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New species of Palaeontinidae (Insecta: Cicadomorpha) from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of Brazil

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Abstract

Two new Palaeontinidae (Insecta: Cicadomorpha), Baeocossus fortunatus n. sp. and Colossocossus bechlyi n. sp. are described from the Lower Cretaceous (Aptian/Albian) Nova Olinda Member of the Crato Formation, Northeast Brazil. The diagnoses of the genera Baeocossus MENON, HEADS & MARTILL, and Colossocossus MENON, HEADS & MARTILL are revised and their phylogenetic relationships summarized. Colossocossus bechlyi n. sp. appears to be the most basal member of the genus as it retains the plesiomorphic condition of a distally situated M-Cu fork in the forewing. Zusammenfassung Zwei neue Palaeontinidae (Insecta: Cicadomorpha), Baeocossus fortunatus n. sp. und Colossocossus bechlyi n. sp. werden aus der unteren Kreide (Aptium/Albium, Crato Formation) von Nordost-Brasilien beschrieben. Die Diagnosen der Gattungen Baeocossus MENON, HEADS & MARTILL und Colossocossus MENON, HEADS & MARTILL werden überarbeitet und ihre phylogenetische Verwandtschaft dargestellt. Colossocossus bechlyi n. sp. ist der ursprüng-lichste Vertreter der Gattung, da er eine distal der Flügelbasis gelegene M-Cu-Gabelung auf-weist.

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... Therefore, an exhaustive reinvestigation and modern reinterpretation of their phylogenetic relationship and evolutionary significance is announced in the present work. Recently, some Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous palaeontinids from China and Brazil provided some new insights into important morphological structures and the evolution of Palaeontinidae (Menon, Heads & Martill, 2005; Wang, Ren & Shih, 2007; Wang, Zhang & Szwedo, 2009). These advancements paved the way for the present study of Solnhofen Palaeontinidae. ...
... Brazilian Palaeontinidae also preserve some longitudinal mesonotal carinae (Menon & Heads, 2005, fig. 1B; Menon, Heads & Martill, 2005,fig. 5a). ...
... In the hindwing, veins Sc and RA 1 terminate in the anterior margin basal and distal of the wing-coupling lobe, respectively, to strengthen the structure of wing-coupling lobe as well. The connection between the hindwing and the forewing can also be observed in some palaeontinids which retain the original buoyant position (Fig. 7d; Menon, Heads & Martill, 2005). The cicada-like coupling apparatus was probably present in all palaeontinids. ...
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The Palaeontinidae (Insecta: Cicadomorpha) from the Upper Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone of Bavaria are revised. The diagnostic characters for three monotypic genera Eocicada Oppenheim, 1888, Prolystra Oppenheim, 1888 and Archipsyche Handlirsch, 1906 are reassessed based on newly discovered material. Beloptesis gigantea (Weyenbergh, 1874), B. oppenheimi Handlirsch, 1906, Limacodites mesozoicus Handlirsch, 1906, and Protopsyche braueri Handlirsch, 1906 are considered to be junior synonyms of Prolystra lithographica Oppenheim, 1888. Eocicada lameerei Handlirsch, 1908 is a junior synonym of E. microcephala Oppenheim, 1888. A key to the species of Solnhofen Palaeontinidae is presented. Solnhofen Palaeontinidae and most Cretaceous Palaeontinidae most probably form a monophyletic group based on the following characters: costal area narrow, vein RA branching from stem R basally, vein ScP not fused with vein RA, clavus much reduced and hindwing smaller. Furthermore, Solnhofen Palaeontinidae are probably basal to Cretaceous Palaeontinidae by the mesonotum lacking distinct longitudinal carinae. A fast succession from early to more derived Palaeontinidae took place during Late Jurassic times. Early Palaeontinidae declined sharply in the Late Jurassic, probably owing to the rise of newly evolved insectivorous animals like early birds and mammals. Late Palaeontinidae with better flight ability survived and became a dominant insect group during latest Jurassic times.
... So far, nine species within five genera have been reported from the Lower Cretaceous of northern China (Hong, 1982, 1984; Ren, 1995; Ren et al., 1998), but some of them require detailed descriptions and revisions (Zhang, 1997; Menon et al., 2005). Very recently, besides some Jurassic palaeontinids (Wang et al., 2006aec), several new Cretaceous materials have also been discovered from Inner Mongolia, Liaoning and Hebei in China (Fig. 1) and most of them, in a good preservation , can be assigned to known species. ...
... Ilerdocossus fengningensis (Ren et al., 1998) Menon et al., 2005 Figs. 2, 5A 1998 Liaocossus fengningensis: Ren et al., pp. 226e227, figs. ...
... Liaoning and Inner Mongolia of China (Ren, 1995; Ren et al., 1998; Menon et al., 2005; this study). These typical Cretaceous palaeontinids have never been discovered from the Daohugou deposits, implying that the Daohugou biota is older than the Jehol biota. ...
Article
Cretaceous records of Palaeontinidae from China are discussed and summarized on the basis of newly-discovered materials from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Inner Mongolia, Liaoning and Hebei. The diagnostic characters for Ilerdocossus, I. fengningensis, Yanocossus and Miracossus are revised. A new species, I. ningchengensis sp. nov., is described from the Yixian Formation of Inner Mongolia. The key to the recognized species of Cretaceous Palaeontinidae from China is presented.Yanocossus and Miracossus probably form a monophyletic group, which is the sister group of the “Ilerdocossus-complex”. Cretaceous palaeontinids except for Pachypsyche, Montsecocossus and Cicadomorpha probably form a monophyletic group. The extinction of Palaeontinidae in latest Early Cretaceous time probably resulted from the rise of primitive birds and mammals and the displacement of palaeontinid host-plants.
... Palaeontinoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) is an extinct superfamily of hemipteran insects, comprising three families (i.e., Dunstaniidae Tillyard, 1916, Mesogereonidae Tillyard, 1921, and Palaeontinidae Handlirsch, 1906. Palaeontinidae are Mesozoic cicadomorphan hoppers, superficially resembling huge moths, which existed from the Triassic (Carnian) to the Cretaceous (Aptian), distributed in Europe, Central Asia, South Africa, China, South Korea, and Australia, especially in the Northern Hemisphere (Riek, 1976;Shcherba- kov and Popov, 2002;Menon et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2007;Nam et al., 2017;Szwedo, 2018;Chen et al., 2019;Li et al., 2019). The striking features of Palaeontinidae are the presence of a large body covered with numerous hairs; a small head with an extremely long rostrum reaching the end of the abdomen, which is suitable for sucking juice from a macrophyte; a wide pronotum and mesonotum; broad wings armed with dark bands to avoid predators; and a fully developed nodal line on the forewing, similar to that of tettigarctids (Carpenter, 1992;Chen et al., 2016;Nam et al., 2017). ...
... The striking features of Palaeontinidae are the presence of a large body covered with numerous hairs; a small head with an extremely long rostrum reaching the end of the abdomen, which is suitable for sucking juice from a macrophyte; a wide pronotum and mesonotum; broad wings armed with dark bands to avoid predators; and a fully developed nodal line on the forewing, similar to that of tettigarctids (Carpenter, 1992;Chen et al., 2016;Nam et al., 2017). Palaeontinids flourished during the Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous and became extinct in the middle Cretaceous, likely owing to the food crisis and emergence of various insectivorous mammals and birds in the Early Cretaceous ( Menon et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2008). ...
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Cicadomorpha guancaishanensis new species, of the extinct family Palaeontinidae, is described from the Upper Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation at Guancaishan, Jianping County, Western Liaoning, northeastern China. It represents the first record of Palaeontinidae from the Tiaojishan Formation and highlights the palaeodiversity of the Late Jurassic palaeontinids. Cicadomorpha Martynov, 1926 previously included three species with extremely limited morphological differences from the Karabastau Formation of Kazakhstan, the Glushkovo Formation, and the Ukurei Formation of Chita, Transbaikalia, and Russia, indicating a correlated stratigraphic relationship. This discovery provides new evidence that closure of the Okhotsk Ocean began in the Middle Jurassic. Thus, there is no distinct geographical barrier between the southern and northern areas of Mongolia-Okhotsk Ocean in the Late Jurassic. UUID: http://zoobank.org/64531de4-070c-43d4-ae01-106d4338027b .
... Palaeontinidae Handlirsch, 1906 is an extinct family of hemipterous insects from the Triassic to Cretaceous in Australia, Eurasia, Africa and South America (Tillyard, 1921; Becker-Migdisova, 1949; Evans, 1956; Becker-Migdisova and Wootton, 1965; Riek, 1976; Hong, 1982, 1983, 1986; Whalley and Jarzembowski, 1985; Carpenter, 1992; Lin, 1992; Ren et al., 1995, 1998; Ueda, 1996; Zhang, 1997; Shcherbakov and Popov, 2002; Sukacheva and Rasnitsyn, 2004; Menon et al., 2005). Its distribution is close to that of the Ginkgoales (Zherikhin, 2002). ...
... Considering that the nomenclature espoused by Becker-Migdisova (1949) has been used in most of the literature about palaeontinids and in order to avoid taxonomic confusion, the venational terms by Emeljanov (1977) and Dworakowska (1988) are listed here followed by their corresponding ones by Becker-Migdisova (1949) in the parentheses if any differences are present between the two terminologies: RA1 (R1), the first branch of anterior radial vein; RA2 (R2), the second branch of anterior radial vein; RP (RS), posterior radial vein; PCu (A1), postcubital vein; A1 (A2), the first branch of the anal vein; A2 (A3), the second branch of the anal vein. The term " basal medial cell " (sensu Becker-Migdisova, 1949) is replaced with " discal cell " defined by Menon et al. (2005). The venation patterns and vein widths were drawn with a stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ1000) and camera lucida, and then readjusted on photographs using imageediting software ( ...
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United Kingdom E-mail: federica.menon@postgrad.manchester.ac
  • Federica Menon
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FEDERICA MENON, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom E-mail: federica.menon@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk SAM W. HEADS, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL, United Kingdom E-mail: sam.heads@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk Manuscript received: 23.5.2005, accepted: 6.9.2005
New cicadas (Cicadina) from the later Mesozoic of Transbaikalia
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