Marker-Assisted Selection in Tomato Breeding
The cultivated tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., is the second most consumed vegetable crop after potato and unquestionably the most popular garden crop in the world. There are more varieties of tomato sold worldwide than any other vegetable crop. Most of the commercial cultivars of tomato have been developed through phenotypic selection and traditional breeding. However, with the advent of molecular markers and marker-assisted selection (MAS) technology, tomato genetics and breeding research has entered into a new and exciting era. Molecular markers have been used extensively for genetic mapping as well as identification and characterization of genes and QTLs for many agriculturally important traits in tomato, including disease and insect resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, and flower- and fruit-related characteristics. The technology also has been utilized for marker-assisted breeding for several economically important traits, in particular disease resistance. However, the extent to which MAS has been employed in public and private tomato breeding programs has not been clearly determined. The objectives of this study were to review the publically-available molecular markers for major disease resistance traits in tomato and assess their current and potential use in public and private tomato breeding programs. A review of the literature indicated that although markers have been identified for most disease resistance traits in tomato, not all of them have been verified or are readily applicable in breeding programs. For example, many markers are not validated across tomato genotypes or are not polymorphic within tomato breeding populations, thus greatly reducing their utility in crop improvement programs. However, there seems to be a considerable use of markers, particularly in the private sector, for various purposes, including testing hybrid purity, screening breeding populations for disease resistance, and marker assisted backcross breeding. Here we provide a summary of molecular markers available for major disease resistance traits in tomato and discuss their actual use in tomato breeding programs. It appears that many of the available markers may need to be further refined or examined for trait association and presence of polymorphism in breeding populations. However, with the recent advances in tomato genome and transcriptome sequencing, it is becoming increasingly possible to develop new and more informative PCR-based markers, including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to further facilitate the use of markers in tomato breeding. It is also expected that more markers will become available via the emerging technology of genotyping by sequencing (GBS).
Available from: Matteo Caser
- "Therefore, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has the potential to speed up the breeding process and to increase efficiency. MAS is already used in many crops such as cotton, rice, maize, potato, and tomato (Zhang et al. 2003; Dokku et al. 2013; Foolad and Panthee 2013; Li et al. 2013; Yang et al. 2013). The obstacles to carry out MAS in tulip breeding at present are that tulip has a large genome (1C & 30 GB), only few molecular markers have been published (Shahin et al. 2012), and no genetic map is available. "
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ABSTRACT: Fusarium oxysporum is a major problem in the production of tulip bulbs. Breeding for resistant cultivars through a conventional approach is a slow process due to the long life cycle of tulip. Until now, marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been hampered by the large genome size and the absence of a genetic map. This study is aimed at construction of the first genetic map for tulip and at the identification of loci associated with resistance to F. oxysporum. A cross-pollinated population of 125 individuals segregating for Fusarium resistance was obtained from Tulipa gesneriana “Kees Nelis” and T. fosteriana “Cantata.” Fusarium resistance of the mapping population was evaluated through a soil infection test in two consecutive years, and a spot inoculation test in which a green fluorescent protein tagged Fusarium strain was used for inoculation. The genetic maps have been constructed for the parents separately. The genetic map of “Kees Nelis” comprised 342 markers on 27 linkage groups covering 1707 cM, while the map of “Cantata” comprised 300 markers on 21 linkage groups covering 1201 cM. Median distance between markers was 3.9 cM for “Kees Nelis” and 3.1 cM for “Cantata.” Six putative quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for Fusarium resistance were identified, derived from both parents. QTL2, QTL3, and QTL6 were significant in all disease tests. For the flanking markers of the QTLs, phenotypic means of the two allelic groups, segregating from a parent for such a marker, were significantly different. These markers will be useful for the development of MAS in tulip breeding.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-015-0316-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Available from: Wencai Yang
- "Genetic marker development for tomato has been conducted over 30 years through various approaches, including restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), random ampliﬁed polymorphic DNA (RAPD), ampliﬁed fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), simple sequence repeat (SSR), cleaved ampliﬁed polymorphisms (CAPs), and conserved ortholog sets (COSs). Most markers developed by these approaches are based on DNA or cDNA polymorphisms between wild species and cultivated tomato, which lead to the construction of the first generation reference linkage maps and isolation of genes of interests.1,2 However, the ability of using these markers to detect polymorphisms in cultivated tomato is limited.3 "
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ABSTRACT: Comparative analysis of the genome sequences of Solanum lycopersicum variety Heinz 1706 and S. pimpinellifolium accession LA 1589 using MUGSY software identified 145 695 insertion-deletion (InDel) polymorphisms. A selected set of 3029 candidate InDels (≥2 bp) across the entire tomato genome were subjected to PCR validation, and 82.4% could be verified. Of 2272 polymorphic InDels between LA 1589 and Heinz 1706, 61.6, 45.2, and 31.6% were polymorphic in 8 accessions of S. pimpinellifolium, 4 accessions of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, and 10 varieties of S. lycopersicum, respectively. Genetic distance was 0.216 in S. pimpinellifolium, 0.202 in S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, and 0.108 in S. lycopersicum. The data suggested a reduction of genetic variation from S. pimpinellifolium to S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and S. lycopersicum. Cluster analysis showed that the 8 accessions of S. pimpinellifolium were in one group, whereas 4 accessions of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme and 10 varieties of S. lycopersicum were in the same group.
Available from: Sarika J
- "Tomato is known to be susceptible to over 200 diseases caused by pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes . To accelerate conventional plant breeding, Marker Assisted Selection (MAS) with more than 80 resistance genes to major classes of pathogens (fungal, bacterial, virus and nematode) have been used extensively for pyramiding resistance genes [8,9]. The other essential characteristics for tomato improvement are development of cultivars with broad adaptability, earliness and fruit quality. "
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The cultivated tomato is second most consumed vegetable of the world and is an important part of a diverse and balanced diet as a rich source of vitamins, minerals, phenolic antioxidants and antioxidant lycopene having anti-cancer properties. To reap benefit of genomics of the domestic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) unravelled by Tomato Genome Consortium (The Tomato Genome Consortium, 2012), the bulk mining of its markers in totality is imperative and critically required. The solgenomics has limited number of microsatellite DNA markers (2867) pertaining to solanaceae family. As these markers are of linkage map having relative distance, the choice of selected markers based on absolute distance as of physical map is missing. Only limited microsatellite markers with limitations are reported for variety identification thus there is a need for more markers supplementing DUS test and also for traceability of product in global market.
We present here the first whole genome based microsatellite DNA marker database of tomato, TomSatDB (Tomato MicroSatellite Database) with more than 1.4 million markers mined in-silico, using MIcroSAtellite (MISA) tool. To cater the customized needs of wet lab, features with a novelty of an automated primer designing tool is added. TomSatDB (http://cabindb.iasri.res.in/tomsatdb), a user-friendly and freely accessible tool offers chromosome wise as well as location wise search of primers. It is an online relational database based on “three-tier architecture” that catalogues information of microsatellites in MySQL and user-friendly interface developed using PHP (Hypertext Pre Processor).
Besides abiotic stress, tomato is known to have biotic stress due to its susceptibility over 200 diseases caused by pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses and nematodes. These markers are expected to pave the way of germplasm management over abiotic and biotic stress as well as improvement through molecular breeding, leading to increased tomato productivity in India as well as other parts of the world. In era of IPR the new variety can be identified based on allelic variation among varieties supplementing DUS test and product traceability.
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