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Technologie de la pierre taillée

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... El análisis tecnológico se orientó a conocer las cadenas operativas de producción sobre las ortocuarcitas GSB y las ftanitas (Balfet, 1991;Pelegrin, 1991;Inizan et al., 1995;Turq, 2000, entre otros). Se identificaron los principales métodos de débitage involucrados en la reducción de los núcleos, las técnicas de talla empleadas y la presencia de operaciones de façonnage y retoque (Boëda, 1993(Boëda, , 2000Inizan et al., 1995;Pelegrin, 1995;Marchand, 1999, entre otros). ...
... El análisis tecnológico se orientó a conocer las cadenas operativas de producción sobre las ortocuarcitas GSB y las ftanitas (Balfet, 1991;Pelegrin, 1991;Inizan et al., 1995;Turq, 2000, entre otros). Se identificaron los principales métodos de débitage involucrados en la reducción de los núcleos, las técnicas de talla empleadas y la presencia de operaciones de façonnage y retoque (Boëda, 1993(Boëda, , 2000Inizan et al., 1995;Pelegrin, 1995;Marchand, 1999, entre otros). Mientras que el débitage es la acción de fraccionar las rocas con el fin de obtener soportes por medio de la percusión o presión, el façonnage hace referencia a una sucesión de operaciones de talla cuyo objetivo es crear un artefacto con una morfología específica. ...
... Mientras que el débitage es la acción de fraccionar las rocas con el fin de obtener soportes por medio de la percusión o presión, el façonnage hace referencia a una sucesión de operaciones de talla cuyo objetivo es crear un artefacto con una morfología específica. A diferencia del débitage, no tiene como finalidad generar formas base (Inizan et al., 1995;Boëda, 1997;Marchand, 1999). El retoque, finalmente, abarca los lascados obtenidos por percusión o presión con el objetivo de terminar un instrumento, realizar y/o reactivar un filo (Inizan et al., 1995). ...
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A lo largo del presente artículo se exponen los resultados del estudio tecnomorfológico y tecnológico del conjunto lítico de la localidad arqueológica Laguna Giaccone (partido de Lincoln, Buenos Aires). La muestra analizada da cuenta de una explotación mayoritaria de ortocuarcitas del Grupo Sierras Bayas y ftanitas, ambas procedentes de las sierras de Tandilia. Se observó la existencia de un esquema operativo orientado a la optimización de las rocas. Esto se llevó a cabo a partir de métodos de débitage centrípeto y unipolar que permitieron la producción de soportes óptimos para confeccionar una amplia variedad de instrumentos, entre los que se destacan aquellos artefactos que poseen filos correspondientes a diferentes grupos tipológicos. Sumado a ello, se identificó el empleo de la reducción bipolar para un mejor aprove-chamiento de los nódulos. De esta manera, se amplió el conocimiento acerca de las actividades realizadas en sitios considerados bases residenciales, así como de las estrategias tecnológicas vinculadas con la obtención y la talla de los recursos líticos llevadas a cabo por los cazadores-recolectores que ocuparon el Campo de Dunas del Centro Pampeano durante el Holoceno tardío.
... This study was based on the concepts, methods and techniques proposed by established approaches of lithic technology investigation (Inizan et al., 1995), along with some other procedures borrowed from the techno-functional approach (Lepot, 1993;Soriano, 2000;Lourdeau, 2006;Boeda, 2014;Lucas, 2014) that helped in the tools' characterization. It is important to mention that this research does not intend to make a technofunctional analysis; it only takes important concepts from this approach in order to support the recognition of tools and to differentiate them from other categories. ...
... The analysis of the Jericoacoara 1 lithic industry aimed for the characterizations of the modes of production. The following technological aspects were observed: the raw material procurement (approvisionnement strategies); the forms of exploration (percussion and shaping); possibility of utilization (tool performance); and abandonment and recycling (Inizan et al., 1995). The notion of a transformative unit was taken from the techno-functional approach (Boeda, 1997(Boeda, , 2001(Boeda, , 2014Fogaça & Lourdeau, 2008) in order to perceive the implementation of a tool. ...
... In this investigation, the notion of method (or modes governing the lithic production) was considered as the management of sequential gestures leading to specific objectives, validated by culture and maintained by knowledge transferring systems adopted by these artisan societies (S. Viana et al., 2014;Inizan et al., 1995). The techniques are defined as the physical means used in artificial rock fractionation that create particularities within a method (S. ...
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The main goal of this study is to offer a preliminary characterization of the lithic industry of Jericoacoara 1, an Upper Holocene archaeological site located in the dune fields of the Jericoacoara National Park on the west coast of the state of Ceará. The present study analyzed 1,320 lithic artifacts collected in 2010 and 2017 after superficial surveys and three excavations conducted on two of the six areas of vestige dispersal composing the site. This industry’s investigation involved applying lithic technology principles, emphasizing the transformative unit tools. This approach made it possible to identify some variants of production by percussion and shaping, sometimes associated with the practice of retouching. The implementation of the transformative units of these tools indicates adaptations and recycling that could be related to specializations involving the activities of hunting, gathering, and fishing food resources in the coastal plain. This seems to be one of the characteristics of a polyvalent technological culture within an economic system.
... J'ai utilisé la méthode de la technologie lithique (Inizan et al. 1995), basée sur le concept de chaîne opératoire (voir Audouze 2002). Cette approche permet de définir quelles étaient les méthodes et techniques employées pour créer les outils qui étaient recherchés par les chasseurs-cueilleurs. Une première évaluation de l'assemblage lithique permet d'observer les caractéristiques générales des artefacts : leurs dimensions, les types reconnaissables, et les caractéristiques des nucléus. ...
... La catégorie des pièces à dos regroupe principalement les lames et lamelles à bords abattus. Il s'agit de supports allongés dont au moins l'un des bords est régularisé par une retouche abrupte ou semiabrupte (Inizan et al., 1995). Il ne semble pas y avoir de couteau à dos à proprement parler. ...
... Hence, the collection was reviewed in detail, evaluating the material macroscopically, and, when possible, microscopically. General guidelines were employed in this analysis (Andrefsky Jr., 2005;Bordes, 1981;De Sonneville-Bordes & Perrot, 1956;Inizan et al., 1995;Merino, 1994;Piel-Desruisseaux, 1989); as well as a survey of a great deal of specific literature, mainly resulting from middle-range research to understand prehistoric lithic technologies (Callahan, 1979;Nami, 1986; among others). Also considered were the different natural agents causing ambiguous stone objects, a topic that was crucial in this investigation (Ellen, 2011;Grayson, 1986;Raynal et al., 1995; among others). ...
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Between 1966 and 1972, Richard MacNeish led the “Ayacucho Archaeological-Botanical Project” in the Ayacucho Basin, south-central Peru. Over the last decade, we reappraised the lithics recovered in this endeavor. As part of this research, we carried out a detailed review of the lithic remains from the lowest strata of Pikimachay Cave. We concluded that the lithics from layers tentatively dated at about 14,000 uncalibrated yr BP are human-made artifacts, while those from the underlying levels are not. Because of the anthropic nature of the flaked artifacts, their stratigraphic position, chronology, and similarities with other likely coeval lithic assemblages, the Pikimachay record seems to be a good candidate for witnessing possible Paleoamerican foragers living in Ayacucho during the Late Pleistocene.
Chapter
The chaîne opératoire approach is concerned with reconstructing the different technical stages from raw material procurement through blank production, tool manufacture, use and recycling to discard by drawing on the entirety of a stone artefact assemblage. Thus, on the one hand, statements can be made about the chronological sequence and, on the other hand, about the spatial organisation of the operational sequence (chaîne opératoire). It is assumed that stone artefact manufacture emerges as a cognitive project, which is translated, on an intellectual level, into a conceptual schema, which is finally concretised through a series of activities, the operative schema. This chapter explains the research history as well as the methodological basis and concludes with examples of application.
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The Late Epipaleolithic period, also referred to as the Proto-Neolithic and dated back to the eleventh millennium BCE and early tenth millennium BCE, is closely linked with the communities located east of the Fertile Crescent that began to be settled during the Younger Dryas. This period, which started in the first half of the twentieth century and is defined by settlements in the northwestern Zagros region, has long been under the radar, but has been catching on again, especially since the 2000s, for the identification of a Younger Dryas layer found in settlements in the Upper Tigris Valley. The period in question has few architectural data for support and is represented by the chipped stone tool industry, which is thought to be observed in Zagros. It also appears that this period, which was primarily defined through its chipped stone tool industry, is no longer limited to the northwestern Zagros region, but also now includes the Upper Tigris Valley and the Eastern Jazeera (Eastern Fertile Crescent) region. The Younger Dryas layers, also found in the Çemka Höyük settlement during the 2019 excavations, shed new light on the chipped stone tool industry in the Upper Tigris Valley between the eleventh and tenth millennium BCE. The layers also contribute to redeliberating and redefining local and interregional relations.
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The Quina Mousterian is one of the well-defined Middle Paleolithic techno-complexes. Despite the pivotal research carried out in south-western France, the presence of this techno-complex across the rest of Europe is still poorly documented. Here we apply a techno-functional approach, combining technological and use-wear analyses, for reconstructing lithic core-reduction, tool-reduction, and tool use at De Nadale Cave, a single-layered Mousterian site with Quina features located in northern Italy and dated to the early MIS 4. Our results indicate that the flexible core reduction strategies identified at De Nadale show some similarities with the Quina knapping method, in addition to the adoption of centripetal methods on single surfaces. Variations of this scheme identified at De Nadale are the exploitation of lateral and narrow fronts which are aimed to the production of elongated, small blanks. A parallel, ramified reduction is applied to limace cores and Quina or demi-Quina scrapers having diversified purpose (mixed matrix). These blanks are exploited as tools and cores-on-flakes from which thinner, usable flakes or bladelets are detached. The use-wear identified on both scrapers and reaffutage flakes further confirm this behavior, demonstrating the use of both tools, albeit for different tasks (i.e., scraping and cutting). We discuss the ecological implications of this behavior within the Quina Mousterian. The high frequency of retouched tools and Quina or demi-Quina scrapers seems to accompany the highly mobile human groups associated with this techno complex and their seasonally organized subsistence strategies. Finally, by combining available multidisciplinary data on paleoenvironment, subsistence, and chronology, we were able to embed the neanderthal settlement of De Nadale in a regional and Western European frame, underlining the importance of the Quina Mousterian in Western Eurasia between MIS 4 and early MIS 3.
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