Article

Commitment to a Purpose in Life: An Antidote to the Suffering by Individuals With Social Anxiety Disorder

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Abstract

Recent acceptance- and mindfulness-based cognitive-behavioral interventions explicitly target the clarification and commitment to a purpose in life. Yet, scant empirical evidence exists on the value of purpose as a mechanism relevant to psychopathology or well-being. The present research explored daily (within-person) fluctuations in purposeful pursuits and well-being in a community sample of 84 adults with (n = 41) and without (n = 43) the generalized subtype of social anxiety disorder (SAD). After completing an idiographic measure of purpose in life, participants monitored their effort and progress toward this purpose, along with their well-being each day. Across 2 weeks of daily reports, we found that healthy controls reported increased self-esteem, meaning in life, positive emotions, and decreased negative emotions. People with SAD experienced substantial boosts in well-being indicators on days characterized by significant effort or progress toward their life purpose. We found no evidence for the reverse direction (with well-being boosting the amount of effort or progress that people with SAD devote to their purpose), and effects could not be attributed to comorbid mood or anxiety disorders. Results provide evidence for how commitment to a purpose in life enriches the daily existence of people with SAD. The current study supports principles that underlie what many clinicians are already doing with clients for SAD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

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... In theoretical terms, wellbeing has been regarded as the direct consequence of a life devoted to a purpose (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). Within this framework, the most obvious dimension of wellbeing is a sense of meaning in life, which arises as the person makes progress towards her purpose in life (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). ...
... In theoretical terms, wellbeing has been regarded as the direct consequence of a life devoted to a purpose (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). Within this framework, the most obvious dimension of wellbeing is a sense of meaning in life, which arises as the person makes progress towards her purpose in life (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). In the present review, however, we use the concepts of purpose in life and meaning in life indistinctively. ...
... In healthy populations, purpose in life has been widely shown to correlate positively with self-esteem, affect balance, the ability to cope, the will to live, and lower risk of mortality; and negatively with drug abuse, depression, neuroticism, anxiety, loneliness/boredom, and the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events (e.g., Boyle et al., 2009;Cohen, Bavishy, & Rozanski, 2016;García-Alandete, 2015;García-Alandete, Rosa, & Sellés, 2013;Hill, Edmonds, & Hampson, 2017;Hill & Turiano, 2014;Hill, Turiano, Mroczek, & Burrow, 2016;Hooker & Masters, 2016;Irving, Davis, & Collier, 2017;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013;Kim, Hershner, & Strecher, 2015;Kim, Kawachi, Chen, & Kubzansky, 2017;Kim, Strecher, & Ryff, 2014;Kim, Sun, Park, Kubzansky, & Peterson, 2013;Windsor, Curtis, & Luszcz, 2015). High PIL scores have also proven to be a good predictor of higher self-esteem, internal locus of control and reduced distress among cancer patients and other medical and psychiatric conditions (e.g., Marco, García-Alandete, Pérez, & Botella, 2014;Sherman & Simonton, 2012); ...
Article
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The goal of the present study was to examine whether the relation commonly found between purpose in life and well-being occurs regardless of the population being assessed (community vs. inpatient) when the presence of somatic symptoms is used as a proxy for well-being. A total of 145 adults participated in the study (psychiatric patients, N = 28; healthy community adults, N = 117). Statistical analyses were first conducted to control for the effects of the observed differences in age and gender between samples. Results showed a significant relation between purpose in life and perceived health even after controlling for population. In both community and inpatient populations, purpose in life correlated with fewer somatic concerns. We discuss the benefits of incorporating a sense of directedness with prevention and treatment purposes.
... One particular aspect of well-being that has recently gained interest is a person's meaning in life (Garland, Hanley, Goldin, & Gross, 2017). So far, the evidence is split on whether mindfulness actually increases meaning in life, and research is only beginning to examine the mechanisms by which this might occur (Foureur, Besley, Burton, Yu, & Crisp, 2013;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). In addition, most of this research has relied on cross-sectional designs, thus failing to draw any conclusions related to directionality and/or causality (Garland, Farb, Goldin, & Fredrickson, 2015). ...
... The literature on mindfulness and well-being suggests causality and directionality of this relationship (Baer et al., 2012;Garland et al., 2017). However, empirical research, especially on mindfulness predicting meaning in life, is far from conclusive (Foureur et al., 2013;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). The purpose of the current research was twofold: (1) to examine the role of self-connection in the relationship between mindfulness and meaning in life, and (2) to further examine the psychometric properties of the SCS, with particular attention to its reliability across time. ...
Article
Background: Researchers have rarely examined mindfulness and meaning in a way that informs the causality and directionality of this relationship. The current research examines this relationship across time, further validates the Self-Connection Scale (SCS), and examines the role of self-connection in both moderating and mediating this relationship. This allows for researchers and practitioners alike to utilise self-connection to help increase their own and others' well-being. Methods: One hundred and fifty-four participants completed measures of mindfulness, self-connection, and meaning over 4 weeks. We also included various measures related to well-being to further examine the nomological network of the SCS. Results: Multi-level models examined a total of 432 observations across 108 participants. Mindfulness predicted an increase in the presence of but not search for meaning. Self-connection partially mediated the effect on the presence of meaning and moderated the effect on the search for meaning. Furthermore, the SCS demonstrated good validity and reliability across time. Conclusions: Self-connection, as measured by the SCS, has an important role in positive psychology, and those with a deficit are likely to benefit the most from increased mindfulness. Together, this provides several implications for using mindfulness and self-connection research in personal and professional practice.
... Some research has investigated which daily experiences and feelings are associated with state-level, or short-term experiences, of sense of purpose (Kiang, 2012;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). Though these projects did not report how much variability was within-versus betweenperson in individuals' daily scores, they found that there were within-person correlates with daily sense of purpose. ...
... Kiang (2012) found that, on days in which adolescents engaged in activities that helped their family and avoided leisure activities, they felt more purposeful. In their work, Kashdan and McKnight (2013) reported that people with social anxiety disorder experienced more positive daily well-being on days in which they reported significant effort and progress toward their purpose. Furthermore, research has found that on days in which people have more negative social interactions than normal, they also report a lower sense of purpose for that day . ...
Thesis
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Sense of purpose can be understood as the extent to which one feels that they have personally meaningful goals and directions guiding them through life. Though the predictive value of this construct is well-established based on the robust research illustrating that it predicts a host of desirable cognitive, physical, and well-being benefits, the nature of sense of purpose is still under-researched. In particular, little is known regarding the extent to which this construct fluctuates within an individual and what is tied to those fluctuations. The current study addresses this gap by utilizing data from four separate studies (total N = 3,390) with lag variability to explore three primary questions. First, how much within-person variability do people exhibit in sense of purpose at the hourly, daily, weekly, and monthly level? Second, how does sense of purpose variability compare to positive and negative affect variability? Third, does dispositional sense of purpose predict short-term sense of purpose variability, and does age have a linear and/or quadratic association with sense of purpose variability? The current project finds that approximately 50-70% of the variability in sense of purpose scores occurs between-person, with the monthly reports exhibiting the least amount of within-person variability. Furthermore, the within-person variability of sense of purpose is often comparable to positive and negative affect depending on the time between measurement occasions. Finally, higher levels of dispositional sense of purpose do not appear to be strongly tied to how much variability an individual experiences in their purposefulness from one time period to next. However, depending on the amount of time between measurement occasions, higher age may be tied to experiences of variability. The discussion focuses on what these findings mean for the trait-like nature of sense of purpose, short-term sense of purpose measurement, lifespan development, and intervention efforts. https://openscholarship.wustl.edu/art_sci_etds/2724
... Thus, helping people to achieve balance between the pursuit of pleasure and acceptance or avoidance of pain in service of achieving broader life goals and values may ultimately lead to adaptive functioning and well-being. Research can examine whether explicitly relating the pursuit and experience of pleasure to broader life goals and values is a useful way to do this (for a measurement approach with therapeutic applications, see [120]). For example, a researcher might ask participants to note the numerous ways that pleasure can be gained in relationships (discussing shared interest, working together to achieve goals) for an individual who values being reliable and trustworthy. ...
Article
Background: People commonly use psychoactive substances to increase physical and psychological pleasure. Neuroadaptations in the brain's reward system coupled with changes in social functioning and networking resulting from chronic substance use impede the ability to derive pleasure from non-substance related activities. Objective: We elucidate and validate the hypothesis that treatments for substance use disorders would potentially have a stronger and broader impact by helping recipients to experience pleasure as part of an expansive focus of increasing adaptive functioning, well-being, and personal fulfillment and actualization. Method: We have organized and integrated the relatively sparse and disparate theory and research to describe a multi-stage model linking pleasure and substance use. We review research on pleasure in the context of treatment for substance use, and describe future research directions. Results: Our model integrates several independent research programs with prominent theories and models of substance dependence that together provide evidence that pleasure, or lack thereof, is a risk or protective factor for initiating, escalating and maintaining substance use and substance use disorders. Pleasure is an overlooked but potentially high-yield target of existing evidence-based treatments. Conclusion: Research is needed to investigate the relation between pleasure and substance use, and existing and newly developed treatments that have the potential to increase the pleasure. By increasing pleasure such treatments have the potential to help recipients to live fuller and richer lives. Integration of pleasure into existing treatments has compelling transdiagnostic implications for individuals at any point along a substance use severity continuum.
... The presence of meaning in life appears to be linked to happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect [25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33]. Moreover, having purposes in life has been found to be negatively connected with various psychopathological problems [34,35], such as depressive symptoms [9,36], suicidal ideation [37,38], anxiety-related responses [39], post-traumatic stress disorder [40], social anxiety [41], and sleep disturbances [42], among other issues. Higher levels of purpose in life could be even connected to better physical health outcomes, through enhanced functioning of physiological systems [23,35]. ...
Article
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Mindfulness is connected to positive outcomes related to mental health and well-being. However, the psychological mechanisms that account for these relationships are largely unknown. A multiple-step multiple mediator structural equation modeling (SEM) model was tested with mindfulness as the independent variable; purpose in life and behavioral activation as serial mediators ; and happiness, anxiety, and depression as outcome measures. Data were obtained from 1267 women. Higher mindfulness was associated with higher levels of happiness and lower anxiety and depression symptoms. The association of mindfulness with the outcome variables could be partially accounted for by purpose in life and behavioral activation. The SEM model explained large proportions of variance in happiness (50%), anxiety (34%), and depression (44%) symptoms. Mindfulness is associated with both a sense of purpose in life and engagement in activities, which are also connected with positive outcomes. Moreover, having purposes in life is linked to higher levels of behavioral activation.
... In order to build a purpose that generates continual goals and targets, youth need a framework that provides a resilient spirit towards overcoming obstacles, Buheji (2018c)� In this chapter, we outline a theoretical model of purpose development besides outlining various essential ingredients to creating a purpose in youth life� A life-time purpose requires gradual refinement and a maturity that can be differentiated by social learning through observation and then modelling of a community problem (Kashdan and McKnight, 2009)� Life purposefulness needs proactive, curious exploration that triggers the interests of youth and makes them more receptive to new experiences and alternative ways to examine themselves and the outside world, (Silvia, 2001)� Buheji (2018b) sees that the more youth seek a coherent understanding of their environment, the more they can re-invent their lives� This is supported by Kashdan and Steger (2007) work on life purposefulness� Learning and growing are inevitable by-products of being curious and exploratory (Kashdan, 2009;Silvia, 2006)� Many researchers now see that life-purposefulness is beyond momentary curiosity, as it transforms a goal into a long-lasting interest, called a purpose� Buheji (2019a), Kashdan and McKnight (2013), Sheldon and Kasser (1998)� If a purpose is provided by a framework driven program that builds behaviour patterns, then different resources as time and energy, need to be effectively managed� Bandura (1977)� ...
Book
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Youth is very important period in human life, where it is time for our optimum curios discovery of life and early productivity. Lots of work has been researched and written about youth throughout the history and from different perspectives. Taking this in mind, this first (Youthineering) book tries to bring up new perspective about youth and their role or needs for an inspiring economy that address current and future foresighted needs. The applied researches done by both editors of this book where mostly experimented with youth, rather on youth, in different conditions and countries. The book shows also a new theme for youth where it is beyond a specific age, or period of time. In this book, we introduce the youthineering to support further studies and development in youth economy, which has been always been neglected since the time of the Greeks and the Romans. Youthineering gradually brings attention to the differentiated advantages of youth spirit and energy which help the communities to develop and differentiate. Through youthineering we ensure that youth economy would move from the level of empowerment to the level of development and advancement. Under youthineering we address the need of youth to be challenged and to feel the essence of failure, in a way that would differentiate their contribution. Today, while we can see more youth in high positions, like presidents or prime-ministers in Canada and Austria, we can still see many unemployed youths whom near or under-poverty line, and being unemployed with low or inconsistent productivity. Therefore, this book brings in a new perspective that offers solutions that capitalise, or even exploit the intrinsic power of youth to optimise their contribution to the socio-economic that address their community needs.
... Many researchers now see that life-purposefulness is beyond momentary curiosity, as it transforms a goal into a long-lasting interest, called a purpose. Buheji (2019a), Kashdan and McKnight (2013), Sheldon and Kasser (1998). If a purpose is provided by a framework driven program that builds behaviour patterns, then different resources as time and energy, need to be effectively managed. ...
Article
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Dwelling on youth Life-Purposefulness, this paper explores how to enhance youth's readiness for future economies. The detailed case study examines how life-purposefulness could be built and facilitated in different youths' status, i.e. graduating youth, graduated, job-seekers, unemployed and youth that are not happy with their achievements, or current status. The research questions how the technique followed by the ‗International Inspiration Economy Project (IIEP) youth summer program' contributes to the capacity of youth participants' lifetime inspiration and legacy. The two years' program experience is evaluated in the way they are setup. The content analysis from literature is reflected in the IIEP program delivery, including the setup of the five phases of the life-purposefulness program conducted. A framework that targets to enhance youth's capacity to leave a differentiated outcome and minimise their zero-status is proposed to cover the literature gap. The researcher argues that the involvement of youth in socioeconomic projects during their search for a purpose would create a differentiation in their lifetime contribution. The implications for the program and its framework, along with the paper limitations and perspectives for future empirical research, is suggested. Keyword: life-purposefulness, purpose in life, meaning of life, youth economy, youth life purposes 2. Introduction This paper focuses on exploring the means for establishing life-purposefulness through extensive literature review. The literature covers the different definitions of life-purposefulness and how to measure it. The review shows the psychology of life-purposefulness development and the importance of being curious. Models of life purposefulness and its reactive development social learning are covered. The philosophy of life purposefulness and how to achieve the performance goals go in hand is linked to the ego involvement when we build intrinsic motivation. Buheji (2019a).
... Purpose in life is associated with positive health outcomes, however, the processes through which purpose promotes health have been unclear. Kashdan and McKnight (2013) suggested that "A person with a clearly defined purpose ought to . . . have less difficulty deciding between competing options when reflecting on This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. ...
Article
Objective: Having a strong sense of purpose in life is associated with positive health behaviors. However, the processes through which purpose leads to health are unclear. The current study compared neural activity among individuals with higher versus lower purpose while they made health-related decisions in response to messages promoting health behavior change. Method: A total of 220 adults with a sedentary lifestyle who were likely to feel conflicted in response to health messages underwent functional MRI while viewing messages encouraging physical activity and indicated the self-relevance of the messages. We focused on activity within dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), anterior insula (AI), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) as identified by meta-analytically defined maps of regions previously implicated in conflict-related processing, while participants considered the self-relevance of the messages. Results: Individuals with higher (vs. lower) purpose showed less activity in dACC, AI, DLPFC, and VLPFC while making health-decisions. Lower brain response in these regions mediated the effect of higher purpose on greater endorsement of the messages. Conclusions: Individuals with strong purpose may be less likely to experience conflict-related regulatory burden during health decision-making, which may in turn allow them to accept conflicting yet beneficial health messages. Reduced brain reactivity in dACC, AI, DLPFC, and VLPFC may reflect reduced conflict-related processing during health decision-making relevant to longer term lifestyle goals. This adds to mounting evidence linking purpose and a range of positive health-related outcomes, as well as evidence suggesting that dACC, AI, DLPFC, and VLPFC track conflict-related processes relevant to longer term goals and values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Living one's life in a way that is consistent with one's core values has long been recognized as the key to happiness, authenticity, and meaning (Frankl 1959(Frankl /2006Hayes et al. 1999;Kashdan and McKnight 2013;Kashdan and Steger 2007;Plumb et al. 2009). Toward the goal of promoting positive well-being and reducing emotional distress, aligning action with personal values is also an essential component of a number of efficacious cognitive-behavioral therapies (e.g., Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, Brief Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression, Logotherapy, Motivational Interviewing; Davis et al. 2016;Frankl 1959Frankl /2006Hayes et al. 1999;Hettema et al. 2005;Lejuez et al. 2011;Schulenberg et al. 2008). ...
Article
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Engagement in daily valued action is a core component of psychological well-being. Although valued action is a common target of cognitive-behavioral intervention, the degree to which it fluctuates at a daily level—and its predictors—remain relatively untested. Thus, the present daily diary study examined the influence of daily stress and intrapersonal resources such as mindfulness, meaning, and psychological flexibility on valued action among 122 undergraduates. Results of multilevel modeling revealed significant within-and between-person variance in daily valued action, predicted by daily fluctuations in stress as well as average stress across days, dispositional mindfulness, meaning, and psychological flexibility. Intrapersonal resources did not significantly buffer the effects of stress on valued action. Future research should continue to examine valued action in a multilevel framework, given the significant within-person variation in the present study. In the context of clinical interventions, acute stressors experienced outside of session may interfere with valued action.
... Commitment is the glue of coherence. Although initially searching for and committing to a purpose may be stressful because it is perceived as a choice among various alternatives (Rainey, 2014), commitment reduces stress and increases efficiency (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013) because the purpose prioritizes where to direct efforts (Bronk, 2012). Coherence improves the opportunity to practice one's purpose more holistically (Colby & Damon, 1992). ...
Article
Rather than considering human potential in terms of an unrealized desired state, what if we framed it as gaining momentum in worthy long-term pursuits? This conceptual article, integrating ideas and findings from several scholarly literatures, explores how life purpose can serve as a meaningful, intentional guide for individuals, especially youth, to direct their other potentials into prosocial contributions to society. The argument (a) considers life purpose itself as a form of intrapersonal giftedness different from academic giftedness; (b) describes how life purpose could include distinctions of further potentials: coherence among purpose dimensions, influence on different life domains, reach of others impacted by the youths’ contributions, emphasis to change society, and precocious emergence of purpose’s dimensions and distinctions; and (c) muses how life purpose’s directing of other potentials might become a potential that could be realized by all youth.
... Finally, a sense of life purpose may be fostered in multiple and mutually reinforcing ways by various sequelae of depression. It is well-established that life purposes can emerge from suffering (Frankl, 1984;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). Moreover, social isolation induced by depression may give rise to greater self-reflection, which further fosters the emergence of a well-defined sense of personal purpose (Bundick, 2011). ...
Article
Depression manifests in distinct ways across the life course. Recent research emphasizes how depression impedes development during emerging adulthood. However, our study—based on 40 interviews with emerging adults from multiple regions in the United States, analyzed following grounded theory—suggests a more complex narrative. Increasing experience with cycles of depression can also catalyze (a) mature perspectives and coping mechanisms that protect against depression’s lowest lows; (b) deeper self-knowledge and direction, which in turn promoted a coherent personal identity; and (c) emergence of a life purpose, which fostered attainment of adult roles, skill development, greater life satisfaction, and enriched identity. Our synthesis reveals how depression during emerging adulthood can function at once as toxin, potential antidote, and nutritional supplement fostering healthy development. Our central finding that young adults adapt to rather than recover from depression can also enrich resilience theory, and inform both social discourse and clinical practice.
... We view purpose in life as the sense that there is, or that one has, a defining aim in life (Frankl 1962;Kashdan and McKnight 2013). Operationalized in various ways, measures related to a sense of purpose have generally been found to have salutary relationships with health outcomes such as depression (Windsor, Curtis, and Luszcz 2015), life satisfaction (Russell, White, and White 2006), and various measures of well-being (Bauer and McAdams 2004;Ryff et al. 2016). ...
Article
This research note uses mixed methods on data from a nationwide sample of 1,525 Americans age 40 and older to make two theoretical contributions to the literatures on purpose and religion. First, by categorizing open‐ended responses to an item asking “Please describe a few of the things, feelings, ideas, etc. that give you a sense of purpose in your life,” we present a categorization framework to group sources of purpose (SPs) in life. Next, we run multivariate models, using mental well‐being as a dependent measure, which simultaneously enter dummy variables reflecting each of the SPs categories within our framework. We hypothesize no relative differences in the effect that any specific source of purpose category would have on mental well‐being. This prediction is undercut by finding a positive link between mental well‐being and a single SP—citing one's “relationship with God”—although this relationship is noted only among respondents age 60 and older. Beyond this research's theoretical contributions, we offer some practical guidance in arguing that research on SPs, particularly when claiming comprehensiveness or examining mental well‐being, should not preclude religious measures and should consider that SPs may have differing effects between age groups.
... For the individuals who have big purpose in life have the ability to use more effective adaptation strategies (Hill., Sin, Turiano, Burrow, & Almeida, 2018;Polenick, Kales, & Birditt, 2018). Thus this concept has acquired importance as being treatment mechanism, whereby the modern treatment interventions concentrate on helping people to develop, clarify and follow up the aim from organizing their life and their behaviors (Mcknight & Kashdan, 2013). (Kim, Strecher, & Ryff, 2014;Peter et al., 2015). ...
... Some methods include making meaning salient by asking participants to photograph meaningful moments in their lives [27], reading or writing about meaningful experiences [28], and even simply taking a questionnaire about current meaning in life [29]. Further, researchers have found daily diaries and journaling to be useful tools for increasing various types of awareness [30][31][32]. Based on the relationship between meaning, meaning salience and mental health, an intervention that makes one aware of the daily meaning in his/her life should also benefit mental health. ...
... 22 With regard to personal values, studies indicate that therapeutic practices such as acceptance-based behavior therapies (ABBTs), a primary component of which is clarifying and acting in accordance to one's values, predict decreased social anxiety and an increased likelihood of the occurrence of social anxietyprovoking behaviors. [23][24][25][26][27][28][29] However, these studies do not explicitly examine the relations between personal value, social anxiety, and behavioral action. Interestingly, the only study to date that did explicitly examine these relations found that while personal value did predict behavioral action, it was not associated with social anxiety, suggesting that personal value has an effect on behavioral action independent of social anxiety. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Current therapies for social anxiety disorder emphasize taking behavioral action; active engagement of a behavior despite any present fear or anxiety that is associated with the behavior, through use of exposures. However, less is known about the mechanisms of behavioral action. The present study aimed to examine personal value, self-efficacy, and the perceived social acceptability of a social behavior as correlates of behavioral action in a high social anxiety sample. Method: The present study utilized vignettes and self-report measures to examine self-efficacy, personal value, and the social acceptability of a social behavior as correlates of behavioral action in a high social anxiety sample (N = 92). Results: The findings indicated that self-efficacy, but not personal value or social acceptability, was significantly associated with social anxiety. Additionally, with all variables included in the multiple regression model, social anxiety was significantly associated with behavioral action, while personal value and self-efficacy were associated with behavioral action over and above social anxiety. Discussion: The results highlight the potential for self-efficacy and personal value as target mechanisms for increasing engagement with exposures and behavioral experiments in treatments for social anxiety.
... Según Páez-Blarrina et al. (2006), la dirección en valores es incompatible con la evitación, puesto que actuar en concordancia con los valores importantes para cada persona, hace que se siga una dirección en la vida a pesar de las dificultades que surjan, impidiendo la aparición de la evitación. Una investigación sobre esta temática fue la realizada por Kashdan y McKnight (2013), en la cual se estudió la importancia de la clarificación de valores en personas con TAS. Estos autores señalan la importancia de marcarse un propósito en la vida como objetivo para la mejora de la sintomatología con la consiguiente disminución de la evitación y el aumento de la autoestima y las emociones positivas (ver también Ribero-Marulanda y Agudelo-Colorado, 2016). ...
Article
El objetivo de la presente revisión sistemática fue examinar la eficacia de la terapia de aceptación y compromiso (ACT) en el tratamiento del trastorno de ansiedad social (TAS). Se realizó una búsqueda exhaustiva en distintas bases de datos, incluyendo, tras la aplicación de diversos criterios, un total de ocho estudios realizados entre los años 2005 y 2016. En tres de ellos se mostró la eficacia de la ACT para reducir la sintomatología fóbica y la inflexibilidad psicológica. En los otros cinco, ensayos controlados aleatorizados, se demostró que la ACT y la terapia cognitivo conductual (TCC) producían efectos similares al final del tratamiento y en el seguimiento. En algunos casos también se observó que la ACT mejoraba los resultados de la TCC en adherencia al tratamiento y en la calidad de vida. El TAS muestra mejoras tras la aplicación de la ACT en todos los estudios analizados en esta revisión, en línea con revisiones anteriores. Se discuten las debilidades de las pruebas acumuladas hasta la fecha sobre la eficacia de la ACT para el tratamiento del TAS y se proponen líneas de trabajo futuro.
... In all, we want people to attend to the meaning already present in their lives, thus making meaning salient to them. To accomplish this, we used daily diaries which research has found to be a reliable and effective way to increase daily awareness (Hülsheger, Alberts, Feinholdt, & Lang, 2012;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013;Scheck, Hoffmann, Proctor, & Couillou, 2013). For one week, a group of participants reflected on their daily activities and the Curr Psychol meaning gained from these activities while another group went about their week as normal. ...
Article
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During the COVID-19 pandemic, various restrictions forced people around the world to socially isolate. People were asked to stay at home and were largely unable to do many of the activities that they derived meaning from. Since meaning is often related to mental health, these restrictions were likely to decrease mental health. The current study aimed to examine these effects and additionally benefit individuals' mental health by making their meaning salient. Specifically, the goal of the research was to design an intervention that could counter the potential negative effects of social distancing. We recruited a total of 96 U.S.A. residents (M age = 34.45, 92.7% Female) and assigned them to either the control group or to a meaning salience intervention. That is, participants either focused on the meaning of their daily activities (n = 45) or did not participate in any study-related activities during the week (n = 51). They completed various measures of mental health before and after this experimental period. Results suggested that the control group reported significantly greater anxiety, depression, and stress at the end of the week. In contrast, the experimental group reported less anxiety and trended toward less depression and stress at the end of that same week. In all, results suggest that simply focusing on one's daily activities and the meaning found in them protected people from the otherwise detrimental effects of the restrictions. This provides a promising and simple intervention that may assist both individuals and practitioners aiming to improve mental health, especially in challenging times.
... Antonovsky (1987) hypothesized that SOC's meaningfulness component was the driving force and motivation for all coping activity. This is in line with research showing that having a feeling of purpose in life can help people overcome mental health issues (Kashdan and McKnight 2013). Piedmont and colleagues found that SOC's predictive validity for various outcomes including life satisfaction, wellbeing, and affect was attenuated after accounting for meaning in life (Piedmont et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Though conceptually distinct, mindfulness and sense of coherence (SOC) are empirically related aspects that promote health and wellbeing. The present research explored uniqueness by investigating criterion validity and incremental validity beyond the Big Five personality traits when predicting psychological distress, life satisfaction, and burnout. N = 1033 participated in a cross-sectional study. We used multiple regression analysis to examine the incremental validity of mindfulness (CHIME) and SOC (SOC-13) for psychological distress (SCL-K-9), life satisfaction (SWLS), and burnout (MBI-GS scales: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, personal accomplishment). Mindfulness and SOC had incremental validity over the Big Five traits. Despite a strong overlap (45% shared variance) between mindfulness and SOC, SOC was always the stronger predictor: psychological distress (β = −.52), life satisfaction (β = .57), emotional exhaustion (β = −.23), cynicism (β = −.40), and personal accomplishment (β = −.30). For psychological distress, life satisfaction, and cynicism, SOC statistically explained almost all the criterion validity of mindfulness. The clinical utility of mindfulness for predicting psychological health appears to be of minor importance relative to SOC, regardless whether meditators or non-meditators, who differed in mindfulness, were analyzed. Western approaches to assessing mindfulness may lack crucial social and existential dimensions.
... However, if we want to take seriously the division of meaning into coherence, purpose, and significance, we would need separate scales for each of these three facets. Luckily, first steps into measuring the various dimensions separately have just recently been taken (George and Park 2016;Kashdan and McKnight 2013). ...
Chapter
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While well-being and happiness have become focal topics of psychological research, questions of good life have been mainly left to philosophers. This is an untenable state of affairs, as it leads to an overemphasis on one dimension of good life while failing to acknowledge that there are centrally important sources of value beyond one’s own happiness that people deeply care about. Therefore, we need more understanding and research on the other potential dimensions of good life. Accordingly, in this chapter I first argue that any proposed dimension of good life should be something that is intrinsically valuable, generally used when evaluating a life, and not derivative of other proposed dimensions. Based on these criteria, I suggest that at least well-being, moral praiseworthiness, meaning in life, and authenticity should be counted as independent dimensions of a good life. Accordingly, I examine these four dimensions in more detail, paying special attention to the question whether they can be measured using standard quantitative evaluation methods. It is concluded that most aspects of good life can in principle be measured, but certain important caveats apply to interpreting these results. All in all, this essay aims not to provide firm conclusions about the dimensions of good life, but rather invite other researchers into a serious discussion about the dimensions of good life and how psychology as a science can start to properly examine them.
... Living with purpose implies having a having a clear sense of the valued ends to which one is striving, and to be highly committed to these ends (George & Park, 2016). Interestingly, a variety of improved health outcomes are associated with higher levels of purpose, including increased self-esteem and positive emotion (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013), improved sleep patterns (Kim et al., 2015), higher rates of physical activity (Hooker & Masters, 2016), greater use of preventive health care services (Kim et al., 2014), and even reduced rates of stroke and dementia in older persons (Boyle et al., 2012). ...
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Trainee distress and burnout continue to be serious concerns for educational programs in medicine, prompting the implementation of numerous interventions. Although an expansive body of literature suggests that the experience of meaning at work is critical to professional wellbeing, relatively little attention has been paid to how this might be leveraged in the educational milieu. We propose that professional identity formation (PIF), the process by which trainees come to not only attain competence, but additionally to “think, act and feel” like physicians, affords us a unique opportunity to ground trainees in the meaningfulness of their work. Using the widely accepted tri-partite model of meaning, we outline how this process can contribute to wellbeing. We suggest strategies to optimize the influence of PIF on wellbeing, offering curricular suggestions, as well as ideas regarding the respective roles of communities of practice, teachers, and formative educational experiences. Collectively, these encourage trainees to act as intentional agents in the making of their novel professional selves, anchoring them to the meaningfulness of their work, and supporting their short and long-term wellbeing.
... Empirical evidence [4] increasingly shows that the experience of meaningfulness (MF) is essential for psychic well-being, as existential philosophers, theorists, and psychotherapists have been pointing out for decades [5]. MF is related to mental health, both in terms of psychopathology [6] and transdiagnostic variables such as self-esteem [7]. Hereby, there is a great difference between the meaning of life and the meaning in life. ...
Article
Introduction: The experience of meaning seems to be crucial for psychic well-being. In the literature, there are reports of relationships between personality, illness, and life meanings. The objective of this study was to investigate types of experiences of meaning (meaningfulness, crisis of meaning, existential indifference) and their associations with some psychopathological categories in a clinical population. Methods: In a naturalistic and cross-sectional design, 56 German patients in outpatient psychotherapy (29 women, 27 men; mean age = 42.8 years, standard deviation = 13.8) were assessed by the Sources of Meaning and Meaning in Life Questionnaire (SoMe) Questionnaire (meaning of life, hedonism, eudaemonia). Psychopathology (Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Clinical Global Impression scale, Symptom Checklist (SCL)-90), self-esteem (Rosenberg scale), neuroticism (NEO-Five-Factor Inventory), and suicidality (Suicide Behaviors Questionnaire Revised (SBQ-R)). Results: Three distinct groups concerning the experience of meaning emerged: meaningfulness (33.9%), crisis of meaning (21.4%), and, as the largest group, existential indifference (42.9%). Eudaemonia as well as the hedonistic SoMe variables of fun and wellness were shown to be inversely related to psychopathology such as suicide risk (SBQ-R), general symptom distress (SCL-90), and depressive symptomatology (BDI-II). Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of a differential consideration of existential factors, sources of meaning and life orientations for psychopathology in mental health, which should be more considered in standard psychotherapeutic situations.
... These estimates are similar to those found in other experience sampling studies that report multilevel (vs. between-person) reliability estimates (e.g., Brans et al., 2013;Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). ...
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Flexibly using different emotion-regulation (ER) strategies in different situational contexts, such as domains, has been argued to promote effective emotion regulation. Additionally, emotion regulation processes may change with age as narrowing time horizons shift emotion-regulation preferences. The purpose of the present study was to examine the occurrence and effectiveness of flexible emotion regulation in response to daily hassles from different domains within the age range from adolescence to old age. Participants, ranging from 14 to 88 years old (N = 325), completed an experience-sampling study of approximately 9 days over a 3-week period. At each momentary assessment, participants reported on their hassles, emotion-regulation strategies, and affect. As expected, strategy use varied across individuals and domains. For example, emotion expression and suppression were typical responses to interpersonal hassles, whereas social sharing was often used in response to work/school hassles. In situations wherein hassles included multiple life domains, participants reported the use of more emotion-regulation strategies than for single-domain hassles. Although flexible emotion regulation was evident in participants' responses to hassles, the expectation that it would be associated with lower hassle reactivity was not confirmed. These patterns were, for the most part, consistent across ages. This study contributes new insights into situational characteristics that are associated with emotion-regulation flexibility, showing that hassles domains are important for strategy selection, and that this holds from adolescence to old age. It also suggests that such defined emotion-regulation flexibility is not as strongly linked to emotion-regulation effectiveness as has been previously suggested. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Dimensi tujuan terkait dengan pilihan siswa miskin pada SMA favoritnya dan perencanaan untuk melanjutkan ke pendidikan tinggi yang selaras dengan tujuan sebagai penghubung antara kejadian masa kini dan masa yang akan datang (Baumeister, 1991). Makna hidup dalam dimensi tujuan meliputi tujuan utama yang telah dan ingin dicapai berkaitan dengan pilihan SMA-nya (Baumeister, 1991), memiliki optimisme serta motivasi dalam mencapai tujuan inti (Steger, 2016) dan memiliki sikap dan tindakan terarah dalam mencapai tujuan inti, sebagaimana penelitian pada hari-hari ketika orang mencurahkan banyak usaha untuk mencapai tujuan dalam hidup, maka makna hidup meningkat (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). ...
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Students from poor families seems to have the ability to search the meaning of life. They have high enthusiasm in education. This study aims to explore the reasons of poor students in searching for life's meaning by choosing high school, concepts of meaning in life, and learning and its implications. The study used phenomenological-qualitative method.The participants were 21 students from poor families in reputable high school in Wonosobo. Data was collected through interviews and FGDs and was analyzed inductively. The results show that students from poor families understand the possibilities and benefits of achieving goals to be success in the future. Student balance is indicated by the determination of high goals and the hard work done in material, psychological and spiritual aspects.They are confident to move on and reflect the life’s meaning by act and pray.
... This finding corroborates youth purpose literature that has pointed to the organizing effects of purpose (Bronk & Finch, 2010;Damon, 2008;Malin et al., 2014). For example, it may be that youth who consistently engage in purposeful activities reframe stressful situations in terms of the relevance to their larger purpose (Kashdan & McKnight, 2013). They may thus find daily stressors less threatening in light of their purpose and may also have an easier time navigating competing demands in light of their purpose. ...
Article
The present study explored the influence of psychological stress on the development of purpose among youth of color living in urban, low-income communities. A qualitative approach based on grounded theory was used to understand how stress-related experiences influence the development of youth purpose in participants’ own words. Findings revealed that participants faced substantial psychological stress in their lives resulting from financial, family, academic, vocational, peer, neighborhood, relocation, and immigration-related stressors. Moreover, stress appeared to act as a barrier to purpose development in two common ways: (a) through youths’ perceptions of impossibility of realizing their goals for the future and (b) through youths’ experiences of regularly being overwhelmed to the point where purpose engagement was not a priority. However, stress could also serve as a motivator to purpose development for youth through (a) pressure from important others who held high expectations and (b) strong desires to escape from contextual stressors, such as violence or financial strain. Four patterns emerged from the data indicating that social support could serve to mitigate stress, propelling youth to develop a sense of purpose.
... For instance, dispositional purpose in life appears to decline with age, suggesting that a sense of purpose may be less accessible to us as we get older (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Further, Kashdan and McKnight (2013) explored purpose as an intervention for those suffering from Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): While purpose inductions helped those suffering from SAD to experience a greater sense of meaning in life and self-esteem, healthy controls did not see similar gains. Similarly, Burrow, Stanley, et al. (2014) found that purpose was only helpful in alleviating threat when white participants were faced with the demographic trends pointing to a "majority minority" in the USA compared to all other groups combined-there was no relation between purpose and threat when participants believed they would remain the majority. ...
Article
Individuals contend with a variety of threats in daily life and may attempt to deal with them using various cognitive strategies. Two constructs borne from different literatures, purpose in life and self‐affirmation, serve to promote well‐being and to protect individuals from such threats. While self‐affirmation has often been examined as a manipulation, purpose has, until recently, been considered a dispositional resource. However, both self‐affirmation and purpose seem to confer similar advantages in response to threat. This paper reviews the evidence for the protective benefits of both purpose in life and self‐affirmation, describes the mechanisms by which each confers these advantages, and considers the boundary conditions of each. Key similarities and differences are discussed, and we argue that there are broad gaps in the literature regarding where and when these constructs might operate differentially, or why these differences exist. We conclude with a call to researchers to explore empirically how and when these important interventions might be differentially beneficial to those who cultivate them.
... Furthermore, depressive symptoms include having poor quality sleep (Radloff, 1977), and sense of purpose prospectively predicts a reduced risk for sleep disturbance (Kim et al., 2015). Finally, sense of purpose has been linked to reduced risk for social anxiety (Kashdan and McKnight, 2013), and a greater likelihood for supportive relationships (Weston et al., 2020), which may counteract the disinterest in social engagement associated with depression. Given that activity engagement, social involvement, and sleep all promote healthy cognitive aging (Smith, 2016), sense of purpose appears to be a likely candidate for moderating the risk for cognitive deficits associated with depressive symptoms. ...
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Objective Individuals higher in depressive symptoms commonly present with neuropsychological deficits including poorer memory performance. Sense of purpose in life has been shown to promote resilience to cognitive impairment in older adulthood, but it is unclear whether it may also protect against cognitive deficits associated with higher depressive symptoms.Method Cognitive functioning among 4599 older American adults (Mage = 74.33 years, range = 65–104 years, 56.84% female) was examined across a 12-year follow-up period. Depressive symptomatology was assessed at each wave using the 8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Multilevel models assessed the influence of depressive symptoms and the interaction with sense of purpose in life on changes in memory performance and mental status.ResultsHigher depressive symptoms were associated with poorer memory performance at baseline, but did not predict rate of change over time. A negative interaction was observed between sense of purpose in life and depressive symptoms such that individuals higher in purpose experienced a less negative association between depressive symptoms and baseline memory performance. No significant interaction of sense of purpose and depressive symptoms was observed on mental status.Conclusion Having a sense of purpose in life may help protect older adults from memory deficits associated with higher depressive symptoms. The present findings underscore the potential for sense of purpose to promote cognitive reserve in older adulthood, allowing individuals to maintain cognitive performance in the face of accruing neurological insults.
... Participants in the ACT but not the relaxation group reported improvements in effective decision-making in daily life. Finally, ACT seeks to promote personal engagement in valueoriented actions, and increase one's sense of leading a meaningful life [4,43]. Values may prove important to help anchor patients to life and increase their intrinsic motivation to engage in meaningful actions [44]. ...
Article
Background: The management of suicidal crisis remains a major issue for clinicians, driving the development of new strategies to improve suicide prevention. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing a 7-week acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) versus relaxation group, as adjunct to treatment as usual for adult outpatients suffering from a current suicidal behavior disorder. The primary outcome was the rate of change in the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale suicidal ideation subscore (adding severity and intensity subscores). Secondary outcomes were the rates of change for depressive symptomatology, psychological pain, anxiety, hopelessness, anger, quality of life, and therapeutic processes. Assessments were performed in the 2 weeks preceding the beginning of the treatment (pretreatment assessment), and within 1 week (posttherapy assessment) and 3 months (follow-up assessment) after therapy completion. Results: Forty adults were included and randomized. The rate of change in ACT for suicidal ideation at the posttherapy assessment was higher than in the relaxation group (β [SE] = -1.88 [0.34] vs. -0.79 [0.37], respectively; p = 0.03). ACT effectiveness remained stable at the 3-month follow-up. We found a similar pattern of change for depressive symptomatology and anxiety, psychological pain, hopelessness, anger, and quality of life. Therapeutic processes improved more in the ACT group than in the relaxation group. Treatment adherence was high in the ACT group, all participants reported satisfaction with the program. Conclusions: Through its effectiveness in reducing suicidal ideation and improving the clinical dimensions associated with suicidal risk in patients suffering from a suicidal behavior disorder, ACT could be developed as an adjunctive strategy in programs for suicide prevention.
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For decades, researchers and practitioners have theorized psychological disorder and health as opposite ends of a single continuum. We offer a more nuanced, data driven examination into the various ways that people with psychological disorders experience well-being. We review research on the positive emotions, meaning and purpose in life, and social relationships of people diagnosed with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, social anxiety disorder, schizophrenia, and trauma-related disorders. We also discuss when and how friends, family members, and caregivers of these people are adversely impacted in terms of their well-being. Throughout, we highlight important, often overlooked findings that not all people with mental illness are devoid of well-being. This review is meant to be illustrative as opposed to comprehensive, synthesizing existing knowledge and inspiring explorations of unclear or undiscovered territory.
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The number of intensive longitudinal studies that investigate affective experiences at the withinperson rather than the between-person level is rapidly increasing. This paradigmatic shift comes with new challenges, such as questions revolving around how to measure within-person affect variation or more fundamental questions about the reliability and validity of constructs at the within-person level. We provide a review of substantive research published in Emotion since 2005, which revealed that to date no consensus has been established on measurement instruments for assessing withinperson affective experiences. Our review also showed that researchers who are interested in within-person affect variation sometimes rely on measurement instruments that were established at the between-person level, which we think should be reconsidered. Finally, reliability estimates of state variation have been developed but are not comprehensively reported in studies on withinperson affect variation. The purpose of this article is therefore to alert the reader to these issues and to highlight relevant criteria for selecting items and measurement instruments when studying within-person affect variation in intensive longitudinal studies. We recommend establishing common standards for measuring within-person affect variation and drawing from a common pool of instruments, which would allow direct comparison of results across studies.
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The objective of the present investigation was to identify the role of life purpose, noetic goals and resilience in the mental health of young victims of community violence. 1,500 students from four universities in northern and central Mexico participated in the study, 988 were women and 512 men, with an average age of 20.8 years. The results indicate high rates of direct and indirect victimization and high psychological distress without development of psycho-pathological symptoms. Linear regression by stepwise indicated that the three variables studied serve as protective elements for the mental health of young victims of community violence.
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People with anxiety disorders tend to make decisions on the basis of avoiding threat rather than obtaining rewards. Despite a robust literature examining approach-avoidance motivation, less is known about goal pursuit. The present study examined the content, motives, consequences, and daily correlates of strivings among adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Participants generated six strivings along with the motives and consequences of their pursuit. Compared with controls, people with social anxiety disorder were less strongly driven by autonomous motives and reported greater difficulty pursuing strivings. Coders analyzed strivings for the presence of 10 themes: achievement, affiliation, avoidance, emotion regulation, generativity, interpersonal, intimacy, power, self-presentation, and self-sufficiency. People with social anxiety disorder constructed more emotion regulation strivings than did controls, but they did not differ across other themes. This research illustrates how studying personality at different levels of analysis (traits, strivings) can yield novel information for understanding anxiety disorders.
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Being creative is considered a desirable trait, yet most empirical studies emphasize how to increase creativity rather than explore its possible benefits. A natural connection is how creativity can enhance life’s meaning. Many of the core concepts in work on the meaning of life, such as the needs for coherence, significance, and purpose or the desire for symbolic immortality, can be reached through creative activity. The synthesis of these two constructs—creativity and the meaning of life—is discussed with a temporal model encompassing past, present, and future pathways to creativity. The past pathway can help one understand and reflect on life. The present pathway can remind one of life’s joy and the many possible connections with humanity. Finally, the future pathway strives to ensure some type of legacy that may resonate with younger generations.
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Esta obra aporta conocimientos sobre los estudios de bienestar psicológico en varios países de América Latina, entre ellos, México, Colombia, Puerto Rico y Cuba, con el fin de ejemplificar el tipo de trabajos empíricos desarrollados en el tema por investigadores de dichos países. En esta obra se exponen los efectos del apoyo social, resiliencia y competencia social en el bienestar psicológico de adolescentes de sectores vulnerables, con eventos de vida estresantes; se revisan los efectos del apoyo social y ambiente familiar positivo relacionados con el bienestar subjetivo desde la perspectiva de los adolescentes; se analizan los determinantes no económicos de la felicidad y la satisfacción con la vida en adolescentes que viven en condiciones de pobreza; se presenta una investigación sobre el bienestar psicológico y salud física de estudiantes universitarios; entre otros temas.
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This study found that a breast cancer survivor cohort who were 3-4 years post-treatment returned to near baseline activity levels, and their important activity categories were nearly evenly distributed among instrumental activities of daily living, high-demand leisure, and social participation. When describing their experiences, three themes emerged: exercise is important physically and emotionally, participating in important activities feels good, and plans have been made to continue engaging in important activities. Further research is needed to compare activity resumption among those receiving or not receiving occupational therapy-at different timepoints–to understand when occupational therapy can make the greatest impact.
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People with social anxiety disorder (SAD) display maladaptive attitudes towards emotions. In this experience-sampling study, we explored the extent to which people with SAD viewed anxiety and pain as an impediment to pursuing personal strivings and deriving meaning in life. Participants were adults diagnosed with SAD and a control comparison group who completed baseline questionnaires and daily surveys for 14 consecutive days. People with SAD perceived anxiety and pain as interfering with progress towards their strivings to a greater degree than healthy controls. Perception of emotion-related goal interference was inversely associated with daily meaning. This relationship was moderated by diagnostic group such that there was a strong, inverse association with daily meaning in life for people with SAD; for controls, no association was found. Results suggest that negative beliefs about the value of anxiety and pain are pronounced in people with SAD and may impede derivation of meaning in life.
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Various scholars and professionals have emphasized the role of psychological hardiness and family environment in one's personality. The present study aimed to examine the relationships of psychological hardiness and family environment with love towards life. The study was conducted on a random sample of 230 adolescents studying in government and private colleges of India ranging between the ages 18 to 24. The study was based on a correlational design. A significant positive relationship was found between the positive dimensions of hardiness and love of life. However, there was a significant negative relationship between negative dimensions of hardiness and love of life. Also, there was a significant positive relationship between family relationship (family environment) and love of life. Regression analysis revealed that positive and negative dimensions of hardiness and family environment are significant predictors of Love of Life. Further, the analysis revealed that total family environment emerged as a significant predictor of global psychological hardiness among the youth. Implications of the results are discussed. Family processes and its effect on human development have been widely studied in psychological literature (Collins &Laursen, 2004; Smetana, Campione-Barr, & Metzger, 2006). In recent studies, associations between dysfunctional family relationships and adjustment problems in childhood and amongst the youth have gained importance (Chedid, Romo, &Chagnard, 2009). With the growing expansion of the field of Positive Psychology, researchers have increasingly investigating the impact of the family on personality traits such as hardiness,resilience, and individual's well-being as a whole. Certain studies show that favourable family interactions and healthy parenting leads to positive conditions like enhanced self-esteem, positive appraisals of stress-producing situations, improved life skills and increased liking towards self and one's life as a whole.Previous research studies have also shown that individuals who are psychologically
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Purpose The benefits of meaning in the workplace are abundant. However, few opportunities exist to increase meaning among employees in ways that result in desired organizational impacts. The current study developed two new mindfulness-based interventions designed to ultimately increase both job and life satisfaction. Design/methodology/approach Over five days, 67 participants either: (1) Reported their daily activities, (2) Additionally rated the meaningfulness of each hour, or (3) Additionally planned to increase the meaning of the least meaningful activities. At the beginning and end of the week, they also reported their job satisfaction and life satisfaction. Findings Results suggested that listing daily activities and rating the meaningfulness of each hour was most beneficial. Compared to only listing daily activities, this group experienced greater job and life satisfaction. In contrast, the group that additionally attempted to increase the meaningfulness of their daily activities did not perform better on either of these measures. Practical implications Spending only a few minutes focusing on recognizing the meaning in one's daily activities can improve one's job and life satisfaction. As such, organizations may consider encouraging engagement in such a task either at the end of the workday or at home. Doing so may result in an increase in both how satisfied they are at home and at work. Originality/value This provides initial evidence for a short intervention that may greatly increase the well-being of employees at work and home.
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This study examines relationships between emotion beliefs and emotion regulation strategy use among people with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and a psychologically healthy control group. Using experience-sampling methodology, we tested group differences in 2 types of emotion beliefs (emotion control values and emotion malleability beliefs) and whether emotion beliefs predicted trait and daily use of cognitive reappraisal and emotion suppression. People with SAD endorsed higher emotion control values and lower emotion malleability beliefs than did healthy controls. Across groups, emotion control values were positively associated with suppression (but unrelated to reappraisal), and emotion malleability beliefs were negatively associated with suppression and positively associated with reappraisal. We also addressed 2 exploratory questions related to measurement. First, we examined whether trait and state measures of emotion regulation strategies were related to emotion control values in different ways and found similar associations across measures. Second, we examined whether explicit and implicit measures of emotion control values were related to daily emotion regulation strategy use in different ways-and found that an implicit measure was unrelated to strategy use. Results are discussed in the context of growing research on metaemotions and the measurement of complex features of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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Günlük yaşam esnasında taşınabilir cihaz veya akıllı telefon uygulamalarıyla anlık ölçümler almayı mümkün kılan Deneyim Örnekleme Yöntemi (Experience Sampling Method, DÖY), son yıllarda hızlanan teknolojik gelişmeler ile beraber klinik psikoloji araştırmalarında aktif şekilde kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Özellikle anksiyete bozuklukları gibi belirti şiddetinde dalgalanmalar gözlenen bozukluklarda bu yöntemin etkin kullanımının oldukça işlevsel olduğu söylenebilir. Bu sistematik derlemede, DÖY’ün anksiyete bozukluklarında kullanış biçimlerini gözden geçirmek ve genel bulgulara ilişkin çıkarımlar yapmak hedeflendiği için alanyazında özellikle anksiyete bozukluklarına ait belirtileri DÖY ile değerlendiren güncel görgül çalışmalar sistematik olarak taranıp incelenmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında, DSM-5’te yapılan son değişiklikler göz önünde bulundurularak belirlenen anahtar kelimeler 4 farklı veri tabanında (Web of Science, ProQuest, PsycINFO ve PubMed) taranmış; tarama işleminin ardından belir-lenen ölçütlere uygun olan 14 makale bu derlemeye dâhil edilmiştir. İlk olarak DÖY kullanılarak yapılan bu çalışmalarda, çoğunlukla yetişkin ve kadın örneklem grubu ile çalışıldığı ve deneyim örnekleme ölçümlerinin ortalama 9 gün boyunca elektronik cihazlar ile yapıldığı görülmektedir. Ayrıca farklı bozukluk kategorilerine yönelik bu görgül çalışmalarda ortak olarak çoğunlukla anlık duygulanım değişimleri, olay sonrası işlemleme ve ruminasyon gibi ilişkili faktörlerin çalışıldığı görülmüştür. Özetle, DÖY’ün bilimsel araştırma alanında kullanılabilecek işlevsel bir yöntem olduğu ve bu açıdan yaygınlaşmasının faydalı olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Abstract Experience Sampling Method (ESM), which makes possible to make momentary assessment during daily life by using portable devices and applications, has been actively used in clinical psychology research along with accelerating technological devel-opments in recent years. The use of this method might be highly functional in some problems characterized with fluctuating symptom severity such as anxiety disorders. Because it is aimed to investigate the current literature findings about the use of this method in research on anxiety disorders and to make inferences about main study findings in this systematic review, current empirical studies particularly on anxiety disorder symptoms performed with the ESM were screened and examined. Taking the recent DSM-5 revisions into account, specific keywords were determined and scanned in 4 different databases (Web of Science, ProQuest, PsycINFO and PubMed). Following the screening processes, 14 articles that matched with inclusion criteria were involved in the present study. Firstly, it is seen that those studies were performed by using ESM generally included the adults and female participants and assessments with experience sampling measurements by electronic devices took 9 days in average. Moreover, it is also observed that among the different categories of psychological disorders, were evaluations on momentary affect changes, post-event processing and rumination that were usually studied. In sum, it is considered that ESM is a functional method that can be used in the field of scientific research, and it may be beneficial that recognizing and extend-ing the utilization of this method.
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Approximately 15-20% of adult women in the United States have been sexually assaulted. Given the high prevalence of sexual assault, it becomes increasingly important to understand immediate responses to sexual assault. A lack of information prior to sexual assaults contributes to a literature that is unable to showcase the presence and amount of change. A tendency to rely on comparisons between people, instead of the collection of multiple moments of a single person over time, will continue to point toward imprecise, statistical "average" reactions to sexual assaults. Prior methodological approaches lead to broad overgeneralizations about sexual assault survivors that may undermine their unique experiences in the aftermath of an assault. The present study extends the existing literature with access to unprecedented data gathered on the days before and immediately after someone survived a sexual assault. To our knowledge, there are no studies capturing prior functioning and near immediate psychological reactions of sexual assault survivors. In the present study, each night over the course of three weeks, we asked college students (n = 186) to report on their sexual activity and well-being. Six women and one man reported being sexually assaulted at least once. We examined psychological experiences on the days before and after sexual assaults (including negative and positive affect, social anxiety, self-esteem, emotion expressive suppression, and cognitive reappraisal). To examine sexual assault reactions, we used various descriptive approaches. Our results suggest that before and after being assaulted, survivors showed no consistent response in subjective well-being. We failed to find a prototypical psychological profile. Despite the small sample, our results raise important questions and offer future hypotheses about individual differences in responses to sexual assault.
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The present experiment investigated the personal meaning of a behavior and state social anxiety as predictors of behavioral action. Participants (N = 68) were given the chance to take the behavioral action of recording a statement for a video blog. Participants were randomized to personal meaning (n = 34; assigned to speak on the social issue most important to them and completed a personal meaning enhancement writing task) or control (n = 34; assigned to speak on the social issue least important to them and completed a control writing task) conditions. The results indicated that having personal meaning in a behavior significantly predicted the behavioral action. The findings suggest that having personal meaning in a social anxiety‐provoking behavior can increase the likelihood of that behavior. Clinical implications and limitations of the study are also discussed.
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Objective: Smoking and tobacco use co-occur with mental health problems. We examined the relationships between smoker’s identity and positive factors in smokers with mental health problems. We also examined the associations between smoker’s identity and psychopathology. Methods: We distributed an anonymous electronic survey to individuals participating in the National Alliance on Mental Illness e-mail list. Participants self-reported mental health diagnoses. Constructs assessed were meaning in life, purpose in life, self-efficacy, social support, smoker’s identity, depression, anxiety, stress, confidence in being able to quit tobacco, and concern that quitting tobacco would worsen mental health. Results: Participants endorsing a perception that smoking was part of their identity reported decreased purpose in life and self-efficacy. Smoker’s identity was negatively and positively associated with confidence in quitting tobacco and concern that quitting could worsen mental health, respectively. Individuals who endorsed a smoker’s identity reported increased anxiety symptoms. Conclusions: Our study shows a link between smoker’s identity and various positive and psychopathological factors in smokers reporting mental health diagnoses. Future research and treatment should consider transdiagnostic factors within the context of individuals with co-occurring smoking and mental health problems.
Research
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Various scholars and professionals have emphasized the role of psychological hardiness and family environment in one's personality. The present study aimed to examine the relationships of psychological hardiness and family environment with love towards life. The study was conducted on a random sample of 230 adolescents studying in government and private colleges of India ranging between the ages 18 to 24. The study was based on a correlational design. A significant positive relationship was found between the positive dimensions of hardiness and love of life. However, there was a significant negative relationship between negative dimensions of hardiness and love of life. Also, there was a significant positive relationship between family relationship (family environment) and love of life. Regression analysis revealed that positive and negative dimensions of hardiness and family environment are significant predictors of Love of Life. Further, the analysis revealed that total family environment emerged as a significant predictor of global psychological hardiness among the youth. Implications of the results are discussed. Family processes and its effect on human development have been widely studied in psychological literature (Collins &Laursen, 2004; Smetana, Campione-Barr, & Metzger, 2006). In recent studies, associations between dysfunctional family relationships and adjustment problems in childhood and amongst the youth have gained importance (Chedid, Romo, &Chagnard, 2009). With the growing expansion of the field of Positive Psychology, researchers have increasingly investigating the impact of the family on personality traits such as hardiness,resilience, and individual's well-being as a whole. Certain studies show that favourable family interactions and healthy parenting leads to positive conditions like enhanced self-esteem, positive appraisals of stress-producing situations, improved life skills and increased liking towards self and one's life as a whole.Previous research studies have also shown that individuals who are psychologically
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Much has been discovered about well-being since 1998, when positive psychology entered the lexicon. Among the wide range of areas in positive psychology, in this commentary we discuss recent discoveries on (1) distinctions between meaning in life, a sense of purpose, and happiness, (2) psychological or personality strengths and the benefits of particular combinations, and (3) resilience after exposure to adversity. We propose a series of questions about this literature with the hope that well-being researchers and practitioners continue to update their perspectives based on high-quality scientific findings and revise old views that rely on shaky empirical ground.
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Background. Purpose in life is important to health and well-being; purpose disruption often goes unidentified after breast cancer. Purpose. To evaluate the efficacy of a purpose renewal intervention and utility of a screening question for identifying people with purpose-related distress. Method. In this prospective pretest-posttest study, participants with breast cancer received an 8-session purpose renewal group intervention (n = 35). Participants completed standardized measures of meaning and purpose at pretest, posttest, and two-month follow-up and a forced-choice Purpose Status Question (PSQ) at pretest. Findings. Participants made statistically significant pretest-to-posttest and pretest-to-follow-up improvements. The PSQ demonstrated construct validity: 40% of participants lacked purpose direction at pretest and this subgroup made significantly greater improvements than participants who reported purpose direction at pretest. Implications. The PSQ warrants further study as a screener to identify people with purpose-related distress. Many breast cancer survivors may benefit from a purpose in life intervention; a subgroup may benefit more.
Article
Alcohol craving is an urge to consume alcohol that commonly precedes drinking; however, craving does not lead to drinking for all people under all circumstances. The current study measured the correlation between neural reactivity and alcohol cues as a risk, and purpose in daily life as a protective factor that may influence the link between alcohol craving and the subsequent amount of consumption. Observational study that correlated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data on neural cue reactivity and ecological momentary assessments (EMA) on purpose in life and alcohol use. Two college campuses in the United States. A total of 54 college students (37 women, 16 men, and 1 other) recruited via campus‐based groups from January 2019 to October 2020. Participants underwent fMRI while viewing images of alcohol; we examined activity within the ventral striatum, a key region of interest implicated in reward and craving. Participants then completed 28 days of EMA and answered questions about daily levels of purpose in life and alcohol use, including how much they craved and consumed alcohol. A significant three‐way interaction indicated that greater alcohol cue reactivity within the ventral striatum was associated with heavier alcohol use following craving in daily life only when people were previously feeling a lower than usual sense of purpose. By contrast, individuals with heightened neural alcohol cue reactivity drank less in response to craving if they were feeling a stronger than their usual sense of purpose in the preceding moments (binteraction = −0.086, P < 0.001, 95% CI = −0.137, −0.035). Neural sensitivity to alcohol cues within the ventral striatum appears to be a potential risk for increased alcohol use in social drinkers, when people feel less purposeful. Enhancing daily levels of purpose in life may promote alcohol moderation among social drinkers who show relatively higher reactivity to alcohol cues.
Article
Older individuals with sexual/gender minority and minority racial/ethnic identities typically face unique challenges, along with opportunities to overcome these obstacles. Published studies on the difficulties faced by sexual and gender minorities are available; however, research on older adults with both racial/ethnic minority and sexual and gender minority identities is rarer. These individuals must confront various forms of discrimination related to ageism, homophobia and racism. Resilience likely plays a role in the ability to manage and survive multiple challenges and discriminatory experiences, yet targeted research on these populations is lacking. This paper offers a preliminary model that incorporates prevalent threats to these populations’ well-being and their deleterious psychosocial correlates, especially, whenever available, the unique challenges that older individuals must face when age, sexual orientation and race/ethnicity intersect. Recommendations are made to optimise the expansion and empirical testing of this preliminary model.
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The field of psychology has been slow to recognize the importance of purpose for positive youth development. Until recently, purpose was understood, if at all, as a means of adapting to threatening conditions rather than as a motivator of good deeds and galvanizer of character growth. Moreover, in most psychological studies, purpose has been conflated with personal meaning, a broader and more internally oriented construct. This article offers a new operational definition of purpose that distinguishes it from meaning in an internalistic sense, and it reviews the existing psychological studies pertinent to the development of purpose during youth. The ar- ticle identifies a number of urgent questions concerning how—and whether—young people today are acquiring positive purposes to dedicate themselves to and, if so, what the nature of today's youth purposes might be. When Victor Frankl published the English edition of Man's Search for Meaning in 1959, the book's instant influence forced psychology to come to terms with the primary importance of high-level belief systems that had been considered derivative or epi-phenomenal by the major theories.1 The notion that ethereal constructs such as "meaning" and "purpose" could make a differ- ence—that they could motivate someone to do some- thing, or even shape a person's basic choices about how to live—seemed impossibly soft-headed and sentimen- tal to mainstream psychologists of that time. If the be- haviorist and psychoanalytic schools (the two best-known bodies of psychological work at midcentury) agreed on anything at all, it was that mean- ing, purpose, and other such belief systems were the products of more fundamental drives; that they were de- pendant on the drives for their shape, substance, and very existence; and that meaning and purpose were no more than marginal factors in behavioral development. To this entrenched materialist position, Frankl (1959) wrote (in the non-"degenderized" language of his day): Man's search for meaning is a primary force in his life and not a "secondary rationalization" of instinctual drives. This meaning is unique and specific in that it must and can be fulfilled by him alone; only then does it achieve a significance which will satisfy his own will to meaning. There are some authors who contend that meanings and values are "nothing but defense mechanisms, reaction formations and sublimations." But as for myself, I would not be willing to live merely for the sake of my "defense mechanisms," nor would I be ready to die merely for the sake of my "reaction for- mations." Man, however, is able to live and even to die for the sake of his ideals and values! (p. 121)
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Meaning in life has been identified as a potential mediator of the link between religiousness and psychological health. The authors tested this hypothesis in 2 studies, using multiple methods and measures of religiousness and well-being. In the studies, meaning in life mediated the relation between religiousness and life satisfaction (Study 1A), as well as self-esteem and optimism (Study 1B). In addition, using an experience sampling method, the authors found that meaning in life also mediated the relation between daily religious behaviors and well-being (Study 2). The authors discuss these findings and suggest that meaning in life may be an effective conduit through which counselors and clients can discuss "ultimate" matters, even when they do not share similar perspectives on religion. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Research on relationships between anxiety and depression has proceeded at a rapid pace since the 1980s. The similarities and differences between these two conditions, as well as many of the important features of the comorbidity of these disorders, are well understood. The genotypic structure of anxiety and depression is also fairly well documented. Generalized anxiety and ma-jor depression share a common genetic diathesis, but the anxiety disorders themselves are genetically hetergeneous. Sophisticated phenotypic models have also emerged, with data converging on an integrative hierarchical model of mood and anxiety disorders in which each individual syndrome contains both a common and a unique component. Finally, considerable progress has been made in understanding cognitive aspects of these disor-ders. This work has focused on both the cognitive content of anxiety and de-pression and on the effects that anxiety and depression have on information processing for mood-congruent material.
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Twice a week for up to 10 weeks, 103 participants provided measures of their daily self-concept clarity (SCC), mood (negative affect [NA] and positive affect [PA]), and self-esteem (SE), and they described the events that occurred each day. Multilevel random coefficient modeling analyses found that daily SCC covaried with daily positive and negative events, with daily NA, and with daily SE. None of these relationships was moderated by trait levels of SE, SCC, PA, NA, or measures of depressogenic self-concept, anxiety, or depressive symptoms. Analyses that simultaneously included SE, mood, and events suggested that relationships between daily SCC and daily events were mediated by daily NA and daily SE. Such mediation suggests that daily events lead to changes in mood and SE, which in turn lead to changes in SCC. Additional analyses found that temporal variability of SE, PA, NA, and SCC was negatively correlated with trait SCC.
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A conceptual and analytic framework for understanding relationships among traits, states, situations, and behaviours is presented. The framework assumes that such relationships can be understood in terms of four questions. (1) What are the relationships between trait and state level constructs, which include psychological states, the situations people experience and behaviour? (2) What are the relationships between psychological states, between states and situations and between states and behaviours? (3) How do such state level relationships vary as a function of trait level individual differences? (4) How do the relationships that are the focus of questions 1, 2, and 3 change across time? This article describes how to use multilevel random coefficient modelling (MRCM) to examine such relationships. The framework can accommodate different definitions of traits and dispositions (Allportian, processing styles, profiles, etc.) and different ways of conceptualising relationships between states and traits (aggregationist, interactionist, etc.). Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Multilevel modeling is a technique that has numerous potential applications for social and personality psychology. To help realize this potential, this article provides an introduction to multilevel modeling with an emphasis on some of its applications in social and personality psychology. This introduction includes a description of multilevel modeling, a rationale for this technique, and a discussion of applications of multilevel modeling in social and personality psychological research. Some of the subtleties of setting up multilevel analyses and interpreting results are presented, and software options are discussed.
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To investigate the relationship between purpose in life and depression and, in a five-year follow-up investigate whether purpose in life, adjusted for different background characteristics, can prevent very old men and women from developing depression. A cross-sectional study included 189 participants (120 women and 69 men) 85-103 years of age living in a county in northern Sweden. Those who had not been diagnosed as depressed at baseline were included in the five-year follow-up study (n = 78). Depression was assessed using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15, the Organic Brain Syndrome scale, the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Purpose in life was assessed with the Purpose in Life (PIL) scale. In the cross-sectional study, 40 participants out of 189 (21.2%) were depressed, and those with depression had significantly lower PIL scores (mean score 107 vs. 99, p = 0.014). In the follow-up study, 78 persons were available for the assessment of depression. Of those, 21 (26.9%) were diagnosed as depressed and their mean PIL score at baseline was 106 (SD = 17.4) versus 108 (SD = 16.0, p = 0.750) among those not depressed. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for possible confounders, we found no association between purpose in life and the risk of developing depression after five years (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.97-1.03). The results show a significant inverse relationship between purpose in life and depression in the cross-sectional study; however, a high PIL score does not seem to serve very old people as a protection against the risk of developing depression.
Article
Three experience-sampling studies explored the distributions of Big-Five-relevant states (behavior) across 2 to 3 weeks of everyday life. Within-person variability was high, such that the typical individual regularly and routinely manifested nearly all levels of all traits in his or her everyday behavior. Second, individual differences in central tendencies of behavioral distributions were almost perfectly stable. Third, amount of behavioral variability (and skew and kurtosis) were revealed as stable individual differences. Finally, amount of within-person variability in extraversion was shown to reflect individual differences in reactivity to extraversion-relevant situational cues. Thus, decontextualized and noncontingent Big-Five content is highly useful for descriptions of individuals' density distributions as wholes. Simultaneously, contextualized and contingent personality units (e.g., conditional traits, goals) are needed for describing the considerable within-person variation.
Article
Two studies used the self-concordance model of healthy goal striving (K. M. Sheldon & A. J. Elliot, 1999) to examine the motivational processes by which people can increase their level of well-being during a period of time and then maintain the gain or perhaps increase it even further during the next period of time. In Study I, entering freshmen with self-concordant motivation better attained their 1st-semester goals, which in turn predicted increased adjustment and greater self-concordance for the next semester's goals. Increased self-concordance in turn predicted even better goal attainment during the 2nd semester, which led to further increases in adjustment and to higher levels of ego development by the end of the year. Study 2 replicated the basic model in a 2-week study of short-term goals set in the laboratory. Limits of the model and implications for the question of how (and whether) happiness may be increased are discussed.
Article
The present article includes separate meta-analyses showing that self-concordance and implementation intentions are significantly positively associated with goal progress. Study 1 confirmed the positive relations of both self-concordance and implementation intentions to weekend goal progress. Study 2 confirmed the positive relation of self-concordance with monthly progress on New Year's resolutions but failed to find a direct benefit for implementation intentions. Both studies, however, obtained a significant interaction effect indicating that goal self-concordance and implementation intentions combined synergistically to facilitate goal progress. The article also reports a meta-analysis and results from the 2 studies that demonstrated that goal progress was associated with improved affect over time.
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In this chapter, it is argued that meaning in life is an important variable for human well-being. Literature supporting this contention is reviewed, and complexities regarding defining meaning in life are discussed. Definitions of meaning have focused on several components, two of which appear central and unique to meaning in life, suggesting a conceptual framework of meaning in life comprised of two pillars: comprehension and purpose. Comprehension encompasses people's ability to find patterns, consistency, and significance in the many events and experiences in their lives, and their synthesis and distillation of the most salient, important, and motivating factors. People face the challenge of understanding their selves, the world around them, and their unique niche and interactions within the world, and the notion of comprehension unifies these domains of understanding. Purpose refers to highly motivating, long-term goals about which people are passionate and highly committed. In the framework presented in this chapter, it is suggested that people devote significant resources to the pursuit of their purposes and that the most effective and rewarding purposes arise from and are congruent with people's comprehension of their lives. Literature is reviewed regarding where meaning might come from, and other dimensions of meaning are considered (i.e., sources of meaning and search for meaning). Suggestions for future research are proposed.
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Different kinds of motivational orientations provide distinctive ways of perceiving the world, dealing with life's inevitable slings and arrows, regulating challenges and opportunities, and creating success. In this chapter, we explore these differences in the two motivational systems outlined in regulatory focus theory: the promotion and prevention systems (Higgins, 1997). In particular, we discuss these systems in terms of the trade-offs in each; what are the benefits and costs of a strong promotion focus? What are the advantages and drawbacks of a strong prevention focus? We explore the trade-offs of each system with regard to three significant aspects of selfregulation and motivation: emotional experiences, the balance between commitment versus exploration, and performance. We conclude by discussing the importance of constraints on these systems for effective selfregulation and by suggesting avenues for future research.
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Joint effects of daily events and dispositional sensitivities to cues of reward and punishment on daily positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) were examined in 3 diary studies. Study 1 showed that positive events were strongly related to PA but not NA, whereas negative events were strongly related to NA but not PA. Studies 2 and 3 examined how the dispositional sensitivities of independent appetitive and aversive motivational systems, the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) and the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), moderated these relationships. Participants in Study 2 with higher BAS sensitivity reported more PA on average; those with more sensitive BIS reported more NA. Also, BIS moderated reactions to negative events, such that higher BIS sensitivity magnified reactions to negative events. Study 3 replicated these findings and showed that BAS predisposed people to experience more positive events. Results demonstrate the value of distinguishing within-person and between-person effects to clarify the functionally independent processes by which dispositional sensitivities influence affect.
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Five studies tested hypotheses derived from the sociometer model of self-esteem according to which the self-esteem system monitors others' reactions and alerts the individual to the possibility of social exclusion. Study 1 showed that the effects of events on participants' state self-esteem paralleled their assumptions about whether such events would lead others to accept or reject them. In Study 2, participants' ratings of how included they felt in a real social situation correlated highly with their self-esteem feelings. In Studies 3 and 4, social exclusion caused decreases in self-esteem when respondents were excluded from a group for personal reasons, but not when exclusion was random, but this effect was not mediated by self-presentation. Study 5 showed that trait self-esteem correlated highly with the degree to which respondents generally felt included versus excluded by other people. Overall, results provided converging evidence for the sociometer model.
Chapter
Although several explanations of social anxiety exist, most of them emphasize one of three sets of antecedents: biological mechanisms involving temperamental, genetic, psychophysiological, and evolutionary factors; cognitive patterns in how people think about themselves and their social worlds; and interpersonal processes that occur in the context of social interaction. The approach of this chapter is decidedly social psychological in that it traces social anxiety to concerns that arise in the context of real, anticipated, and imagined interpersonal interactions. The chapter describes a refinement and extension of the self-presentational theory of social anxiety, a perspective that explains people's nervousness in social encounters in terms of their concerns about other people's perceptions of them. Although the self-presentation theory has fared well under the spotlight of empirical research, theoretical developments shed additional light on the self-presentational nature of social anxiety and provide a bridge by which one's understanding of social anxiety may be linked to other phenomena involving interpersonal motives, social emotions, and the self. These theoretical refinements do not contradict or refute self-presentation theory but rather take it to a deeper level, demonstrating precisely why it is that people worry so much about what other people think of them.
Book
An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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Over the past few years, there has been a proliferation of theoretical discussions and empirical research on the use of acceptance and mindfulness-based therapies to treat anxiety disorders. Because these treatment approaches are in their infancy, many clinicians may still be uncertain about how to apply such treatments in their work with clients. This case study demonstrates the successful use of an acceptance-based approach for the treatment of social anxiety disorder in a student in a college counseling center.
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This study investigates how daily fluctuations in job resources (autonomy, coaching, and team climate) are related to employees' levels of personal resources (self-efficacy, self- esteem, and optimism), work engagement, and financial returns. Forty-two employees working in three branches of a fast-food company completed a questionnaire and a diary booklet over 5 consecutive workdays. Consistent with hypotheses, multi-level analyses revealed that day-level job resources had an effect on work engagement through day-level personal resources, after controlling for general levels of personal resources and engagement. Day-level coaching had a direct positive relationship with day-level work engagement, which, in-turn, predicted daily financial returns. Additionally, previous days' coaching had a positive, lagged effect on next days' work engagement (through next days' optimism), and on next days' financial returns. Why do some employees perform at high levels, whereas others perform at minimum levels of acceptance? And why do those who generally perform well have off-days? The first question reflects between-person differences in explaining job performance, whereas the second question encapsulates the issue of within-person fluctuations. Theoreticalmodelsandempiricalstudiesconcerningbetween-persondifferencesmainly examine how employees' traits or general tendencies determine their performance (Cropanzano & Wright, 2001). In contrast, scholars who study within-person variations focus on the role of momentary states (Beal, Weiss, Barros, & MacDermid, 2005). An integrated framework that incorporates general and state capacities is needed to comprehend organizational behaviour (Luthans & Youssef, 2007). The central aim of the
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Even when goals are self-generated, they may not feel truly "personal," that is, autonomous and self-integrated. In three studies (one concurrent and two prospective), we found that the autonomy of personal goals predicted goal attainment. In contrast, the strength of "controlled" motivation did not predict attainment. Studies 2 and 3 validated a mediational model in which autonomy led to attainment because it promoted sustained effort investment. In Study 3, the Goal Attainment Scaling methodology was used to provide a more objective measure of goal attainment, and additional analyses were performed to rule out expectancy, value, and expectancy x value explanations of the autonomy-to-attainment effects. Results are discussed in terms of contemporary models of volition and self-regulation.
Article
Although goal theorists have speculated about the causes and consequences of making progress at personal goals, little longitudinal research has examined these issues. In the current prospective study, participants with stronger social and self-regulatory skills made more progress in their goals over the course of a semester. In turn, goal progress predicted increases in psychological well-being, both in short-term (5-day) increments and across the whole semester; At both short- and long-term levels of analysis, however, the amount that well-being increased depended on the "organismic congruence" of participants' goals. That is, participants benefited most from goal attainment when the goals that they pursued were consistent with inherent psychological needs. We conclude that a fuller understanding of the relations between goals, performance, and psychological well-being requires recourse to both cybernetic and organismic theories of motivation.
Article
The present research comprises two studies designed to investigate both antecedents and consequences of pursuing avoidance (relative to approach) personal goals over the course of a semester-long period. Results revealed that neuroticism was positively related to the adoption of avoidance personal strivings (Study 1), and participants with low perceptions of their life skills were more likely to adopt avoidance personal projects (Study 2). Avoidance regulation proved deleterious to both retrospective and longitudinal subjective well-being (SWB), as participants with a greater proportion of avoidance goals reported lower SWB over the course of the semester and evidenced a decrease in SWB from the beginning to the end of the semester. Ancillary analyses attested to the robustness of these results across a variety of alternative predictor variables. Path analyses validated perceived progress as a mediator of the direct relationships observed.
Article
The development and validation of the Social Phobia Scale (SPS) and the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) two companion measures for assessing social phobia fears is described. The SPS assesses fears of being scrutinised during routine activities (eating, drinking, writing, etc.), while the SIAS assesses fears of more general social interaction, the scales corresponding to the DSM-III-R descriptions of Social Phobia—Circumscribed and Generalised types, respectively. Both scales were shown to possess high levels of internal consistency and test–retest reliability. They discriminated between social phobia, agoraphobia and simple phobia samples, and between social phobia and normal samples. The scales correlated well with established measures of social anxiety, but were found to have low or non-significant (partial) correlations with established measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, locus of control, and social desirability. The scales were found to change with treatment and to remain stable in the face of no-treatment. It appears that these scales are valid, useful, and easily scored measures for clinical and research applications, and that they represent an improvement over existing measures of social phobia.
Article
This study examined the differences between 2 types of workaholics (enthusiastic and nonenthusiastic workaholics) and nonworkaholic workers (work enthusiasts, relaxed workers, unengaged workers, and disenchanted workers) with respect to work–life conflict, life satisfaction, and purpose in life in a sample of 171 salaried employees of a high technology organization. Results differed for the 2 types of workaholics, supporting the importance of continued differentiation of workaholic types. Nonenthusiastic workaholics were found to have significantly more work–life conflict and significantly less life satisfaction and purpose in life than 3 of the 4 types of nonworkaholics. Enthusiastic workaholics were found to have significantly more life satisfaction and purpose in life than nonenthusiastic workaholics and significantly more work–life conflict than 3 of the 4 nonworkaholics. Implications for career planning and counseling are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This research investigated the relationship between clients' pursuit of avoidance (relative to approach) therapy goals and change in subjective well-being (SWB) from the beginning to the end of therapy. Results indicated that clients with more avoidance therapy goals evidenced a smaller increase in SWB over the course of therapy than those with fewer avoidance goals. Mediational analyses indicated that avoidance therapy goals predicted lower therapist satisfaction, lower therapist satisfaction predicted lower perceptions of therapy effectiveness (perceived problem improvement and perceived goal progress), and these lower perceptions of therapy effectiveness proximally predicted the observed change in SWB. Ancillary analyses linked the adoption of avoidance therapy goals to early parental loss through separation/divorce or death. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reigning measures of psychological well-being have little theoretical grounding, despite an extensive literature on the contours of positive functioning. Aspects of well-being derived from this literature (i.e., self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth) were operationalized. Three hundred and twenty-one men and women, divided among young, middle-aged, and older adults, rated themselves on these measures along with six instruments prominent in earlier studies (i.e., affect balance, life satisfaction, self-esteem, morale, locus of control, depression). Results revealed that positive relations with others, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth were not strongly tied to prior assessment indexes, thereby supporting the claim that key aspects of positive functioning have not been represented in the empirical arena. Furthermore, age profiles revealed a more differentiated pattern of well-being than is evident in prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
existential psychotherapy is not a specific technical approach that presents a new set of rules for therapy / it asks deep questions about the nature of anxiety, despair, grief, loneliness, isolation, and anomie / it also deals centrally with the questions of creativity and love overview / basic concepts / the "I-Am" experience / normal and neurotic anxiety / guilt and guilt feelings / the three forms of world / the significance of time / our human capacity to transcend the immediate situation other systems / behaviorism / orthodox Freudianism / the interpersonal school of psychotherapy / Jungian psychology / client-centered approach history / current status / theory of personality / the Freudian model of psychodynamics / the interpersonal (neo-Freudian) model of psychodynamics / existential psychodynamics / death / freedom / isolation / meaninglessness variety of concepts / specialness / the belief in the existence of an ultimate rescuer / theory of psychotherapy / process of psychotherapy / mechanisms of psychotherapy / death and psychotherapy / death as a boundary situation / death as a primary source of anxiety / existential isolation and psychotherapy / meaninglessness and psychotherapy applications / problems / evaluation / treatment / management / case example existential therapy is concerned with the "I Am" (being) experience, the culture (world) in which a patient lives, the significance of time, and the aspect of consciousness called transcendence (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined relations between characteristics of personal goal strivings (e.g., importance, past attainment, effort) and components of subjective well-being (positive and negative affect and life satisfaction). 40 undergraduates generated lists of their personal strivings and rated each striving on a series of dimensions. Ss also recorded their moods and thoughts by use of an experience-sampling method on 84 occasions over a 3-wk period. Positive affect was found to be most strongly related to striving value and past fulfillment, whereas negative affect was associated with low probability of future success, striving ambivalence, and between-striving conflict. Striving importance and instrumentality (low conflict) were the strongest predictors of life satisfaction. Possible explanations for the connections between striving fulfillment and positive affect and between striving conflict and negative affect are discussed. It is concluded that the concept of personal striving is a useful heuristic device for understanding individual differences in subjective well-being. The concept is proposed as an alternative to the traditional trait approach to personality. (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Prior research suggests that spirituality is positively related to well-being. Nevertheless, within-person variability in spirituality has yet to be addressed. Do people experience greater spirituality on some days versus others? Does daily spirituality predict daily well-being? Do within-person relationships between spirituality and well-being vary as a function of trait spirituality? The authors examined such questions using a daily diary study with 87 participants who provided reports of their daily spirituality and well-being for a total of 1,239 days. They found that daily spirituality was positively related to meaning in life, self-esteem, and positive affect, and the link from daily spirituality to both self-esteem and positive affect was fully mediated by meaning in life. Moreover, within-person relationships between daily spirituality and self-esteem and meaning in life were stronger for people higher in trait spirituality. Lagged analyses found positive relationships between present day spirituality and next day's meaning in life; there was no evidence for meaning in life as a predictor of the next day's spirituality. When focusing on affect, for people higher in trait spirituality, greater negative affect (and lower positive affect) predicted greater spirituality the next day. These results provide new insights into how spirituality operates as a fluctuating experience in daily life.
Article
This study focused on daily job crafting and explored its contextual determinants and one motivational outcome (i.e., work engagement). Job crafting was conceptualized as “seeking resources,” “seeking challenges,” and “reducing demands.” Participants were 95 employees from several organizations who completed a 5-day diary survey. As hypothesized, we found a 3-factor structure for the job crafting instrument, both at the general and day levels. We hypothesized and found that the combination of high day-level work pressure and high day-level autonomy (active jobs) was associated with higher day-level seeking resources and lower day-level reducing demands. Furthermore, we found that day-level seeking challenges (but not resources) was positively associated with day-level work engagement, whereas day-level reducing demands was negatively associated with day-level work engagement. Findings suggest that job crafting is a daily employee behavior with implications for management practice and future research. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Purpose-a cognitive process that defines life goals and provides personal meaning-may help explain disparate empirical social science findings. Devoting effort and making progress toward life goals provides a significant, renewable source of engagement and meaning. Purpose offers a testable, causal system that synthesizes outcomes including life expectancy, satisfaction, and mental and physical health. These outcomes may be explained best by considering the motivation of the individual-a motivation that comes from having a purpose. We provide a detailed definition with specific hypotheses derived from a synthesis of relevant findings from social, behavioral, biological, and cognitive literatures. To illustrate the uniqueness of the purpose model, we compared purpose with competing contemporary models that offer similar predictions. Addressing the structural features unique to purpose opens opportunities to build upon existing causal models of "how and why" health and well-being develop and change over time.
Article
Research suggests that social anxiety is associated with a reduced approach orientation for positive social cues. In the current study we examined the effect of experimentally manipulating automatic approach action tendencies on the social behavior of individuals with elevated social anxiety symptoms. The experimental paradigm comprised a computerized Approach Avoidance Task (AAT) in which participants responded to pictures of faces conveying positive or neutral emotional expressions by pulling a joystick toward themselves (approach) or by moving it to the right (sideways control). Participants were randomly assigned to complete an AAT designed to increase approach tendencies for positive social cues by pulling these cues toward themselves on the majority of trials, or to a control condition in which there was no contingency between the arm movement direction and picture type. Following the manipulation, participants took part in a relationship-building task with a trained confederate. Results revealed that participants trained to approach positive stimuli displayed greater social approach behaviors during the social interaction and elicited more positive reactions from their partner compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that modifying automatic approach tendencies may facilitate engagement in the types of social approach behaviors that are important for relationship development.
Article
This study examined the role of purpose in life and satisfaction with life in protecting against suicide ideation in a clinical psychiatric sample. Forty-nine psychiatric patients completed self-report measures of suicide ideation, purpose in life, satisfaction with life, neuroticism, depression, and social hopelessness. Zero-order correlations indicated significant associations between suicide ideation and the various predictors, in the hypothesized directions. Regression analyses illustrated that purpose in life and satisfaction with life accounted for significant additional variability in suicide ideation scores above and beyond that accounted for by the negative psychological factors alone. Purpose in life also mediated the relation between satisfaction with life and suicide ideation and moderated the relation between depression and suicide ideation. These findings demonstrate the potential value of attending to both resilience and pathology when building predictive models of suicide ideation and of attending to key existential themes when assessing and treating suicidal individuals.
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Different orientations to happiness and their association with life satisfaction were investigated with 845 adults responding to Internet surveys. We measured life satisfaction and the endorsement of three different ways to be happy through pleasure, through engagement, and through meaning. Each of these three orientations individually predicted life satisfaction. People simultaneously low on all three orientations reported especially low life satisfaction. These findings point the way toward a distinction between the full life and the empty life.
Article
This study examined curiosity as a mechanism for achieving and maintaining high levels of well-being and meaning in life. Of primary interest was whether people high in trait curiosity derive greater well-being on days when they are more curious. We also tested whether trait and daily curiosity led to greater, sustainable well-being. Predictions were tested using trait measures and 21 daily diary reports from 97 college students. We found that on days when they are more curious, people high in trait curiosity reported more frequent growth-oriented behaviors, and greater presence of meaning, search for meaning, and life satisfaction. Greater trait curiosity and greater curiosity on a given day also predicted greater persistence of meaning in life from one day into the next. People with greater trait curiosity reported more frequent hedonistic events but they were associated with less pleasure compared to the experiences of people with less trait curiosity. The benefits of hedonistic events did not last beyond the day of their occurrence. As evidence of construct specificity, curiosity effects were not attributable to Big Five personality traits or daily positive or negative mood. Our results provide support for curiosity as an ingredient in the development of well-being and meaning in life. The pattern of findings casts doubt on some distinctions drawn between eudaimonia and hedonic well-being traditions.
Article
Approach motivation is the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior toward, positive stimuli (objects, events, possibilities), whereas avoidance motivation is the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior away from, negative stimuli (objects, events, possibilities). In this article, I provide a brief overview of this distinction between approach and avoidance motivation. In addition, I provide a brief overview of a model of motivation in which this approach-avoidance distinction plays an integral role—the hierarchical model of approach-avoidance motivation.
Article
Eudaimonic theories of well-being assert the importance of achieving one’s full potential through engaging in inherently meaningful endeavors. In two daily diary studies, we assessed whether reports of engagement in behaviors representative of eudaimonic theories were associated with well-being. We also examined whether eudaimonic behaviors were more strongly related to well-being than behaviors directed toward obtaining pleasure or material goods. In both studies, eudaimonic behaviors had consistently stronger relations to well-being than hedonic behaviors. Data also provided support for a temporal sequence in which eudaimonic behaviors were related to greater well-being the next day. Overall, our results suggest that “doing good” may be an important avenue by which people create meaningful and satisfying lives.
Article
Meaning in life is an important construct for psychological theory which has received little empirical investigation, partly because of uncertainty about measurement scales. This paper examines the factor structure of three scales to measure meaning in life, the purpose in life (PIL) test, the life regard index (LRI) and the sense of coherence (SOC) scale. Results suggest that meaning in life can be regarded as a multidimensional construct, with meaning able to be attained in several different ways. Oblique factor solutions were accepted, and higher-order analyses conducted for all three scales. A general second-order meaning in life dimension was identified only for PIL and it is suggested that this scale may be the best general measure of the construct. It is concluded that further work should be undertaken to explore the specific dimensions of meaning in life.