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The Study of Technological Organization

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... The archaeological record is the static material manifestation of dynamic behavioural and geomorphological processes (Binford, 1979(Binford, , 1980Schiffer, 1975Schiffer, , 1987; for this reason, different reduction intensities may illustrate varying behavioural responses to the conditions of lithic production (Marwick, 2008), including raw material availability and proximity, tool function, duration of occupational events, and other aspects. Thus, the distribution of the different reduction intensities within an assemblage may provide information about planning, land use, transport, settlement patterns, and subsistence strategies (Andrefsky, 1994;Kuhn, 1991;Nelson, 1991;Schiffer, 1975;Shott, 1989;Shott & Sillitoe, 2004;Varien & Potter, 1997). ...
... This is consistent with the abundance of cortical surfaces, since almost all the sandstone and quartzite cores retain at least 50% of their cortex. Low reduction levels, together with non-selective procurement in terms of size and quality, could be related to a more expedient behaviour where the particular reduction strategies identified may have depended on the size and shape of the material available, and on the types of sharped-edges wanted (Nelson, 1991). ...
... Despite this, there are some elements that point to a markedly expedient behaviour, understood as a response characterised by the minimisation of technological effort in circumstances where time, resources, and place of use are highly predictable (Bamforth, 1986;Nelson, 1991;Parry & Kelly, 1987). The abundance, variability, and proximity of lithic resources (García-Antón, 2016;Terradillos-Bernal & Rodríguez-Álvarez, 2014, together with a good knowledge of the environment, could explain the low degree of reduction and volumetric exhaustion of the cores. ...
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The ability of early hominins to overcome the constraints imposed by the characteristics of raw materials used for stone tool production is a key topic on the discussion about the evolution of hominin cognitive capabilities and technical behaviours. Thus, technological variability has been the centrepiece on this debate. However, the variability of lithic assemblages cannot be correctly interpreted without understanding site occupational models and function and considering that individual tools represent specific discard moments in a continuous reduction process. In Europe, the earliest technological record is represented by the scarce and scattered Mode 1 technologies, often deriving from occasional occupations or restricted activity areas yielding unrepresentative assemblages. In this paper, we approach the technological behaviours exhibited by Lower Palaeolithic hominins from the subunit TD6.2 of the Gran Dolina site (Atapuerca, Burgos) by including the perspective of reduction intensity studies on the analysis of technological variability. Gran Dolina TD6.2 is a unique and extremely significant archaeological context, as it represents the oldest multi-layered unit of domestic hominin occupations in the Early Pleistocene of Europe. We use the Volumetric Reconstruction Method (VRM) to estimate the original volume of the blanks and quantify the reduction intensity of each core individually to characterise the reduction distribution patterns using Weibull probability distribution functions. Our results suggest differential raw material management in terms of reduction intensity, according to the characteristics of each lithology. This could reflect a solid understanding of raw material qualities and a certain degree of planning. Altogether, the continuity between knapping strategies through reduction denotes constant adaptation to raw material constraints as well as particular knapping conditions, rather than specific compartmentalised mental schemes. In conclusion, Homo antecessor toolmakers would have been situational knappers whose technological behaviour would be highly adaptive. This research constitutes the first reduction approach for the European Early Pleistocene assemblages that will lead to a referential framework for other European Early Pleistocene sites.
... Because of this, lithic artefacts took on a tremendous informative potential over time, growing into proxies to detect the most prominent aspects concerning the material culture of prehistoric people. This includes the cognitive abilities employed to make stone tools which are important markers of the so-called behavioural complexity (Davis & Ashton, 2019;Garcia et al., 2013;Nelson, 1991;Stout, 2011). Several authors recently argued whether an actual overestimation of the fundamental importance of lithic technology for prehistoric people was taking place in Palaeolithic research (Sillitoe & Hardy, 2003). ...
... As a sign of that, over the years, the notion of expediency has been declining and explored under many aspects concerning lithic technology, expanding its original theoretical boundaries. In one case, Nelson (1991) stated that expedient behaviours presented a degree of planning consisting of scheduled and predictable activities. This allowed him to introduce the distinction between expedient and opportunistic technologies, defining the latter as technical behaviours in response to immediate, unanticipated conditions, hence lacking any degree of planning. ...
... This allowed him to introduce the distinction between expedient and opportunistic technologies, defining the latter as technical behaviours in response to immediate, unanticipated conditions, hence lacking any degree of planning. Even if a resemblance might be possible at the archaeological level (as pointed out by Nelson, 1991), since both models are inclined to take advantage of time and space, minimising the technical efforts to realise stone tools, the distinction persisted. ...
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The informative potential taken on by lithic artefacts has increased over the years. They gradually grew into proxies to detect the most relevant features of human material culture, including cognitive abilities to realise stone tools or, in other words, to track down the delineation of behavioural complexity. Consequently, notions like predetermination, standardisation (morphologically likewise) and hierarchisation have been intensely used in lithic technology as markers of such complexity, leading to ruling out contexts lacking any trace of these traits. Within the present state of the art, the use of the terms expedient and opportunism has characterised, in a negative way, the dichotomy between complex and simple within prehistoric contexts. Even if a requalification of expedient technologies has been recently observed, opportunistic behaviours still connote the complete absence of planning and complexity (even in terms of the mental scheme) within lithic industries. This background often prevented a consideration as relevant, from a technological and methodological perspective, these assemblages, primarily when Lower Palaeolithic contexts were addressed. With the definition and use of the term opportunistic debitage, this work questions the possible methodological implications of assemblages known as complexity- and planning-free and that can be found throughout different chronological and cultural phases.
... Margaret Nelson's (1991) explanation of previous research on the subject of technological organization theory, along with her own contributions, serves as the theoretical framework for understanding the groundstone assemblage in the Cayucos Bench Collection. Nelson's (1991) theory on technological organization helps with identifying patterns association with behavior and regional function. ...
... Margaret Nelson's (1991) explanation of previous research on the subject of technological organization theory, along with her own contributions, serves as the theoretical framework for understanding the groundstone assemblage in the Cayucos Bench Collection. Nelson's (1991) theory on technological organization helps with identifying patterns association with behavior and regional function. ...
... Archaeologists research the organization of certain behaviors, reflected by material culture. Research has often focused on behaviors associated with economics, social complexity, politics, ideologies, and/or combinations of those cultural aspects of behavior (Nelson, 1991). In the 1980s, researchers began to focus on technological organization as another aspect of cultural behavior. ...
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Located on the Central Coast, within the northern portion of Estero Bay, Cayucos remains an under-investigated area, and with over 8,000 years of human occupation there, it has the potential to inform about local and regional precontact history. Though relatively few archaeological investigations have occurred in Cayucos, by synthesizing studies in the area, a baseline of information emerges to build upon. This thesis reviews every recorded archaeological site with a precontact component, in the vicinity of Cayucos. These records, along with other relevant studies and theoretical framework, provide clues about the past associated with local settlement, technology, and the environment. Sources of information have been culled from site records and studies, authored by a variety of experts and non-experts including avocationalists, rock art scholars, residents, local CRM archaeologists, and others. One source of information comes from the orphaned Cayucos Bench Collection. Produced in the 1960s by the San Luis Obispo County Amateur Archaeologists, the collection is associated with 11 archaeological sites along the Estero Bluffs and includes site and artifact records, photographs, and a report. The collection is important because it represents the only artifact collection associated with the bluffs, a major portion of the research area. An aspect of this research includes comparative analysis of Cayucos with the Morro Bay Estuary, just south of Cayucos, in order to establish the relationship between these areas and identify regional patterns. The findings of this research begin to fill in the research gap remaining in the northern portion of Estero Bay.
... Las referencias teóricas consideradas se estructuran en base a la integración de algunos lineamientos que proponen los estudios de la Organización Tecnológica (Nelson, 1991) y los principios de economía de materia prima (sensu Odell, 1996). En el sentido de Nelson (1991), entendemos a la organización tecnológica como el estudio de la selección e integración de estrategias para obtener, hacer, usar, transportar y descartar instrumentos y los materiales necesarios para su manufactura y mantenimiento. ...
... La tecnología se desarrolla en el marco de comportamientos flexibles en los que se priorizan algunas opciones sobre otras, las cuales involucran costos y beneficios (Franco, 2014). El correlato material de las estrategias tecnológicas que se priorizan ante determinados escenarios socio-ambientales tendrá como resultado determinados diseños artefactuales (Kuhn, 2004;Nelson, 1991; entre otros) que articulan la morfología de las piezas, su función primaria y su modo de acción (Hocsman y Aschero, 2015) El estudio de estos últimos permite explicar la variabilidad de los conjuntos líticos. Dicho de otra forma, en términos de Nelson (1991), las características tecno-morfológicas de los artefactos y la composición de los conjuntos son consecuencia de estrategias tecnológicas que variaron en función de factores sociales y ambientales. ...
... El correlato material de las estrategias tecnológicas que se priorizan ante determinados escenarios socio-ambientales tendrá como resultado determinados diseños artefactuales (Kuhn, 2004;Nelson, 1991; entre otros) que articulan la morfología de las piezas, su función primaria y su modo de acción (Hocsman y Aschero, 2015) El estudio de estos últimos permite explicar la variabilidad de los conjuntos líticos. Dicho de otra forma, en términos de Nelson (1991), las características tecno-morfológicas de los artefactos y la composición de los conjuntos son consecuencia de estrategias tecnológicas que variaron en función de factores sociales y ambientales. ...
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En este trabajo, en función de análisis tecno-morfológicos y estadísticos sobre conjuntos de artefactos líticos, desde una perspectiva diacrónica se evalúan y discuten las estrategias tecnológicas relacionadas con la explotación de materias primas por parte de grupos cazadores-recolectores que ocuparon durante el Holoceno medio y tardío el sitio Cueva Marsicano, ubicado en la Cuenca Inferior del río Deseado, en el noreste de la provincia de Santa Cruz. Los resultados de los estudios líticos de la secuencia de ocupación sugieren que la funcionalidad de Cueva Marsicano habría variado en el marco de la explotación de rocas locales y no locales con variadas estrategias. En contextos iniciales de exploración, el sitio se habría estructurado como un campamento operativo, mientras que en potenciales escenarios de ocupación efectiva de espacio habría funcionado como campamento base. Se habrían configurado rangos de acción de variada amplitud, los cuales habrían estado favorecidos por la ubicación del sitio en cuanto a la circulación humana entre espacios interiores y litorales de Patagonia en torno a la búsqueda y explotación de recursos y/o la transmisión de ideas, entre otros escenarios.
... La aproximación a la funcionalidad de los aleros rocosos se realizará a partir de una perspectiva que comprenda este concepto como una variable multidimensional, que entienda la función de sitio como el rol que posee un yacimiento y su relación espacial y sincrónica con otros contextos, distinguiendo a partir de esta definición una dimensión intrasitio y otra intersitio. La primera nos permitirá inferir las actividades efectuadas en estos espacios, lo cual será evaluado desde la Organización de la Tecnología (Nelson 1991, Bamforth 1986) y la Estructura de Sitio (Binford 1977), mientras que la segunda nos permitirá determinar matices entre los aleros y cómo estos espacios formaron parte de sistemas de organización económica y de movilidad más amplios. ...
... Así, en esta Memoria, entenderemos por función de sitio al rol que posee un yacimiento y su relación espacial y sincrónica con otros contextos (David y Kramer 2001), distinguiendo a partir de esta definición una dimensión intrasitio y otra intersitio. La primera nos permitirá inferir las actividades efectuadas en estos espacios, lo cual será evaluado desde la Organización de la Tecnología (Nelson 1991, Bamforth 1986) y la Estructura de Sitio (Binford 1977), mientras que la segunda nos permitirá determinar matices entre los aleros y cómo estos espacios pudieron participar dentro de sistemas de organización económica y de movilidad mayores. Para tal fin, se recurrirá al análisis del conjunto lítico de los aleros, apelando a su alta representación en estos espacios y a su pertinencia para caracterizar la función de sitio en contextos de cazadores-recolectores (Binford 1988, Andrefsky 1998, Rivero y Srur 2006. ...
... A fin de capturar la variabilidad que los sitios pueden presentar en un sistema de asentamiento cazador-recolector y los matices que presentan estas ocupaciones, distinguiremos una dimensión intrasitio y una intersitio. La primera nos permitirá inferir las actividades efectuadas en estas, su organización en el espacio y la intensidad de la ocupación, lo cual será evaluado a partir de la Organización de la Tecnología (Nelson 1991, Bamforth 1986) y la Estructura de Sitio (Binford 1977), mientras que la segunda nos permitirá determinar las diferencias y semejanzas intrasitio que existen entre los aleros y cómo pudieron participar dentro de sistemas de movilidad mayores. ...
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El Complejo Cultural Huentelauquén, ha sido identificado como uno de los primeros grupos cazadores-recolectores y pescadores que ocuparon la costa norte de Chile durante el Holoceno Temprano. En la zona de Taltal, la mayoría de los yacimientos identificados para este periodo corresponden a abrigos rocosos, cuya funcionalidad ha sido interpretada de forma contrapuesta por investigaciones previas. En esta Memoria se reevaluó la funcionalidad de tres aleros: 224-A, 226-5 y Paposo Norte-9, a partir la organización de la tecnología y la estructura de sitio de estos contextos de forma de esclarecer su rol y determinar matices entre los aleros. Concluimos que los contextos no se corresponden totalmente a las expectativas de una única categoría funcional, sin embargo, estarían más cercanos al extremo residencial, en base a sus características como sitios multitareas, con conchales multicomponentes, con organización interna de actividades y presencia de rasgos y ocupaciones redundantes. Sin embargo, operarían en distintas lógicas de movilidad, con 224-A y 226-5 como campamentos más estables, multitareas, intensamente ocupados, desde donde se articularon radios de forrajeo en el litoral y movimientos logísticos hacia el interior. Y Paposo Norte 9, como un campamento de tareas más especificas, de ocupaciones efímeras pero redundantes, posiblemente un sitio de paso vinculado a movilidad a lo largo de la costa
... Los materiales líticos tallados permiten comprender la movilidad (Kelly, 1992) a través de algunos aspectos de la organización tecnológica (Nelson, 1991), ya que dentro de ella se suelen tomar las decisiones que afectan a las formas de actuar de las personas y sus movimientos. Es por ello que en este trabajo se hará hincapié sobre los procesos de obtención, manufactura, uso y almacenamiento, entendidos como parte de las historias de vida (Schiffer, 1972) que atravesaron los materiales líticos. ...
... La manufactura de instrumentos multifuncionales y transportables suelen estar asociados a grupos que requieren traslados constantes (Nelson, 1991). De esta forma, la presencia de piezas con varias funciones y cuyas dimensiones son aptas para su transporte, son relevantes en el análisis de la movilidad. ...
... Esto brinda información sobre el desplazamiento y el rol de las personas implicadas en el mismo. El almacenamiento de materias primas se vincula con grupos de movilidad reducida, ya que es una manera de disminuir el tiempo requerido en la búsqueda y transporte de recursos líticos (Binford, 1979;Nelson, 1991). De manera que la presencia/ausencia de escondrijos o acumulaciones de materias primas es un indicativo de la movilidad de los grupos pasados. ...
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Este trabajo apunta a caracterizar la movilidad de grupos que ocuparon un sector de la vertiente oriental de las Cumbres Calchaquíes durante el primer milenio d.C., tratando de interpretar las relaciones que se co-constituyeron entre agentes humanos y no-humanos. Se analizaron algunos aspectos de la organización tecnológica a partir de los materiales líticos tallados en cuarzo, cuarcita y obsidiana, los cuales fueron recuperados en los sitios arqueológicos de El Sunchal y Mortero Quebrado (Anfama, provincia de Tucumán, Rep. Argentina). En la investigación se plantea que cada materia prima requirió de estrategias diversas en sus historias de vida, lo que resultó en diferentes formas de movilidad, así como en la construcción y deconstrucción de agenciamientos efímeros, según necesidades económicas y sociales de los grupos. En base a esto se propone que los grupos sociales bajo estudio se habrían caracterizado por un sedentarismo relativo donde se observa un componente móvil que se activa o desactiva según las necesidades y decisiones de los grupos. Tal componente se caracterizó como de micro-movilidad en el marco de una ocupación persistente de espacios residenciales.
... Comenzando por el sur, la primera región es el Altiplano de Popayán, localizado en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera 2 y la Elvira, en el piso térmico templado, a altura aproximada de 1.700 msnm, en la zona de vida bosque muy húmedo premontano (Bmh-PM) (Gnecco, 2000: 17). El trabajo lítica, al aplicar por una parte, la metodología de la cadena operatoria, de tradición francesa, para analizar las diferentes fases de los artefactos líticos (Lemmonier, 1992;Leroi-Gourhan, 1971;Pelegrin et al., puestas procesualistas, para analizar la relación entre tipo de tecnología, patrón de descarte y patrón de movilidad en grupos de cazadores-recolectores (Binford, 1979(Binford, , 1980Kelly, 1995;Nelson, 1991;Shott, 1986). ...
... cadena operatoria para analizar los conjuntos líticos y se analizó la relación entre diseño tecnológico y movilidad, siguiendo los principios teóricos y metodológicos de la escuela procesualista (Binford, 1979;Cowan, 1999;Nelson, 1991). En este que consiste en ir agrupando los artefactos de acuerdo con el incremento de rasgos compartidos y, por lo tanto, de su similitud tecnológica y funcional. ...
Article
En este artículo se presenta una síntesis de las investigaciones arqueológicas que se refieren a la tecnología lítica de los grupos humanos que poblaron el territorio colombiano desde el Pleistoceno final hasta el Holoceno medio, analizando cómo ha evolucionado el análisis de la tecnología lítica de los periodos denominados: Paleoindio, Arcaico y Formativo, en distintas regiones del país.
... Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is based on climate proxies derived from loess, stalagmites, and pollen. Investigation of technological organization is based upon the selection and integration of strategies for making, using, transporting, and discarding lithic tools and materials [10]. Our examination of technological organization takes into account economic concerns relative to environmental conditions and how these manifested in design and distribution of the specific lithic techno-complex. ...
... Compared to core-flake technology which involves mostly expedient tools, one benefit of Mousterian and blade technology was the creation of formalized end products with pre-planned forms [55,139]. The formality and refined retouch could maximize the efficiency and the use life of the tools [10,140,141]. Hence, these tools are most suitable to conditions in which there is a limited temporal window for people to efficiently acquire resources without interruptions associated with repairing and retooling [142]. ...
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The successful occupation of the eastern Eurasian Steppe in the Late Pleistocene improved cultural connections between western Eurasia and East Asia. We document multiple waves of lithic technological transmission between the eastern Eurasian Steppe and northern China during 50-11 cal. ka BP. These waves are apparent in the sequential appearance of three techno-complexes in northern China: (1) the Mousterian techno-complex, (2) the blade techno-complex mixed with Mousterian elements, (3) and the microlithized blade techno-complex. These lithic techno-complexes were transmitted under different paleoen-vironmental conditions along different pathways through the eastern Eurasian Steppe. The Mousterian techno-complex and the blade techno-complex mixed with Mousterian elements were only dispersed in the north and west peripheries of northern China (50-33 cal. ka BP). We argue that these techno-complexes failed to penetrate into the hinterland of northern China because they were not well suited to local geographical conditions. In contrast, the microlithized blade technology which diffused from the eastern Eurasian Steppe was locally modified into a Microblade techno-complex which was highly suited to local environmental conditions, and proliferated across the hinterland of northern China (28/27-11 cal. ka BP). The subsequent spread of microblade technology over vast regions of Mongolia and Siberia indicates that the Pleistocene inhabitants of northern China not only adopted and modified technologies from their neighbors in the Eurasian Steppe, but these modified variants were subsequently transmitted back into the Eurasian Steppe. These episodes of technological transmission indicate complicated patterns of population dispersal and technological interaction across northern China and the eastern Eurasian Steppe.
... (Renfrew, 1977: 72). Figura 4: Tabla de contingencia extraída de Andrefsky, 1994: 30 En relación a lo anterior, Nelson (1991) define el concepto "organización tecnológica" como "(...) the study of the selection and integration of strategies for making, using, transporting and discarding tools and the materials needed for their manufacture and maintenance." (Nelson, 1991: 57); en donde se deben considerar variables tanto sociales como económicas, las cuales condicionan las estrategias mencionadas. ...
... (Nelson, 1991: 57); en donde se deben considerar variables tanto sociales como económicas, las cuales condicionan las estrategias mencionadas. La organización tecnológica y las dinámicas detrás de esta se enmarcan dentro de aspectos como las condiciones físicas de los recursos a trabajar, además de las estrategias económicas y sociales presentes en los distintos procesos (Nelson, 1991). Es decir, esta nos entregaríaparticularmente-información acerca de las fuentes a las cuales se está accediendo y su lógica diferencial en relación al uso del espacio; además de las decisiones sociales en torno al uso de cierta materia prima. ...
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The main objective of this research is to characterize the supply of lithic resources present in the Jeinimeni Valley during the late Holocene (3,000 to 300 cal. BP) in order to evaluate the use of space according to the various supply strategies (sensu Meltzer, 1989) in relation to the availability, distribution, abundance and accessibility of the lithic resources present in the Valley.
... De este modo, aspectos como el uso del espacio y la movilidad, aún no han sido evaluados en profundidad, así como la relación entre estas estrategias y las condiciones climático/ ambientales particulares de este período. Este trabajo se propone abordar estas problemáticas desde el estudio de la tecnología lítica, la cual se muestra como una vía privilegiada para acceder a las estrategias de los grupos humanos del pasado (Nelson, 1991). ...
... Se empleó la perspectiva de la organización tecnológica (Binford, 1977(Binford, , 1979Nelson, 1991), cuyo énfasis en las estrategias y en la interacción entre diferentes variables ambientales y sociales permite articular aspectos de la subsistencia y movilidad con la tecnología. Asimismo, se incorporaron a la discusión los estudios sobre movilidad, uso del espacio y tecnología desarrollados desde una perspectiva ecológica y evolutiva por diversos autores (Andrefsky, 1994;Bettinger et al., 2006;Binford, 1977Binford, , 1979Binford, , 1980Binford, , 2001Escola, 2004;Gould, 1980;Kelly, 1983Kelly, , 2013. ...
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La cuenca del lago Cardiel ha sido objeto de una extensa serie de investigaciones acerca de su proceso de poblamiento y la relación entre el cambio climático/ambiental y social a lo largo del Holoceno. Estas investigaciones se han centrado en el Holoceno tardío, el cual posee un abundante registro arqueológico en la región. En cambio, el Holoceno medio, entre los ca. 7500 y 3000 años calibrados AP, presenta un registro arqueológico menos abundante y muestra el inicio de la tardía colonización de la cuenca. En este trabajo se analiza la composición y distribución de la tecnología lítica perteneciente a este período, se discute la funcionalidad de los diferentes espacios de la cuenca y las estrategias de movilidad que habrían sido empleadas por los grupos cazadores locales. Se concluye que la ocupación de esta región se caracterizaría por un uso similar de sus distintos ambientes, asociado a una tecnología lítica con una baja inversión de energía en su manufactura y el uso de rocas inmediatamente disponibles. Los grupos locales habrían tenido una movilidad con un menor componente logístico que la registrada para momentos posteriores.
... I understand technology as a response to several factors, both cognitive and related to "shared syntaxes" as well as environmental limitations or adaptive responses (e.g. Nelson, 1991), being constituted through the interaction of elements (matter, energy, objects, gestures and knowledge) that characterise techniques (Lemonnier, 1992). Thus, technological particularities can be revealed through the observation of the variation of these components: "irregularity observed in technical behaviour sometimes points toward[s] sociocultural differences which have hitherto escaped observation" (Lemonnier, 1986). ...
... Considero la tecnología como una respuesta a distintos factores, ambos cognitivos y relacionados a "sintaxis compartidas" así como a limitaciones ambientales o respuestas adaptativas (ej. Nelson, 1991), siendo constituidas a través de la interacción de elementos (materia, energía, objetos, gestos y conocimiento) que caracterizan las técnicas (Lemonnier, 1992). Entonces, las particularidades tecnológicas pueden ser reveladas a través de la observación de la variación de estos componentes: "irregularidades observadas en los comportamientos técnicos a veces apuntan hacia diferencias socioculturales que hasta el momento han escapado a la observación" (Lemonnier, 1986). ...
... En el marco de la discusión acerca de la operatividad y adecuación de determinadas dicotomías (como conservación-expeditividad, formal-informal, simple-complejo) en el estudio de la tecnología lítica de las sociedades agropastoriles del primer milenio en el Noroeste Argentino, Escola (2000Escola ( , 2004 propuso el concepto de "diseño utilitario". Buscaba así superar las limitaciones que evidenciaban estas dicotomías en el análisis de los conjuntos artefactuales de sociedades productoras de alimentos, situación que se vincula con el marcado contraste que se describe entre estos conjuntos y aquellos de grupos cazadores-recolectores, para los cuales se habían construido en primera instancia los criterios de definición de las variables de diseño (confiable, mantenible, transportable, siguiendo principalmente a Nelson, 1991). Escola (2000) afirmó que estas categorías sólo podían ser aplicables en el caso de estrategias de conservación, y se dirigió a analizar qué variables de diseño entraban en juego en el marco de la expeditividad. ...
Article
Frente a las limitaciones de la dicotomía expeditividad/conservación para entender los conjuntos líticos de los contextos del primer milenio en Antofagasta de la Sierra (Catamarca, Argentina), la propuesta del diseño utilitario resultó un avance hacia la comprensión de la tecnología de las sociedades agropastoriles desde su especificidad. El término puso en discusión la referencia a la ausencia de elementos vinculados con la conservación para describir los productos materiales de una estrategia expeditiva. Este avance fue retomado luego en el marco de la estimación de la inversión de trabajo en la producción lítica para las sociedades formativas del NOA. En este trabajo vuelven a considerarse estos aportes, a partir del conjunto lítico tallado de la Estructura 4 (E4) del sitio Las Escondidas (Quebrada de Miriguaca, Antofagasta de la Sierra). Este sitio, ocupado a inicios del primer milenio, evidencia actividades diversas, incluyendo un contexto de producción artesanal. Dentro de la reconstrucción de algunas disposiciones del habitus tecnológico implicado en la producción, uso y descarte del conjunto instrumental de la E4, se suscitaron varias reflexiones acerca de los alcances y la aplicabilidad del concepto del diseño utilitario en relación con el esfuerzo tecnológico.
... Es en este sentido que, la tecnología lítica se desarrolla para resolver problemas y los instrumentos son utilizados por los individuos como parte de estrategias para lidiar con su ambiente social y ambiental (NELSON, 1991;TORRENCE, 1989). Además, a través de ella también se pueden generar respuestas para disminuir o evitar el riesgo ante la escasez de recursos, por ser una de las formas en la que los grupos humanos se organizaron para acceder a los recursos de subsistencia (BAMFORTH y BLEED, 1997;BOUS-MAN, 1993FRANCO, 2004;TORRENCE, 1989;WIESNNER, 1982). ...
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Hoy en día la comunidad científica y la sociedad están preocupados con los cambios climáticos queestán aconteciendo desde años. La realidad es que cambios climáticos existieron a lo largo de la historiade nuestro planeta. La diferencia que se plantea con los cambios más recientes, es que el humano es engran parte responsable. Más allá de esto, los cambios climáticos suelen producir cambios en la formaen que nosotros hacemos las cosas. Es decir, en el cómo enfrentar ciertos cambios naturales, como seruna sequía. En este trabajo se presenta un caso arqueológico, sobre las posibles estrategias que pudieronser generadas por los cazadores recolectores que ocuparon el sur de Mendoza hace 5.000 años, paralidiar con un proceso de aridización ocurrido durante el Holoceno medio (8.000 – 4.000 años atrás).Se propone que los grupos humanos pudieron haber cambiado su forma de organizar su tecnologíalítica para enfrentar el impacto del proceso de aridez.
... This approach attempts to elucidate aspects of the knappers' cognitive and technical abilities, as well as the socio-economic organization of activities, from the implementation of technological processes [117][118][119]. Following from that, technological decisions of prehistoric hunter-gatherers can be better understood [118,[120][121][122]. ...
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Recent research has made great strides clarifying the chronology, temporal span, and geographic and technological patterning of the Acheulian in eastern Africa. However, highland occurrences of the Acheulian remain under-represented and their relationship to cultural dynamics in the Rift are still poorly understood. Recently, a stratified sequence of four archaeological layers, recording Acheulian occupations dated between~1.6 Ma and~1.3 Ma, has been discovered in locality MW2 of the Melka Wakena site-complex (south-central Ethiopian highlands). This database enabled a systematic exploration of the question of tempo and mode of technological changes at a local sequence, allowing, for the first time, comparison with other highland sites as well as in the Rift. The detailed techno-economic study presented in this study shows that the early Acheulian at the locality was characterized by the coexistence of lithic reduction sequences for small debitage and for flake-based Large Cutting Tool production. In the early,~1.6 Ma assemblage, a strategy of variable raw material exploitation and technological emphasis on small debitage were coupled with production of few crude bifacial elements. These shifted at~1.4 Ma towards a preferential and intensive exploitation of a highly knappable glassy ignimbrite and emphasis on Large Cutting Tool production, including higher investment in their techno-morphological aspects. The MW2 sequence tracks lithic technological trends observed in the Rift, with only a short time lag. Diachronic changes in the raw material economy and land use patterns may have occurred at MW2 earlier than previously reported for the Acheulian on the highlands. The behavioral dynamics gleaned from the early Acheulian assemblages at MW2 are important for our understanding of the diachronic changes in the abilities of Acheulian hominins to exploit the diverse geographic and ecological habitats of eastern Africa and beyond.
... Levallois and volumetric blade concept; Assaf et al., 2016;Baena Preysler et al., 2019;Eren & Lycett, 2012;Eren et al., 2011;Muller et al., 2017;Wynn & Coolidge, 2004), less complex strategies might be sometimes intentionally adopted by skilled knappers (Goldstein, 2019). Raw material availability and settlement patterns, in particular, are thought to represent key factors in determining the type of technology adopted (Binford, 1977(Binford, , 1979Conard & Adler, 1997;Nelson, 1991;Parry & Kelly, 1987;Riel-Salvatore & Barton, 2004;Vaquero & Romagnoli, 2017;Wallace & Shea, 2006). In contexts where raw material does not represent a constraining factor (e.g. ...
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One important aspect affecting variability in core reduction technology is the degree of expertise of knappers. In the present paper, we show that, at the Middle Palaeolithic open-air site of Nesher Ramla, the degree of expertise of ancient knappers played a major role in shaping the composition of the lithic assemblage. Using robust markers of knapping skill, such as the frequency and reiteration of decision mistakes in the knapping process, allowed us to establish that a clear relationship exists between the degree of structuring of core technologies and the degree of expertise of the knapper at Nesher Ramla. Simple core technologies (e.g. pebble and multiple surface cores) can be linked to the work of novices, while more structured technologies (e.g. Levallois) are linked to the work of more experienced individuals. In addition, we apply for the first time a 3D-based procedure for identifying the causes that possibly lead to knapping accidents, specifically potential errors in the evaluation of the reduction surface exterior platform angle and/or its profile. Tying simple core technologies with the work of unexpert knappers allowed us to explore otherwise elusive social-cultural aspects of past hunter-gatherer societies such as age structuring. Specifically, we suggest that during the most intense phases of occupation in Nesher Ramla, children and/or young adults were present at the site alongside adults.
... Foraging strategies, group mobility and seasonal cycles of human movement through landscapes affect both the geography of raw material procurement and who is involved in that procurement (e.g. Bamforth, 1991;Nelson, 1991;Andrefsky, 1994;Kot et al., 2020). Indications of territoriality may also be inferred from the use or choice of specific raw material sources and site-to-source distances (e.g. ...
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Analyses of the distance over which lithic raw materials were transported for use in stone tool production provide important insights into early human mobility through prehistoric landscapes. This study combines the use of geochemical provenancing, chaîne opératoire analysis and geochronology to examine patterns of lithic raw material procurement at five single-use open-air Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological sites in Ntwetwe Pan, part of the Makgadikgadi Pans complex in north-central Botswana. Maximum ages of the five sites ranged from 106 ± 3 to 69 ± 7 ka, with site formation thought to have occurred before and after a lake high stand dated to c. 72-57 ka. Tool manufacture at all sites was largely confined to the production of MSA points, with silcrete used exclusively as the raw material. Geochemical provenancing investigations aimed to identify the specific silcrete outcrops used as lithic raw material sources. Analysis of contemporary pan floor deposits show that sediment (and hence silcrete) geochemistry in Ntwetwe is determined by the proportional sediment input into the pan from fluvial systems with different catchment geologies. Immobile trace element signatures for 46 waste manufacturing flakes were compared against equivalent data for 321 silcrete samples collected at outcrops within and beyond Ntwetwe Pan. Waste flakes were chosen to be representative of the main silcrete raw material types present within the artefact assemblage at each site. Fifteen waste flakes were shown to match specific outcrops on the basis of their geochemical signatures and petrographic properties; all matching outcrops were within Ntwetwe Pan, at distances ranging from 7 to 55 km from individual sites. Multi-site analysis of procurement patterns identifies common silcrete source areas, revealing a preference for silcrete from particular locations within Ntwetwe Pan. Given that the five archaeological sites were likely occupied at different times, this resource preference may have been a longer-term behavioural feature of MSA populations in the Ntwetwe region. The distances over which silcrete was transported in Ntwetwe Pan are smaller than identified in investigations at similar-aged MSA sites in northwest Botswana. The reasons for the different silcrete procurement ranges in the two regions are likely related to silcrete availability and/or raw material preference, but this requires further investigation.
... "Curated" is a key concept for the analysis of lithic technological organization (Andrefsky, 2009;Binford, 1979;Nelson, 1991;Spry and Stern, 2016). Initially, "curated" was defined as encompassing a series of behavioral patterns related to provisioning strategies (Binford, 1979(Binford, , 1973. ...
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Predicting original flake mass is a major goal of lithic analysis. Predicting original flake mass allows for researchers to make estimations of remaining mass, lost mass, and other features. All these measures relate to the organization of lithic technology by past societies. The present work tests three different models to predict log of flake mass: multiple linear regression, random forest regression, and artificial neural networks (ANN). Estimations of flake mass were performed using the remaining features of flakes from an experimental assemblage. This assemblage was obtained by the expansion of a previous dataset through the inclusion of bigger flakes, allowing the analysis to account for the effects of sample size and value distribution. Correlation results show a large/strong relation between predictions and real outcome (r2 = 0.78 in the best case). Comparison of the models affords insights into variable importance for predicting flake mass. Results show that (for the present dataset) multiple linear regression still stands as the best method for predicting log of flake weight. Additionally, transformation of predicted values from the multiple linear regression and true values to the linear scale reinforces the linear correlation above the 0.8 threshold.
... Facing the environmental pressures described above, mobile foragers could have adapted their settlement patterns and provisioning strategies [18,56,90]. Under low environmental stress, the expedient character of the lithic assemblages close to a raw material source is commonly associated with residential base camps [91,92]. The general idea is that hunter-gatherer groups settle on raw material sources, thereby experiencing little pressure to extend the utility and maintenance of their toolkits, or to rely on formal tools. ...
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Contrasting with the predominance of blade-based assemblages in the Eurasian Upper Paleolithic, the large-scale persistence of a core-and-flake technology remains one of the defining features of Late Pleistocene lithic technology in East Asia. In North China, Shui-donggou is an exceptional site where both technologies are documented, therefore, it is an important archaeological sequence to understand regional technological evolution during the Marine Isotopic Stage 3. Blade technology first occurred at Shuidonggou Locality 1 and 2 around 41 ka cal BP while core-and-flake assemblages were widespread in North China. However, systematic technological studies on assemblages postdating 34 ka cal BP have not been conducted to examine whether the blade technology appeared and disappeared over a short yet abrupt episode, or persists and integrates into other forms in the region. Here, we conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses to reconstruct lithic productions on the assemblages at Shuidonggou Locality 2, dated after 34 ka cal BP. Our results show that there is a total absence of laminar elements in stone artifacts dated to 34-28 ka cal BP at Shuidonggou. Instead, we observe a dominance of an expedient production of flakes in the younger assemblages, illustrating a rapid return to flake-based technology after a relatively brief episode of stone blade production. Combining archaeological, environmental, and genetic evidence, we suggest that this technological 'reversal' from blades back to core and flake technology reflect population dynamics and adaptive strategies at an ecological interface between East Asian winter and summer monsoon. PLOS ONE PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
... Esto se refleja, en parte, en la elección de la obsidiana para la manufactura de instrumentos, que es más alta en estos conjuntos que en los costeros en los cuales, por el contrario, predominan, luego de las rocas más utilizadas, aquellas de origen local como son las volcanitas ácidas y las sedimentarias. El manufacturar instrumentos con rocas de buena calidad para la talla asegura, en parte, su correcto funcionamiento al momento de ser utilizados, lo cual es deseable si se está ante una situación de equipamiento del espacio (aunque también de individuos) con instrumentos susceptibles de ser utilizados en el futuro (Kuhn, 2004;Nelson, 1991). En este sentido, la abundancia de materia prima en los contextos costeros no habría hecho necesaria esta selección más cuidadosa ya que las rocas se encuentran disponibles en el ambiente de manera abundante. ...
Article
En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de los primeros análisis de la muestra artefactual recuperada en contextos de superficie en el área Paredón de los Grabados (provincia de Río Negro, Argentina). Se estudiaron las materias primas y se relevaron distintos indicadores para dar cuenta de la variabilidad tecnológica del conjunto. A su vez, se realizó una breve comparación con los conjuntos de artefactos de la costa oeste del golfo San Matías, en la mencionada provincia. Los resultados indican que en el interior del continente los conjuntos presentan una mayor proporción de instrumentos, estadios de talla más avanzados, predominan los filos simples y fueron utilizadas principalmente rocas de calidad excelente y muy buena para la talla. La muestra general indicaría un equipamiento del espacio a través del abandono de instrumentos con potencial de uso, a diferencia de lo que sucede en la costa en donde esto se habría dado a través de los núcleos y en donde los conjuntos presentan mayor variabilidad respecto de la calidad de las rocas utilizadas, observándose también estadios iniciales de talla. Finalmente, no ha sido posible establecer, a partir del análisis lítico, una relación clara entre la costa y el interior.
... El estudio del material lítico contempló la totalidad de las piezas recogidas en planta y en zaranda, en el marco de las respectivas unidades estratigráficas. El análisis buscó identificar las decisiones y conductas que caracterizan este sistema tecnológico (Collins, 1975;Nelson, 1991) a través de un abordaje global que permitiera reconocer e interpretar las diferentes etapas del proceso de producción de herramientas representadas en el sitio (Ericson, 1984;Sullivan y Rozen, 1985). A su vez se pretendió conocer la estrategia de aprovisionamiento de las diferentes materias primas en tanto información relevante para reconstruir la gestión territorial de estos grupos humanos (Andrefsky, 1994). ...
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El trabajo presenta resultados preliminares de la investigación del sitio arqueológico La Viuda constituido por un conjunto de tres montículos ubicado en el Bañado de India Muerta (Rocha, Uruguay). Un aspecto singular de este sitio es que uno de los montículos es el de mayores dimensiones y antigüedad de las tierras bajas del sudeste uruguayo (7,32 m de altura y ca. 5400 años AP). En esta estructura se ubicaron dos excavaciones, en la base y en la parte superior. La estratigrafía del sector de la base está compuesta por niveles de ocupación doméstica datados entre 3600 y 3800 años AP. El asentamiento fue ocupado intensamente, acumulando con rapidez un importante volumen de sedimentos y materiales arqueológicos. Los restos zooarqueológicos muestran la explotación de animales de pradera e instrumentos óseos altamente formatizados. El conjunto lítico está formado por instrumentos en materias primas locales, con uso de filos sin formatizar. Se identificaron niveles con importante presencia de nódulos de tierra quemada, que en algún caso parece ser el residuo de construcciones de adobe. La ausencia de cerámica está en línea con las cronologías regionales. La diferencia cronológica entre el fechado disponible y los obtenidos en esta investigación, sugiere ocupaciones iniciales separadas, con su posterior unificación en un único montículo. La presencia de enterramientos humanos en la cima del montículo refuerza la noción de monumentalización tardía. La excavación I muestra una ocupación de carácter doméstico, con evidencias de cierto sedentarismo y posibles construcciones.
... Es posible que esta formatización haya estado vinculada a la preparación de la materia prima y/o instrumentos especializados. Esta diversidad de estrategias tecnológicas parece responder a necesidades inmediatas cubiertas por la confección y el uso de herramientas dentro de la misma cantera y, al mismo tiempo, la preparación de artefactos versátiles (Nelson, 1991;Franco, 2004). ...
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Las investigaciones arqueológicas realizadas en la cuenca del río Quinto posibilitaron la localización de numerosas fuentes potenciales y canteras-taller. En este trabajo se busca comprender el papel del área de canteras La Falla dentro del contexto de la base regional de recursos líticos de la porción alta y media del río. Para ello, se presentan los últimos datos acerca de los lugares de aprovisionamiento con disponibilidad de materias primas aptas para la talla. Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en una de las canteras de calcedonia más extensas (La Falla 1), con el objetivo de conocer la gestión tecnológica relacionada con el uso de rocas de buena calidad. El estudio permitió reconocer la implementación de una combinación de estrategias tecnológicas y una utilización de los recursos líticos disponibles espacialmente limitada a la cuenca media. Se identifican actividades relativas a la reducción lítica y a la fabricación y uso de una variedad de instrumentos. Este trabajo se inscribe dentro de las discusiones sobre las actividades de aprovisionamiento dentro de la región de Sierras Centrales y constituye un importante avance en el conocimiento de la esfera de la tecnología lítica utilizada por los grupos humanos que habitaron el centro este de San Luis.
... The acquision of raw material depends on the distance between settlements and outcrops, and the abundance and quality of the raw materials and their capacity to be made into certain types of blanks. This relationship continues to be discussed in the organizational framework informed by optimization theory and behavioral ecology (e.g., Andrefsky, 1994Andrefsky, , 2009Binford, 1979Binford, , 1980Bleed, 1986;Bousman, 1993;Elston & Kuhn, 2002;Kelly, 1995;Kuhn, 1994;Nelson, 1991;Parry & Kelly, 1987;Surovell, 2009;Torrence, 1989). According to Andrefsky (1994), if there is an abundance of lithic raw material of good workability, they can produce any kind of tool. ...
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Two types of studies were carried out on the lithic materials found in stratigraphic unit 6 of Los Canes cave used by Mesolithic human groups: (1) quantification of the retouched and nonretouched lithic materials to determine the adaptive strategy in relation to changes in the availability and technology resources and (2) crystallographic/mineralogical characterization of the nonretouched lithic materials using the RGB (R being red, G green, and B blue) code for color, transmission polarization optical microscopy, X‐ray diffraction, X‐ray fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and total organic carbon analyses. Cluster and factorial statistical analyses were performed to establish the relationship between samples. The main conclusions extracted are as follows: (1) The mobility of the inhabitants of Los Canes cave may have been very restricted, and they used local raw materials. (2) The inhabitants of Los Canes cave used chert preferentially in the elaboration of different typologies. (3) The mineralogical and elemental compositions of the chert samples from Level 6 of Los Canes cave and those from nearby outcrops are similar. (4) The crystallite size values of the tool cherts (>1000 Å) and the almost complete absence of moganite and chalcedony indicate a high degree of maturity and could belong to the Carboniferous, the period to which the cherts of the outcrops used for comparison also belong.
... An additional and important element in providing a better perception of the site within the settlement organisation is the technological system (Geneste, 1985;Nelson, 1991). The common flaking technique documented at all EMP sites is the direct percussion with a hard hammer (with possible exception at Douara Cave). ...
Article
The Early Middle Palaeolithic (EMP) in the Levant dated between 250 and 150 ka is a unique period characterised by the systematic production of elongated blanks using different reduction strategies: Levallois, Laminar and core on flake are involved. The hallmark of the EMP blade industries is different types of retouched points but the production of other blanks categories as bladelets, small flakes and triangular flakes is also evident. Such a broad-based approach to lithic resources of foragers relocating through the Levant during the EMP could reflect the behavioural adaptations of hominins and adjustments in their subsistence strategies as well as management of time and division of special activities, consequently leading to a marked anticipation of needs. The techno-typological diversity is visible in the mode of production but at the same time, it reflects the narrow variation that is shared among all known EMP sites. This seems to indicate that at this time the demographic organisation in the region may be closely linked within a cohesive geographical and chronological framework.
... Además, se observó el grado de reducción o explotación para identificar los elementos no agotados y agotados. Fueron considerados como núcleos agotados aquellos que no pueden ser tallados con dos elementos o aquellos en los que se dificulta la realización de extracciones (Kuhn 1991;Nelson 1991). Sobre la base de las propuestas de Franco (2002) y Ambrústolo (2011) se calculó el volumen de los núcleos de acuerdo a las dimensiones largo, ancho y espesor en cm y se los agrupó en intervalos de 25%. ...
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Los estudios acerca del aprovisionamiento lítico dentro de la cuenca del río Quinto y algunos de sus tributarios han permitido incrementar el conocimiento acerca de la oferta de materias primas y las estrategias tecnológicas vinculadas a su uso. El presente trabajo se enfoca en el análisis de un conjunto de núcleos recuperados en canteras-taller y sitios de actividades múltiples emplazados en diferentes sectores del área. Los resultados obtenidos en relación con la distribución de las fuentes y los sitios permitieron trazar las distintas trayectorias tecnológicas de los principales recursos líticos reconocidos. Se evidencia un amplio uso de dos materias primas, el cuarzo y la calcedonia, de procedencia local. Su disponibilidad y las formas de aprovisionamiento vinculadas resultaron diferentes en cada porción de la cuenca. Por último, se observa una amplia circulación de rocas que parecen reflejar el movimiento de los grupos humanos y el intercambio con áreas vecinas.
... Archaeological expectations of residential mobility strategies include expedient tools made of generally locally available raw material (place provisioning). Conversely, archaeological expectations accompanying logistical mobility strategies include tools made of non-local raw materials (self-provisioning) that have been more efficiently reduced [19,24,25]. Differences in hunter-gatherer mobility strategy can be attributed to several factors, including shifts in local environment, changes in demography, or the transition from foraging to farming [21]. ...
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Raw material analyses of prehistoric stone tool assemblages can reveal insight into mobility and exchange patterns in hunter-gatherer populations by reconstructing the circulation of stone throughout ancient landscapes. In Pleistocene Southeast Asia, stone tools are generally thought to have been fashioned from easily accessible local raw materials. However, despite the consistent presence of stone tools made of igneous raw material at prehistoric sites throughout the Tràng An Landscape Complex in northern Vietnam, there are no sources of igneous raw material in the immediate vicinity. This paper presents the results of geochemical sourcing analysis of late Pleistocene igneous stone tools from Tràng An: the first analysis of its type in mainland Southeast Asia. The results shed light on mobility and raw material provisioning strategies in Pleistocene mainland Southeast Asian hunter-gatherer populations and raise questions surrounding the relationship between technological organization, raw material, and expediency in Southeast Asian stone tool assemblages.
... Retouch followed a continual reduction or resharpening of the working margins, including rotation of tula slugs. These documented trends establish an emphasis for the HCS1 tulas on extendibility, versatility, and maintainability (Hiscock 2006;Moore 2003aMoore , 2003bNelson 1991)all features reliant on mastery of the standardised reduction sequence of the tula technology. The exclusive presence of tulas amidst the huts, and the restricted range of materials on which they were made, further suggest that these lithic technologies were indeed focussed here; whether made, used or maintained, they are associated with a known place of social learning. ...
Article
Lithic assemblages associated with Indigenous Australian built structures are under-explored. The Hilary Creek Site 1 (HCS1) complex, western Queensland, comprising at least 16 stone-based hut structures and multiple stone arrangements, also contains a surface assemblage of thousands of flaked stone artefacts. Analysis of a sample of this assemblage provides novel insights into the technology and role of flaked stone artefacts at this site, revealing trends in production reminiscent of industries found elsewhere in arid Australia, including the highly standardised tula adze technology. The nature of the HCS1 complex, revealed through a combination of Indigenous knowledge, historical research and archaeology, facilitates exploration of theoretical models seeking to detect aspects of social learning amongst those making flaked stone artefacts. We offer social learning theory as a novel way to expand on the significance of lithic technology at this unique site – a Pitta Pitta place of teaching, learning, and youth initiation – and present new directions for theoretical modelling of flaked stone artefact variability in Australian archaeology.
... A través de un enfoque organizacional de la tecnología (sensu Nelson 1991), se realiza un acercamiento al conocimiento de los planes que orientaron la dinámica del comportamiento tecnológico de los grupos que ocuparon los ambientes del sector occidental cordillerano. ...
Article
Se presentan los resultados del análisis químico de artefactos de obsidiana del sitio Villa JMC-1 Labranza, cuenca media del Río Cautín, valles centrales del centro sur de Chile, datado aproximadamente 1000 años aP (período Alfarero temprano). Se postula que la interpretación sobre la representación de grupos químicos de obsidiana en sitios arqueológicos del área centro sur de Chile se encuentra sesgada por muestreo y limitaciones de las técnicas analíticas. Eso implicó una escasa visibilidad de grupos químicos orientales en el sector centro sur chileno que fue interpretado como evidencia del carácter limitante de la cordillera de los Andes, en disonancia con otras evidencias. La ampliación de la muestra y el uso de técnicas no destructivas sobre el total de la colección del sitio permitieron reconocer que tres de los cinco artefactos de obsidiana provienen de dos grupos químicos del sector oriental cordillerano. Algunos aspectos tecnológicos de las propiedades de las materias primas y sus modificaciones superficiales sugieren la explotación y aprovisionamiento selectivo de variedades cromáticas que posiblemente requirieron el acceso a fuentes primarias. Finalmente, se amplía la distribución espacial del grupo químico CP-LL1 y al mismo tiempo se describe su primer registro para la República de Chile.
... Thus, similar intentions are assumed to always result in the production of similar artefacts. This is despite numerous insights from studies of lithic technological organisation that suggest artefact production and maintenance are sensitive to patterns of movement and the distribution of key resources (Bamforth 1991;Nelson 1991;Kuhn 1995;Bamforth & Bleed 1997). Leaving this issue aside, one of the often-neglected roles played by fossiles directeurs has been in allowing artefacts that can neither be dated nor placed in stratigraphic context to play a role in reconstructions of the past (Sampson 1985;Carrión et al. 2000;Dietl et al. 2005;Kandel & Conard 2013;Hallinan & Parkington 2017;Hallinan 2018;Shaw et al. 2019). ...
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Much of the archaeological record in southern Africa occurs as open-air surface scatters of flaked stone artefacts. While historically prominent, these surface artefacts now play a very limited role in reconstructing human behaviour during the Middle and Later Stone Ages. Given suitable caveats, typologies allow links to be developed between open-air surface scatters and temporally controlled excavated samples, the latter often recovered from rock shelters. Among the limitations of this approach are the incomplete rock shelter record for developing type seriations, and the fact that technological behaviours may vary across a landscape, restricting the inferential capacity of assemblages from specific contexts. In this article, we describe four persistent core forms identified during surveys of the Doring River, and attempt to situate them in the regional archaeological sequence using previously excavated samples and intra-site spatial coherence with known culture-historical entities. Our results provide plausible core type markers for the Later Middle Stone Age and Still Bay in the region, and also fill out aspects of artefact transport in a regional technological system that have previously been masked by a site-based approach.
... Another proxy contributing to our understanding of the role of the site within the settlement system is the technological organization (Geneste, 1985;Nelson, 1991). The assemblages at Abou-Sif comprised of four main reduction sequences: Laminar, Levallois (for flakes, point, and blades), possible Levallois, and cores on flake. ...
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The Early Middle Palaeolithic (EMP) in the Levant presents a unique phenomenon, diverse forms of blade production dominate the technological organization. Contrary to the discontinuous presence of blade production across Eurasia, both before and after the EMP, blades and their by-products were, between 250 and 160,000 years ago, the main "behavioral package" in the Levant region. The EMP lithic assemblages comprised of several techno-typological traits, the use of Levallois, Laminar, and cores on flakes reduction strategies. Furthermore, it seems that within each single reduction sequence there is versatility, changes which occur between technological concepts allows prolongation of the core’s utility and enhanced control of blank production. Here, we reassess the assemblages of Abou-Sif, excavated between 1928-1934, and among the first EMP sites excavated and analysed in the region. These lithic assemblages, despite biased collection methods, will contribute to the understanding of the EMP technological organization. These results not only highlight the techno-typological diversity in the mode of production but also reflect the narrow variation that is shared among all known EMP sites. The possible social and demographic implications of this low-diversity within a cohesive geographical and chronological framework will be discussed with regards to the previous Late Lower and later Middle Paleolithic records in the Levant.
... Por su parte, la estrategia expeditiva en la tecnológica lítica, aunque con evidencias de prácticas curatoriales (sensu Nelson 1991), también indican estabilidad y persistencia de uso del sitio. En el marco del posible uso recurrente, la práctica de acopio de materias primas líticas habría permitido que las herramientas fueran elaboradas de modo congruente con la necesidad de uso e inmediatamente descartadas (Nelson 1991), lo que podría asociarse a ocupaciones más estables. ...
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This article presents the results of the archaeological study of the PA68 site in the El Quebrachito lagoon, located on a lunette sand dune next to an old wetland of the Desaguadero River (Gran Llanura de la Travesía, west-central Argentina). Based on the results of radiocarbon dating and of ceramic, archaeofaunistic, and lithic material analyses, it is postulated that between ca. 1200 and 800 years BP, during the Medieval Climate Optimum, populations intensified the occupation of the area and of this site in particular. Occupations, within a logistic mobility pattern, around ca. 400 years BP during the Little Ice Age are also recorded. Although strong alterations can be observed in these remains, as they are deposited in the dunes, these do not hinder the interpretation of the process of use of riverside environments with occupations linked to subsistence modes, focused on fishing and technologies, which took advantage of mineral resources in the north of Mendoza, as well as others to the east of the study area.
... Although lithic expedient technology originally referred to a technological strategy (Binford, 1979;Nelson, 1991), it seems that the most generalized material indexes in this type of tool correspond to a minimal shaping, opportunistic use of natural edges, short use and abandonment even if the structure of the tool would allow for continued use (e.g. Bleed, 1986;Nash, 1996;Odell, 1996). ...
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The Pilauco site, in northwestern Chilean Patagonia, presents evidence of human occupation in South America ca. 16,500 cal yr BP. This article presents the techno-functional analysis of a unifacial artifact belonging to a 17,300 cal yr BP level, found in association with five other lithic pieces. Artifacts of this type have long been considered expedient rather than formal or curated pieces. These artifacts remain in the shadow of bifacial pieces, particularly so-called projectile points. The results of the techno-functional analysis made it possible to diagnose the unifacial artifact as a plano-convex volumetric structure with two parallel backs, on which two different tools were produced at different manufacturing stages via the technical operations of affordance, debitage, and shaping. The detailed description of this type of artifact is crucial for a more complete definition of the technical phenomena associated with the first occupations in South America.
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En este artículo se analizan los núcleos, desechos y artefactos líticos recuperados en el sitio arqueológico Boyo Paso 2 (Sierras de Córdoba, Argentina), un asentamiento a cielo abierto interpretado como un campamento base ocupado durante la estación productiva (octubre-abril) por grupos que combinaban cultivos, caza-recolección y patrones de uso flexible del espacio. El objetivo principal es presentar los resultados y contribuir a la caracterización de la organización de la tecnología lítica durante el Período Prehispánico Tardío (1500-350 AP), cuya información sugiere que la incorporación de cultivos no restringió la movilidad estacional ni el tiempo invertido en la caza-recolección. Los datos apuntaron hacia la existencia de un cierto componente tecnológico conservado entre los grupos tardíos, que, junto con la expeditividad, regía la organización de la tecnología. El aprovechamiento intensivo de aquellas rocas de mejor calidad para la talla y menos abundantes en el paisaje, en un contexto dominado por estrategias tecnológicas expeditivas, da particular relevancia a los resultados obtenidos, en especial para comprender la amplitud de respuestas tecnológicas en casos en los que la adopción de cultivos no necesariamente derivó en una agricultura sedentaria, un patrón observado etnográficamente pero difícil de delimitar desde la cultura material.
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The mid-Middle Paleolithic (late Marine Isotope Stage 6 and Marine Isotope Stage 5) is the documented phase of the Levantine Middle Paleolithic (MP), especially concerning flint provisioning strategies. Our study of raw material exploitation at Nesher Ramla karst sinkhole (central Coastal Plain, Israel) provides an intriguing glimpse into the decision making of mid-Middle Paleolithic hominins. In this study we focused on the identification of the provisioning strategies derived from two horizons (which we dubbed the “Pelvis Horizon” and the “Stones Horizon”) from the upper part of the Nesher Ramla sequence. We applied several analytical measures: a survey of raw material sources, material composition and typo-technological analyses of the archaeological assemblages, mainly using the chaîne opératoire approach and a taphonomic-taxonomic analysis of the faunal assemblages. Our study demonstrates that different lithic provisioning strategies were practiced in each horizon. The findings for the Pelvis Horizon are particularly interesting. They offer strong evidence for hunter-gatherers’ personal toolkits associated with the provisioning of individuals strategy. The Stones Horizon, conversely, produced a mixed signal, containing evidence for both intensive in situ knapping and mobile toolkits. The faunal remains echo these differences: Compared to the Stones Horizon, the zooarchaeological assemblage of the Pelvis Horizon presents lower frequencies of bone fracturing, anthropogenic modifications, and burning. Accordingly, during the Pelvis Horizon, the site most likely functioned as an ephemeral hunting station whereas, during the Stones Horizon, it hosted a broader range of activities and longer occupations. These observations shed light on the variability of south Levantine MP mobility patterns, modes of occupation, and site function.
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As a technologically-complex material class, perishable artifacts have the potential to address a multitude of socio-economic activities and behaviors; however, their application to these subjects are limited by poor preservation and small sample sizes. This study presents a novel approach to analysis that incorporates the chaîne opératoire of basketry and cordage, demonstrating the efficacy of applying statistics to characterize technological organization. To illustrate the utility of this approach, this study provides a diachronic analysis of basketry, cordage, and related manufacturing waste from Bonneville Estates Rockshelter (BER), a multi-layered “dry cave” archaeological site in the eastern Great Basin dating from the late Pleistocene through the Holocene. The relationship between people and the environment as well as social interaction among hunter-gatherers are addressed by considering the timing, changes, and seasonality of perishables at BER. Changes in basketry manufacture and the importance of net hunting throughout the Holocene emphasize temporal variation in community participation in subsistence activities. Debris from textile production demonstrates that BER also functioned as a multi-seasonal manufacturing and repair site. By comparing functional and technological-stylistic attributes, this study characterizes the complex ways gender influenced the manufacture and use of a material class traditionally associated with feminine work in hunter-gatherer communities.
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It develops the theoretical–methodological framework adopted for this study, the specific methodology used for the techno-functional analysis of stone materials in general, as well as the research strategies that led to the results sought. This research was structured according to two ways to address the study of the archaeology of the hunter-gatherer groups in the central strip of Tierra del Fuego. On one hand, and as the main axis, the study was addressed from a techno-functional point of view, with its base in the technological organization in general, and in lithic technology in particular, from the analysis of raw materials and potential sources of supply, operational chains and techno-morphological and functional studies of lithic material. On the other hand, in order to recognize large areas that had never been surveyed before, the research included studies using a distributional approach with the intention of achieving a general record of the density of archaeological material in the landscape.
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