Unique Factors that Place Older Hispanic Women at Risk for HIV: Intimate Partner Violence, Machismo, and Marianismo
Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention.
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- "It is possible for the experience of intimate partner violence with regard to the older woman to be accompanied by risk behaviour and the taking up of toxic habits such as an increase in the consumption of alcohol, and especially an increase in the consumption of prescription and non-prescription medicines and an increase in the consumption of tobacco (Lazenbatt et al., 2013; Stockl et al., 2012). Particularly serious are cases of behaviour associated with the risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), as reported by some of the reviewed papers (Cianelli et al, 2013; Richards et al., 2013). With regard to alcohol consumption as a risk behaviour associated with the aggressor, some studies reference this as a possible predictor of the risk of violence (Ajdukovic et al., 2010; Liles et al., 2012). "
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ABSTRACT: Violence in general, including that directed towards older people, constitutes a public health problem. Through a systematic review of the literature, an analysis is undertaken of this problem, including gender as an additional risk factor. The last five years have seen a noticeable increase in the attention paid by professionals and researchers to gender-based violence directed towards the older woman. As a consequence of under-reporting on the part of the victims, and of the difficulty of detection on that of professionals, the statistical data would appear not to reflect the scale of the problem accurately.
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