evaluation was performed to assess the nutritional and technological qualities of the cupcakes. Results: The results of the nutritional quality of the cupcakes indicated significant increase in protein, crude fiber, calcium (Ca) and Zinc (Zn) contents and significant decrease in total carbohydrates (TC) and caloric value. While, significant fluctuations in fat and iron (Fe) contents were observed. ß-carotene content ranged from 253.34 to 1569.36 μg/100g cupcake and vitamin A content ranged from 21.11 to 130.78 μg RAE (as ß-carotene). Water content and water activity (a w) measurements predicted the stability and keeping safety and quality of the prepared cupcakes (except for P 2). Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) showed a significant increase in hardness, gumminess and chewiness and a significant decrease in cohesiveness and springiness. While, adhesiveness, showed erratic results. Significant differences were found in appearance, crust and crumb colors, crumb texture, odor and taste of the cupcakes expressed by experienced panelists. The acceptance rating score of C 1 that exhibited the best nutritional and technological qualities was highly ranked for overall liking of the autistic children and two-thirds of them expressed their willingness to eat C 1 again. Conclusion: the usefulness of using different blends of corn, rice, carrot, orange sweet potato and chickpea flours in GFCF cupcake formulations as a valuable food addition to enhance the nutritional and technological qualities of the GFCF cupcakes. The most valuable cupcake sample with the highest acceptability was the C 1 .
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