Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

This article reviews and evaluates the concept of organizational forgetting. Drawing on established literature in the field of organizational learning, the authors analyze forgetting from three perspectives—cognitive, behavioral, and social. They argue a counterintuitive line that forgetting, in the right circumstances, can be beneficial for companies and demonstrate how the advantages and disadvantages vary according to the perspective adopted. The authors conclude with some practical suggestions about how companies can increase their ability to forget and also offer suggestions about the academic research agenda.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Organizational unlearning and forgetting is thought to entail strategically relevant elements. Managing unlearning and forgetting processes can positively influence the competitiveness of organizations (Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011;Martin de Holan and Phillips, 2004a;Martin de Holan et al., 2004). The significance of organizational unlearning and forgetting can also be discerned in terms of new technologies and innovation. ...
... Organizational restructuring (often downsizing) can lead to organizational forgetting when key employees leave the company, routines are disremembered, working relationships dissolve, or significant documentation is lost (Martin de Holan et al., 2004). Since memory is mostly situational and relies on contextual awareness, regular rotation of employees into and out of distinctive positions encourages organizational forgetting (Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011). Organizational knowledge can also be naturally lost due to changes in the organizational life cycle ( Wang et al., 2013). ...
... Accidental forgetting through memory decay can have negative, harmful, and costly consequences (Martin de Holan et al., 2004). Individuals may lose technical expertise, experience, or market intelligence; teams might forget collective competences or their identity and the reason for their initial establishment; companies may not be able to remember strategies that once accounted for their success or the reason for creating certain routines and systems (Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011). Accidental forgetting can lead to a permanent loss of knowledge or behaviors, when individuals fail to use this knowledge or behavior over a period of time ( Hislop et al., 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Recently, organizational unlearning and forgetting has received increasing attention in scholarly research. The concepts are thought to impact organizational change and innovation. We empirically investigate antecedents and outcomes of organizational unlearning and forgetting in the process of new product development in teams. Results indicate that managing unlearning and forgetting can increase a team's performance, whereas disregarding the management of knowledge loss can lead to a decrease in group performance. We discuss our findings with previous research on unlearning and forgetting and provide theoretical and practical implications.
... Table 1 presents a chronological outline of various definitions of unlearning prevalent during four different phases-1976-1990, 1991-2000, 2001-2010, and 2011present. Most definitions attribute a unified connotation to unlearning, i.e., it is an intentional process, whereby organizations question, identify and discard obsolete knowledge (Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2011;Hedberg 1981;Klein 1989;Martin de Holan et al. 2004;Zhao et al. 2013), routines (Akgün et al. 2006;Matsuo 2018;Tsang 2008;Tsang and Zahra 2008), beliefs (Baker and Sinkula 1999;Hislop et al. 2014), or behaviors (Hamel 1991;Becker 2010) in order to acquire new knowledge and behaviors (Becker 2010;Cegarra-Navarro et al. 2011). Moreover, unlearning definitions fall into either one of the two categories, namely, process-oriented and outcome-oriented. ...
... Moreover, unlearning definitions fall into either one of the two categories, namely, process-oriented and outcome-oriented. The process-oriented definition emphasizes how organizations discard their obsolete knowledge and behaviors (Baker and Sinkula 1999;Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2011;Matsuo 2018). The outcome-oriented definitions are more concerned about the consequences of unlearning. ...
... Lately, researchers have empirically examined the element of organizational forgetting (OF) in the learning process, thereby developing a new approach incorporating both aspects, i.e., learning and forgetting (Agrawal and Muthulingam 2015;Argote 2013;Carmona and Grönlund 1998;Causholli 2016;Kim and Seo 2009;Thompson 2007). Forgetting is defined as an inadvertent loss of knowledge, routines, or practices from organizational memory due to personnel turnover, disuse of knowledge, and failure to capture/ codify new knowledge (Agrawal and Muthulingam 2015;Argote 2013;Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2011;Fernandez and Sune 2009;López and Sune 2013;Martin de Holan and Phillips 2004a;Meschi and Métais 2013). Easterby-Smith and Lyles (2011) analyze OF from cognitive, behavioral, and social perspectives. ...
Article
Full-text available
Unlearning has evinced immense traction and opportunity in debates pertaining to organizational learning, innovation, management of change, knowledge management, and new product development, to name but a few. Provided the diversity and expansiveness of the phenomenon, past studies have undertaken both narrative and systematic reviews to synthesize the field of organizational unlearning (OU). Although highly commendable and enlightening, these scholarly efforts would be augmented by contemplating the share of leading management journals towards furthering the research on unlearning. Moreover, a systematic comprehension of the research themes of OU can be instrumental in representing the intellectual structure of the field. For this purpose, we undertake a combination of bibliometric and thematic analysis to identify critical trends that have helped shape unlearning research. The results discern the main scientific actors (articles, authors, journals, universities), research design, and dimensions of OU. In addition, eight clusters of unlearning along with underlying theoretical perspectives are analyzed, which may help scholars integrate the development of one domain to another, formulate pertinent research questions related to OU, and encourage interdisciplinary research.
... Many authors defend the value of case study research through alternative conceptualisations of generalisations and its significance in scientific knowledge development (Bassey, 2001;Flyvbjerg, 2006;Yin, 2009). However, 2011b) warns against this line of thinking from social scientists as diluting the natural sciences' constructs of generalisability. He argues that the validity of case study research cannot be drawn from generalisability simply because it cannot represent a larger set. ...
... This study shares the view of 2011b). From the critical realist perspective, knowledge is subject to fallibility, particularly knowledge in the social sciences. ...
Thesis
There is a growing recognition that the study of Organisational learning needs to be considered across three levels of analysis: individual, group, and organisational levels (March, 1991; Nonaka and Takeuchi, 1995; Crossan et al., 1999; 2011). Given the potential of multilevel research to extend the boundaries of the understanding of the field, this thesis aims to address how organisations learn as a multilevel system. The answers to the research inquiry were drawn from both theoretical works and by conducting an empirical investigation. To assist the investigation of the OL phenomenon in multilevel settings, a multilevel model of OL was proposed. The model provides analytical foci by specifying the learning tensions at the individual, group, and organisational levels. The model was employed in a case study of a Vietnamese public organisation, which had successfully undergone a business transformation. Through the contributions of this thesis, the author hopes to spark more interest in multilevel research of OL.
... Deliberate or involuntary forgetting is regarded as a prevalent element of organizational life as it facilitates the elimination of obsolete theory (Bowker, 1997) and encourages innovation and new technologies (Becker, 2008;Cegarra Navarro and Cepeda Carrión, 2013). Literature highlights the strategic relevance of organizational unlearning and forgetting in terms of competitive advantage and business performance (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011;Martin de Holan and Phillips, 2004a). ...
... The social perspective stresses the importance of organizational decision making, learning as well as knowledge creation and highlights the interaction between individuals and groups within firms (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011;McKeown, 2012). Thus, unlearning and forgetting from a social perspective refers to the loss of social networks and shared perspectives that influence specific world views (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose – The purpose of this systematic literature review is to survey and evaluate the key works in the field of organizational unlearning and forgetting. Through analyzing and synthesizing common themes, we aim to highlight research gaps and new avenues for research in the field of organizational unlearning and forgetting. We intend to contribute to the debate and enhance the field by providing a better understanding of the topic. Design/methodology/approach – We conducted a systematic literature review to identify significant studies in the field of organizational unlearning and forgetting. After applying certain inclusion/exclusion criteria, we selected a final number of 63 relevant works which we thoroughly analyzed. Structuring the analysis and synthesis around various constructs, theories, typologies, and related themes allowed us to highlight several research gaps and propose avenues for further research. Originality/value – Although it is an under-researched field characterized by a blurry and fragmented understanding, the field of organizational unlearning and forgetting has received increased scholarly attention. We reveal fresh insights into this field of research and provide new avenues for future research. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the field and raises several additional questions to spark further debate. We highlight various processes and mechanisms of unlearning and forgetting and expose common themes in the analyzed literature. By reviewing relevant works in detail, we theoretically expand the overarching fields of knowledge management and organizational learning. Researchers from other disciplines might consider various aspects of this work for their own fields and, in turn, enhance interdisciplinary research efforts. Practical implications – This paper also aims at raising awareness of organizational unlearning and forgetting in companies. The outcomes of this work could benefit managers, consultants, employees, or other practitioners in terms of its strategic significance in order to enhance the competitive advantage and performance of their organizations. Particularly in knowledge-intensive environments, the effective and efficient management of knowledge is crucial. Successfully managing processes of knowledge loss can positively influence an organization's performance. We outline some important factors that practicioners can consider when dealing with purposeful or involuntary knowledge loss.
... Therefore, it is argued that existing models of organizational unlearning may require adapting or expanding to allow for the impact of external forces and stakeholders; in this case, the impact of forces driving professionalization. Three perspectives identified in the organizational learning literature have been applied to organizational unlearning: cognitive, behavioral and social perspectives (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011). Cognitive perspectives focus on the knowledge that exists in organizations, both explicit and tacit, and how this can be unlearnt. ...
... A behavioral perspective focuses on the entrenched behaviors and actions of individuals and organizations, often gained through experiential means. Experiences can help build organizational knowledge and embed routines but may also serve as a barrier to unlearning (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011). In the case of professionals, such experiences can occur beyond the boundary of the organization or internally within groups of professionals regardless of their role or location in the organization. ...
Article
Purpose Interest in the topic of unlearning has grown in recent years, fueled by rapid changes in the business environment and resultant organizational change. This change challenges individuals and organizations to unlearn past knowledge and practice to embrace new organizational realities. However, much of the unlearning literature focuses on either individual or organizational factors that enable or hinder unlearning. This paper aims to look beyond the organizational boundary to question whether there are tensions between professionals and the organizations in which they work that influence organizational unlearning. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper analyzing how professions are established to identify the implications for organizational unlearning. The critical elements of a profession are explored to identify the potential impact that professionals within the organization may have on organizational learning and unlearning. Findings The paper argues that to facilitate unlearning, organizations must recognize not only internal factors but also external pressures on individuals and groups. In particular, professions with a strong identity may represent a significant force that can either engender or resist attempts to learn and unlearn by the organization. Originality/value Within the existing unlearning literature, individual and organizational factors that facilitate or hinder unlearning have been widely canvased. However, little attention has been given to the factors beyond organizational boundaries that may also impact unlearning, particularly for individuals and groups with strong professional identities. This paper offers some unique insights into this potential factor for consideration by those seeking to enhance organizational unlearning.
... Literature on unlearning has typically been categorized as taking one of three perspectives: cognitive, behavioral or social (Easterby- Smith & Lyles, 2011;Tsang & Zahra, 2008). Each of 10615 16 these perspectives provide insight for consideration of unlearning in the onboarding process, and can be aligned with the 4Cs model of onboarding (Bauer, 2010) as shown in Table 1. ...
Article
Onboarding provides an opportunity to realize a return on investment from hiring processes, and to ensure that new employees meet their full potential. Therefore, designing and managing effective onboarding is an important human resource management function. Discussion of onboarding emerged from the psychology literature and has focused heavily on socialization. In this paper, we offer a new framework of onboarding from a learning theory perspective. This framework contributes to the onboarding literature by identifying two additional and critical considerations. First, we demonstrate that learning theory provides a new lens through which to view onboarding, and we examine how the specific concept of unlearning could be applied in this context. In addition, we argue that it is critical to recognize the unique learning needs of specific talent segments to design appropriate onboarding. We conclude with key considerations for future research to enhance the onboarding experience for newcomers and optimize organizational outcomes.
... Argyris and Sch€ on 1978;Crossan et al. 1995;Fiol and Lyles 1985;Huber 1991). What is lacking, however, is research on how this increasingly complex amount of data can be managed effectively so that individual decision makers can concentrate on those contents that are relevant in each task (Easterby-Smith and Lyles 2011;Kluge and Gronau 2018;Niederee et al. 2015). Similar to basic memory processes described above, forgetting seems to be helpful or even necessary in business contexts, which are increasingly complex and rapidly changing (e.g. ...
Article
Decision-makers in organisations are often overtaxed by huge amounts of information in daily business processes. As a potential support strategy, this study examined ‘directed forgetting’ (Bjork, 1970) in a simulated sales planning scenario. We assumed that the availability of a computer-based decision support system (DSS) triggers forgetting of decision-related background information. Such directed forgetting should not only release memory capacities for additional tasks but also enhance decision quality and decrease strain of decision makers. Assumptions were tested in an experimental study with N = 90 participants. Consistent with our assumptions, results revealed higher recall of decision-unrelated information, higher decision quality, and higher well-being when participants could use a DSS as compared to two control conditions without a DSS. Moreover, directed forgetting effects were qualified by participants’ trust in the DSS. This study provides first evidence for directed forgetting effects cued by information systems in a business context. Practitioner Summary: Information overload is an increasing challenge in modern business organisations. Extending findings from basic memory research, this study shows that availability of a computer-based decision support system triggers forgetting of decision-related background information, which in turn increases users’ mental resources for additional tasks, decision quality, and well-being.
... Theoretical Foundation of IF. In times in which decision-makers have to process growing volumes of information [37], forgetting can be beneficial for both, organizations [38] and information overloaded employees [39]. Cognitive research has shown that individuals can forget when directed to do so and that directed forgetting releases resources for additional tasks [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Future work environments will offer technical applications to manage increasing amounts of information for organizations, teams, and individuals. In this context, psychological concepts of intentional forgetting (IF) can be applied to improve the performance of work systems or to extend the cognitive capacities of humans in technical systems. Different IF mechanisms have been suggested for assisting technology-aided IF, such as: (1) filtering of irrelevant or distressful information (e.g., by suppressing, deleting, or selecting), (2) delegating tasks from human to digital agents, changing roles, and reorganizing socio-digital work systems, or (3) systematic (re-)placement of retrieval cues or triggers to generate or suppress behavior. Due to these different underlying IF mechanisms, the implementation of IF at the individual, team, and organizational level will differ substantially between work areas or systems. In order to gain a better understanding of how socio-digital applications of IF impact human behavior and reactions, it is necessary to differentiate between relevant characteristics of socio-digital IF systems and gain an understanding of how these characteristics impact users' attitudes and performance. Thus, the present paper aims to classify and compare these characteristics of different applications of IF and introduces variables and methods to study psychological effects on users' behavior, experience, and af-fective reactions.
... Hislop et al., 2014;MacDonald, 2002;Matsuo, 2019;Rushmer and Davies, 2004). However, processes of unlearning and relearning often entail a shift from the individual to the organization and involve cognitive, behavioural and social aspects (Cegarra-Navarro and Moya, 2005;Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011;Hislop et al., 2014). There is also a relational foundation to unlearning and relearning as groups can have a significant impact upon the complexities of learning processes (Antonacopoulou, 2009;Becker, 2018) and group dynamics can impact organizational learning and change (Lucas and Kline, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Through a process of action research with a non-religious organization, this article provides a foundation for the characteristics of a secular discernment process. Importantly, we argue that discernment can be conceptualized as a process of entwined individual unlearning and collective relearning. Our action research study contributes to both the discernment and the unlearning literatures by unpacking how discernment encourages a process of individual unlearning – which our study suggests entails a process of ‘setting aside’ and reflexive-distancing from a priori individual knowledge – to be more open and receptive to new ways of emergent collective re-learning. The process of unlearning – and the behavioural norms and routines that are central to discernment – underscores the collective relearning process. The article concludes with future pathways for research.
... In this sense, the literature provided new understandings, offerings and alternative solutions, in which 'unlearning' has been one of them, as a different perspective, idea or as an unconventional path within the domain of organizational learning and organizational change. (Easterby-Smith, 1997;Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011;Fiol and Lyles, 1985;Hedberg, 1981;Nystrom and Starbuck, 1984). ...
... Purposeful and involuntary knowledge losses are perceived as prevalent components of organizational activity and encourage the elimination of outdated theory (Bowker, 1997). Managing unlearning and forgetting processes can positively influence the competitiveness of organizations (Martin de Holan et al., 2004;Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011), is thought to entail strategically relevant elements (Martin de Holan and Phillips, 2004a) and helps in understanding how companies deal with troubled business models (Mehrizi and Lashkarbolouki, 2016). Managers play a crucialand sometimes ambiguousrole in inducing, guiding and controlling knowledge loss processes in organizations (Matsuo, 2019;Mariano et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the antecedents, levers of control and outcomes of organizational unlearning and forgetting in new product development (NPD) teams. Design/methodology/approach This paper employs a holistic multiple-case study design. This paper gathered data from 30 individual semi-structured interviews in 10 different NPD teams as well as additional data to triangulate the findings. Findings The authors propose a model of unlearning and forgetting elements occurring in NPD teams. The two most prominent factors that hamper innovation are the inability to unlearn and involuntary forgetting. Failure to manage these antecedents results in the loss of crucial resources, missing innovations or intra-team tensions. Managing knowledge loss by promoting unlearning and reducing forgetting leads to enhanced creativity and flexibility, a higher chance of exceeding innovation goals, increased conversion efficiency and augmentation of existing knowledge. Research limitations/implications This paper contributes empirical evidence to the field of unlearning and forgetting. The model illustrates the NPD process from the perspective of organizational unlearning and forgetting. The authors examined the NPD process from an unlearning and forgetting perspective and proposed new categories of antecedents, consequences and managing unlearning and forgetting. This generates a more profound theoretical understanding of underlying knowledge loss processes in NPD teams. Practical implications Companies should promote unlearning and specify spatial and temporal freedom. In doing so, team members can identify outdated and obsolete knowledge. Being attentive to unlearning and forgetting processes allows teams to achieve increased creativity and flexibility. Originality/value This paper provides empirical evidence to generate a more profound understanding of the underlying mechanisms of knowledge loss in NPD teams. First, the authors propose a holistic model of antecedents, levers of control and consequences of both unlearning and forgetting. Second, the authors suggest that organizations can use these levers of control to successfully manage unlearning and forgetting in NPD teams.
... Theoretical Foundation of IF. In times in which decision-makers have to process growing volumes of information [37], forgetting can be beneficial for both, organizations [38] and information overloaded employees [39]. Cognitive research has shown that individuals can forget when directed to do so and that directed forgetting releases resources for additional tasks [40]. ...
Article
Future work environments offer numerous technical applications to manage increasing amounts of information for organizations, teams, and individuals. Psychological concepts of intentional forgetting (IF) can be applied to improve the performance of work systems or to extend cognitive capacities of humans in technical systems. Different IF mechanisms have been suggested for assisting technology-aided IF, such as: (1) filtering of irrelevant or distressful information (e.g., by suppressing, deleting, or selecting), (2) delegating tasks from human to digital agents, changing roles, and reorganizing socio-digital work systems, or (3) systematic (re-)placement of retrieval cues or triggers to generate or suppress behavior. Due to these different underlying IF mechanisms, the implementation of IF at individual, team, and organizational level will differ substantially between work areas or systems. In order to gain a better understanding of how socio-digital applications of IF impact human behavior and reactions, it is necessary to (a) differentiate between relevant characteristics of socio-digital IF systems and (b) gain an understanding of how these characteristics impact users’ attitudes and performance. Thus, the present paper aims to classify and compare these characteristics of different applications of IF and introduces variables and methods to study psychological effects on users’ behavior, experience, and affective reactions.
... Although organizational forgetting implies a passage of time from a point where knowledge is possessed to a point where it is lost, this connection is not made explicit in the literature we reviewed. Similarly, although organizational forgetting may be influenced by history, power and politics, especially in unlearning practices, or by the context in which it manifests, only a few contributions have started addressing these crucial aspects (Casey and Olivera, 2011;Tsang and Zahra, 2008;Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011;Mena et al., 2015;Cutcher et al., 2019;Hatch and Schultz, 2017). Second, there is a need to reconcile contradicting explanationssuch as whether technological sophistication and codification practices versus social networks prevent knowledge depreciation and lossthrough a multilevel perspective (Tables 1 and 2). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this two-part paper is to provide a summary of current research opportunities in organizational forgetting literature and a future research agenda. Design/methodology/approach The summary of current research opportunities and future research agenda is drawn from the systematic literature review and synthesis reported in Part I. Findings Two broad areas for future research are proposed: A first area that highlights a need to address integrative theoretical challenges that include issues of temporality, history, power dynamics, and organizational context. A second area that highlights a need to reconcile contradicting explanations – such as whether technological sophistication and codification practices versus social networks prevent knowledge depreciation and loss – through a multilevel perspective. Research limitations/implications Limitations relate to time span coverage and journal article accessibility. Originality/value This Part II paper provides a summary of current research opportunities and offers directions for future research on organizational forgetting.
... This might also include the elimination of currently 'right-proven' aspects of business (Sheaffer and Mano-Negrin, 2003). Managing unlearning and forgetting processes can positively influence the competitiveness of organizations (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011;. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Purpose – The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate antecedents and outcomes of organizational unlearning and forgetting in the process of new product development (NPD) in teams. Through identifying antecedents of knowledge loss, we intend to find indicators and levers of control to successfully manage unlearning and forgetting processes. Our research should also reveal how these control mechanisms then reduce negative consequences and facilitate positive outcomes in the process of new product development. Design/methodology/approach – We employed a holistic multiple-case study design to examine our proposed research question. We conducted 30 individual semi-structured interviews in 10 different new product development teams (10 cases á 3 team members). Gathering additional data allowed us to triangulate our findings and propose a path model with unlearning and forgetting elements in the product development process. Originality/value – Our results indicate that managing unlearning and forgetting can increase a team’s performance, whereas disregarding the management of knowledge loss can lead to a decrease in group performance. The inability to unlearn (resistance to unlearning, stress, daily routines, or fear of making mistakes) and involuntary forgetting (faulty documentation and communication, key employees leaving the company, or information overload) are main drivers of knowledge loss in new product development. Organizations try to counteract negative consequences of knowledge loss by trying to encourage unlearning and diminish forgetting. Practical implications – Depending on the desired outcomes of an innovation, companies should promote unlearning and specifying degrees of freedom for individuals in NPD teams. Being attentive to unlearning and forgetting processes allows teams to be more flexible and receptive to change. Organizations should free team members from the shackles of daily routines to provide more time for identifying outdated and obsolete knowledge, which then can be actively unlearned. Also, companies should find ways to regulate knowledge inflows to protect their employees from information overload.
... Also, it has been proposed that unlearning occurs when previously held views and attitudes are being recognized and rethought [16]. In a similar vein, some authors focus on organizational forgetting [17]- [19]. As opposed to unlearning, which is an intentional process, forgetting is a "loss of knowledge that is not necessarily planned or intended" [17, p. 311]. ...
... Organizational unlearning differs from organizational forgetfulness. In both cases there is loss of organizational knowledge, but while unlearning refers to deliberate elimination of knowledge associated to routines, forgetfulness refers to a loss which is not necessarily intended or desired (Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011;Holland & Phillips, 2004;Remor, Miranda, Santos, Steil & Remor, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Given the increasing complexity and speed of change, organizations of different segments are pressured both to renew routines being used, as to discard the obsoletes. The first process is called organizational learning and the second, organizational unlearning. From an approach based on organizational routines, this paper describes these two processes in three footwear companies in southern Brazil from interviews and documents. The main results showed that the both processes are significant to achieving results in their businesses; that these processes are greatly influenced by changes; and that the need for continuous innovation in the sector catalyzes these processes.
... YÖ yazınında örgütlerde unutma konusuna değinen makalelerin tarihçesinin 1970'li yılların ikinci yarısının başlarına kadar uzandığı dile getirilmektedir. Gerçekten de alanda bilinen ilk çalışmalar Carlson ve Rowe'un; Hedberg ve arkadaşlarının ve Wickelgren'in 1976 senesinde yayınladıkları makalelerdir(Easterby-Smith ve Lyles, 2011;Fernandez ve Sune, 2009a;Martin de Holan, 2011a, 2011b. Bu bağlamda 1976 senesinin örgütsel unutma yazını için bir "Annus Mirabilis" olduğunu iddia etmek hiç de yanlış olmayacaktır. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
zet Örgütsel unutma yazını incelendiğinde, bahsi geçen yazının neredeyse, yapıyı faile indirgeyecek düzeyde bir iradeci duruş sergilediğini gözlemlemek güç değildir. Oysa, örgütlerin zaman zaman ve muhtelif nedenlerle davranış setlerinden uzaklaştırmak, bir diğer ifadeyle " unutmak " arzusu içerisinde oldukları davranışları yapının etkisiyle sürdürmek zorunda kalmaları da pek ala da mümkündür. Nitekim bu çalışmada, bir devlet üniversitesindeki bir fakültenin, kimi pratikleri çeşitli sebeplerle sonlandırma arzusu içerisinde olmasına rağmen, yapının etkisiyle devam ettirmek zorunda kalışı iki vakayla somutlaştırılmaya gayret edilmektedir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Faillik-yapı tartışması, örgütsel unutma, vaka çalışması, devlet üniversitesi.
... Estes dados são corroborados por Bapuji e Crossan (2004, p. 397) ao afirmarem que "a pesquisa empírica testemunha um crescimento fenomenal desde o final dos anos 90". Nesse direcionamento, discussões mais intensas só começam a surgir no início dos anos 2000, enfatizando a relevância da desaprendizagem no âmbito das tendências e agendas de pesquisa na área da Administração (EASTERBY-SMITH;LYLES, 2011). Apesar de um movimento ascendente de publicações sobre o tema, principalmente a partir do ano de 2017, no âmbito internacional, destaca-se a necessidade de maiores contribuições que possam elucidar o entendimento processual da desaprendizagem organizacional (AKGÜN et al., 2007;ZAHRA, 2008;HOLAN, 2011;RODRIGUES, BIDO, 2019 ...
Article
Full-text available
RESUMOA desaprendizagem organizacional é entendida como o descarte intencional de rotinas e contribui para novos aprendizados de pessoas, grupos e organizações. Tendo como tema a desaprendizagem organizacional, esta revisão bibliométrica objetiva apresentar a produção científica sobre o tema no período de 2010 a 2020, circunscrevendo a produção em nível nacional e internacional. Portanto, foi utilizada a bibliometria por ser reconhecida como técnica de medição da produção e disseminação do conhecimento científico. Para tanto, realizaram-se buscas nas bases de dados Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo e Spell, nos últimos dez anos. Os resultados demonstram que no Brasil, até o presente momento, o tema foi pouco estudado pelos pesquisadores, com apenas duas publicações nas bases de dados nacionais; em nível internacional, ainda com pesquisas tímidas, localizaram-se 62 trabalhos, todos no idioma inglês, sendo em maioria redigidos em formato de artigo, escritos por pesquisadores filiados em instituições educacionais nos países da China e Espanha. Dentre outras questões, identificaram-se ainda duas redes de pesquisadores e seus principais vértices. Desse modo, esta pesquisa contribui no sentido de apresentar um panorama sobre a desaprendizagem organizacional, destacando as lacunas da produção científica sobre o tema e reforçando sua importância no contexto organizacional, sobretudo no atual cenário pandêmico.Palavras-chave: Desaprendizagem Organizacional. Revisão Bibliométrica. Aprendizagem Organizacional. ABSTRACTOrganizational unlearning is understood as the intentional disposal of routines and contributes to new learning for people, groups and organization. With the theme of organizational unlearning, this bibliometric review aims to present the scientific production on the theme from 2010 to 2020, circumscribing the production at national and international level. Therefore, bibliometrics was used because it is recognized as a technique for measuring the production and dissemination of scientific knowledge. For this purpose, searches were carried out in the plataforms Web of Science, Scopus, Scielo and Spell databases, in the last ten years. The results show that in Brazil, until now, the topic has been little studied by researchers, with only two publications in national databases; at an international level, still with timid research, 62 papers were found, all in English language, most of them written in article format, written by researchers affiliated with educational institutions in the countries of China and Spain. Among other issues, two networks of researchers and their main vertices were also identified. Thus, this research contributes towards presenting an overview of organizational unlearning, highlighting the gaps in scientific production on the topic and reinforcing its importance in the organizational context, especially in the current pandemic scenario.Keywords: Organizational Unlearning. Bibliometric Review. Organizational Learning.
... Notably, the literature tends to emphasize positive continuities with the past, as evident in glorified accounts of founders' pasts (Basque & Langley, 2018;Maclean et al., 2018;Thornborrow & Brown, 2009) that build a sense of affiliation, continuity, and authenticity (Brown & Humphreys, 2002;Ybema, 2014). Romanticized accounts of a golden past serve to neglect less pleasant aspects, as organizations avoid associations with unpleasant aspects of the past that could lead to the potential loss of historical resources and generate negative organizational effects (Anteby & Molnár, 2012;Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011;Holan & Phillips, 2004 Langley, 2018), making it less apt for understanding contexts marked by traumatic or difficult past events. Moreover, while studies examine how either positive or negative aspects of the past inform organizational actions (Cappelen & Strandgaard Pedersen, 2021), less is known about their interplay in situations of multiple relationships to the past and how these are represented, to which we turn next. ...
Article
While emerging literature explores how organizations engage with the past, investigations of how complex relationships to the past influence mobilizing multiple forms of historical representation in practice remain scarce. The current study examines different relationships to the past to shed light on how their complex and at times contradictory connotations relates to the use of multimodal historical cues in organizational practices, based on a qualitative study of art galleries in downtown Tehran, Iran. We describe how fondness for, aversion to and conflicted relationships with the past coexist, and how and why actors use diverse historical cues to express these diverse relationships in practice. We add to current understandings of organizational uses of the past by offering insights into how and why organizations actively evoke and manage positive, negative, and conflicted relationships to the past, and how these relationships draw upon diverse discursive and non-discursive supports to organizational practices aiming at different yet complementary goals.
... Organizational, political science, and public policy research can help us substantiate this point. One strand of thinking, for example, praises organizational forgetting (de Holan, 2011;de Holan & Phillips, 2004;Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011). In this "counterintuitive tradition," arguments are presented that suggest that forgetting can lead to innovation (Easterby-Smith & Lyles, 2011, p. 311). ...
Article
This article explains why different government agencies experience variations in organizational memory loss. It first explains institutional amnesia theoretically by expanding the formal‐institutional view of organizational memory to include agential and structural‐contextual properties, revealing a broader range of novel explanations for amnesia. Institutional amnesia is then explained empirically through an international analysis of memory loss in four Westminster systems (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom). This analysis, which principally relies on 100 interviews with ministers, policy officials, and public‐sector leaders across the four countries, leads to the introduction of four explanations for amnesia, relating to: organizational churn, absorptive capacity, strategic‐instrumental decision making, and historical storytelling.
... The behavioral perspective of unlearning, on the other 5 hand, refers to eliminating routines, actions, practices, or habits. This view deals with knowledge-in-practice represented in individual actions and organizational routines (Easterby-Smith and Lyles, 2011). Cognitive and behavioral aspects of unlearning are intertwined (Grisold et al., 2020;Hislop et al., 2014;Rezazade Mehrizi and Lashkarbolouki, 2016;Tsang and Zahra, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Organizational unlearning has received increased attention in management and organization literature. In this paper, I explore the role of organizational unlearning as a facilitator of business model innovation. I argue that managers should engage in a prior step of unlearning to innovate outdated business models. In doing so, managers need to legitimize the unlearning process by scrutinizing and discarding their own cognitive views about the business model. Further, managers should provide boundary conditions for other organizational actors to eliminate actions, practices, and routines associated with the outdated business models. Engaging in an additional process of organizational unlearning helps managers to identify and remove outdated business models and facilitate business model innovation.
Article
Full-text available
To cope with the already large, and ever increasing, amount of information stored in organizational memory, "forgetting," as an important human memory process, might be transferred to the organizational context. Especially in intentionally planned change processes (e.g., change management), forgetting is an important precondition to impede the recall of obsolete routines and adapt to new strategic objectives accompanied by new organizational routines. We first comprehensively review the literature on the need for organizational forgetting and particularly on accidental vs. intentional forgetting. We discuss the current state of the art of theory and empirical evidence on forgetting from cognitive psychology in order to infer mechanisms applicable to the organizational context. In this respect, we emphasize retrieval theories and the relevance of retrieval cues important for forgetting. Subsequently, we transfer the empirical evidence that the elimination of retrieval cues leads to faster forgetting to the forgetting of organizational routines, as routines are part of organizational memory. We then propose a classification of cues (context, sensory, business process-related cues) that are relevant in the forgetting of routines, and discuss a meta-cue called the "situational strength" cue, which is relevant if cues of an old and a new routine are present simultaneously. Based on the classification as business process-related cues (information, team, task, object cues), we propose mechanisms to accelerate forgetting by eliminating specific cues based on the empirical and theoretical state of the art. We conclude that in intentional organizational change processes, the elimination of cues to accelerate forgetting should be used in change management practices.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Although still under-researched and characterized by a fragmented understanding, unlearning and forgetting have recently received increased scholarly attention. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to survey and evaluate key works in the field of organizational unlearning and forgetting. Through analyzing and synthesizing common themes, this paper aims to highlight research gaps and avenues for future research. Design/methodology/approach: This paper follows a systematic approach of identifying, analyzing and synthesizing pertinent literature in the field of organizational unlearning and forgetting. In total, 63 works were thoroughly reviewed. Findings: This paper highlights different levels and scopes, as well as antecedents and consequences of organizational unlearning and forgetting. Even though unlearning and forgetting has gained increased attention, researchers still need to provide robust conceptual and empirical evidence to advance the field. Originality/value: By structuring the analysis and synthesis around various constructs, theories, typologies and related themes, this paper outlines several research gaps and proposes avenues for further research. Additionally, this systematic literature review resulted in the development of a framework based on the intentionality and depth of knowledge loss, which allows future researchers to position their research and differentiate themselves from other literature in the field.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to evaluate how managers influence accidental and intentional organizational forgetting, i.e. knowledge depreciation, knowledge loss and unlearning. Design/methodology/approach The literature was reviewed based on predetermined search terms to identify peer-reviewed articles published in English and available in full-text format from the EBSCOhost and Google Scholar databases. Empirical and theoretical contributions were included. Additional articles, books and book chapters were manually selected and included based on recent reviews and syntheses of organizational forgetting work. Findings Findings revealed that managers contributed to preventing accidental knowledge depreciation and loss and preserving organizational memory. With respect to intentional forgetting, findings revealed contradictory positions: on the one hand, managers contributed to the disbandment of existing beliefs and frames of reference, but on the other hand, they preserved existing knowledge and power structures. Research limitations/implications The study was limited by the accessibility of subscribed journals and databases, research scope and time span. Practical implications This paper provides useful guidelines to managers who need to reduce the disruptive effects of accidental forgetting or plan intentional forgetting, i.e. managed unlearning. Originality/value This paper represents a first attempt to review and define the influence of managers on organizational forgetting.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to clarify the concept of organizational forgetting by reviewing the related literature. First, the study will focus on the concept of forgetting in general. Then, the related concepts will be clarified and the concept of organizational forgetting will be explained. Future directions that researchers in this field may focus on will be stated and finally, the conclusions of the study will be made. This and similar studies are of importance since the concept of organizational forgetting has been eclipsed by the more popular concept of organizational learning.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Aprendizagem organizacional se configura na construção e na organização do conhecimento. Apesar da correlação existente entre aprendizagem organizacional e esquecimento organizacional, a literatura pouco tem tratado esse tema, considerando o esquecimento de forma diferenciada, onde muitos autores na sua maioria o consideram como desaprendizagem. Este artigo tem como objetivo elucidar o conceito de esquecimento organizacional através de uma busca sistemática da literatura em três bancos de dados, Scopus, Web of Science e na One File, e utiliza como exemplos, resultados da auditoria interna em uma Instituição de Ensino Federal. Foram analisados dois exemplos: a existência de servidores que acumulem cargos, funções ou empregos públicos, indevidamente, no quadro de pessoal e o pagamento de adicional de insalubridade/periculosidade em desacordo com o laudo pericial. As autoras consideram que existem poucos estudos sobre esquecimento organizacional e muito menos relacionados às ocorrências de auditoria. Concluem que a auditoria, envolvendo um instituto de ensino federal, possui um fluxo de atividades diferente das empresas privadas, desta forma sugerem estudos mais aprofundados sobre este tema.
Chapter
In this chapter, I highlight Marjorie Lyles's contribution to the field of international management. Rather than attempting to present a comprehensive overview of her scientific career, I focus on three areas of her scholarship that I believe have influenced the direction of research in the field. First, I discuss her contributions to the study of organizational learning, both in terms of theory and empirics. Second, I provide an overview of the impact of her pioneering research on knowledge transfer in emerging economies. Third, I summarize her influence on the management profession.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In the last few years, economic press have devoted increasing attention to cases of multinational companies which decided to relocate in their home country production or supply previously off-shored. The knowledge of this phenomenon, named backshoring, is still anedoctical. The aim of the paper is to contribute to the extent literature, which is mainly focused on the costs of backshoring, (1) investigating whether a typology of backshoring processes exists, and (2) suggesting what are the capabilities involved in relocating manufacturing plants back home. For answering to these research questions, we conducted an analysis on a sample of Italian firms which backshored their production, identifying four cluster of different backshoring processes. Then, we formulate a set of research propositions related with the capabilities involved in the backshoring processes.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Structured Abstract Purpose-The purpose of the paper is to present research designs that are suitable for investigating organisational forgetting. The overall and long-term objective is to encourage researchers to use non-experimental, quasi-experimental and experimental designs as well as computer simulations to test the idea of the benefits of forgetting for adaptation and change with high construct, internal and external validity. Design/methodology/approach-We review the state of the art in management and organisational research and show options in how to use non-experimental, quasi-experimental and experimental designs for testing causes and effects of organisational forgetting by giving concrete examples. We emphasise experimental designs because they are declared the gold standard in management research. In that respect, we introduce the distinction between special-purpose and non-special-purpose settings. In particular, "learning factories" as a prototype of a special-purpose setting will be described, in which internal and external validity can be increased simultaneously. Originality/value-Learning factories have emerged in the last 5 years to test new ways of manufacturing, for example, cyber-physical production systems and human-robot interaction "live", and to mirror a real production setting with a high physical and psychological fidelity. We suggest using learning factories as special-purpose settings to observe and investigate processes of organisational forgetting, e.g. for investigating the impact of forgetting routines, as routines are declared an important storage bin as part of the organisational memory. Practical implications-We show how a learning factory can be used as an experimental "theatre" for investigating the impact of eliminating retrieval cues that impede forgetting of a routine that has become invalid and been replaced by a new routine in order to adapt to a changing organisational environment. This example can be used as a model by which to design experimental procedures to put organisational forgetting to an empirical test on a group level, and implies the advantage of making temporal aspects of forgetting visible.
Chapter
The speed of reforms within defence acquisition (DA) over the past forty years has greatly outstripped theoretical understanding. This development is of considerable concern because it weakens knowledge development at the very time DA's role, responsibilities and accountabilities are increasing. Modern defence organizations' increasing dependence on suppliers to generate military capability in turn requires DA to be more commercially effective (often with decreasing budgets) while at the .same time developing and maintaining harmonious relationships at defence-supplier interfaces. The scale of changes generated by DA reforms have been such that past knowledge development processes are not able to effectively meet current requirements. Closing the theory-practice divide is the means most likely to generate the knowledge necessary to address present and emerging challenges. This chapter outlines the type of theory required to match DA's emerging role and what its development would entail.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the mediation role of intentional organizational forgetting in the relationship between organizational learning and innovation management according to faculty members’ opinions. Design/methodology/approach Research was designed as a relational survey model. The population of the study consisted of faculty members who work at X University, Y University and Z University during 2019–2020 academic year. The sample consisted of 524 faculty members who were selected by using stratified sample technique from the population. Data of the study was collected with organizational learning scale, organizational forgetting scale and innovation management scale. In the analysis of the research data, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, structural equation modeling and bootstrapping method were applied. Findings According to the results of the study, it was found statistically meaningful and positive relationships between organizational learning, innovation management and intentional forgetting in higher education institutions with respect to faculty members’ opinions. Moreover, according to the results of structural equation modeling, it was found that intentional forgetting had a partial mediating effect in the relationship between organizational learning and innovation management. Finally, according to the results of bootstrapping analysis, indirect effects were found to be significant. Originality/value Based on research results, it may be recommended for practitioners that higher education institutions implement both organizational learning processes and intentional forgetting processes effectively at the same time to become a more innovative organization.
Chapter
Much has been penned over the last half decade or so on the pervasiveness and persistency of digital memory. With reportedly more than ten million photos uploaded to Facebook every single hour by one of its more than a billion users, large online platforms have become global repositories of digital memories. This has sparked an increasing number of cases, in which individuals have been harmed by digital memories. Whether it is old “mug shots” of prison inmates that are easily searchable online long after criminal records have been officially expunged, the off-the-cuff utterance about one’s job that travels back to one’s supervisor, or the stupid online comment that suddenly ends relationships, many thousands by now have been burned by digital memories about them. At times, even analog memories are digitized, visualized and popularized about one’s relatively minor transgressions decades ago, as a German minister of higher education discovered (before she had to resign).
Article
Full-text available
Este artigo aborda como a identidade e missão organizacionais são construídas e reproduzidas ao longo do tempo por meio de processos de lembrança e esquecimento. Com base na literatura sobre memória organizacional, em uma perspectiva de recurso estratégico, o artigo apresenta os efeitos da história, da memória e do passado que permitiram a resiliência e a sobrevivência organizacional. Enquanto narrativas temporais podem ser aplicadas como ferramentas retóricas para construir a coerência entre passado, presente e futuro, descobrimos que elas também têm o potencial de "derivar" e "sequestrar" a direção organizacional. O presente estudo mostra como um foco excessivo no futuro causa desvio de missão e ambiguidade de identidade. Contudo, a ambiguidade de identidade é resolvida revisitando e lembrando o passado. O passado organizacional não é apenas um recurso estratégico para a construção da identidade, mas uma âncora temporal a partir da qual a organização pode redescobrir seu propósito original. Os resultados são baseados em um estudo de caso qualitativo, aprofundado e etnográfico de uma organização sem fins lucrativos com o objetivo de estabelecer uma rede nacional de hortas em escolas locais.
Article
Effective knowledge recontextualization is key to successful knowledge transfer in cross-cultural context. This paper explores how returnee entrepreneurs in Vietnam learn to recontextualize their overseas knowledge while establishing new ventures back in their home country. Our dynamic learning process model suggests that (1) in the pre-founding phase, an interactive vicarious learning and intuitive learning mechanism enables returnees to make sense of overseas knowledge; (2) during the founding phase, blended learning mechanism – the balancing act between market response versus market imposing - helps returnees manage the paradoxical cross cultural tension, importantly (3) in the growth phase, the cycling between unlearning and relearning helps them discard, select and recreate new knowledge in the pursuit of sustainable entrepreneurial growth. The study advances the literature on knowledge recontextualization by clarifying key underpinning learning mechanisms essential for ensuring “effectiveness” outcomes. It also contributes to the work on returnee entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial learning by demonstrating how international entrepreneurs learn overtime to thrive in a conflicting cultural context.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to offer novel means for rethinking contemporary business-to-business (B2B) sales operations and the assumptions that underlie them in the digital era. This rethinking relates especially to sales managers’ efforts to facilitate cognitive unlearning in B2B sales management during the ongoing digital transformation taking place in enterprises. Unlearning—the process of purposely reflecting on and discarding old ways of knowing and doing—is crucial to prevent outdated organizational knowledge and routines from becoming a barrier to change. Before adopting new sales practices, sales organizations must first discard old ways of knowing and doing. Drawing insights from unlearning and B2B sales management literature and conducting empirical qualitative research on 31 executives and senior managers operating in various industries, the study outlines a four-phase process for unlearning as well as several key themes within each phase. The findings emphasize how top management facilitates cognitive unlearning regarding digital business transformation in the B2B sales context. The study contributes to sales management literature by introducing cognitive unlearning as a new theoretical angle on the issue of digital transformation. It also offers insights for sales managers on how to elevate and leverage the unlearning of salespeople. Open access: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08853134.2021.1916396
Chapter
Accumulated expertise has a significant role in BI as tested facts and conclusions about situations that actually have happened, have a degree of similarity to the problem at hand, and whose outcomes are known. Data in transaction databases do not provide adequate coverage of important situations and their outcomes, so a need for recorded expertise or lessons learned (LL) is evident. Such collections have their roots in knowledge management, communities of practice and other forms of activity where collections of lessons learned have been a key element. The records can have different forms—cases, rules, lesson reports, event descriptions, best practices, tips and so on. Theory and management issues are discussed together with several known cases of LL management. The last part of the chapter contains a set of results of empirical research to determine the most important issues in managing LL in project management.
Article
Full-text available
We live in a technologically advanced era with a recent and marked dependence on digital technologies while also facing increasingly frequent extreme and global crises. Crises, like the COVID-19 pandemic, are significantly impacting our societies, organizations and individuals and dramatically shifting the use of, and dependence on, digital technology. The way digital technology is used to cope with crises is novel and not well understood theoretically. To explore the varied uses and impact of digital technologies during crises, we propose to view crisis as (1) opportunity, (2) disruption, and (3) exposure. Examining crisis as opportunity reveals how digital technologies enable experimentation and accelerate innovation while raising coordination challenges and risky implementation. Viewing crisis as disruption highlights how digital technologies enable the rapid shifting of organizational and occupational practices to new digital spaces, allowing work continuity, yet potentially distorting work practices and raising challenges of over-dependence. Finally, crisis exposes the societal implications in making visible and exposing digital inequalities and producing moral dilemmas for us all. We use these three perspectives to shed light on the varied uses of digital technologies in the COVID-19 crisis and suggest new avenues for research on crises more broadly.
Chapter
Full-text available
In order to foster the continuing debate about the best strategies to enhance foresight in safety, the aim of this chapter is to characterise some of the failures to foresee negative outcomes from a safety point of view. The approach followed is to review the lessons that should be learned from negative event, especially the accidents, across industrial sectors. It will enable some typical patterns to be identified that explain why companies and their regulators have recurring difficulties to anticipate risk related scenarios and accidents. One such recurring theme is the inability to make the right assumptions when risk analyses are performed. It shows that some fantasy planning may occur especially when addressing major risk assessments. Seeking to identify a worst-case scenario is a useful concept, working in principle but not always in practice. Another recurring difficulty is mainly in recognising an accident waiting to happen. Indeed, early warning signs are usually available before an accident, but they may be too weak to trigger a learning loop or a risk analysis process. Some signals are strong, but they are not treated accordingly. The pathologies are some form of blindness (failure to see warning signs) and deafness (failure of those in charge to act on concerns raised). Those patterns of difficulties show some features of the foresight pitfalls thus giving directions for implementing measures for better anticipation.
Article
Full-text available
zet İş zekâsı sistemleri, çeşitli veri kaynaklarından beslenen kurumsal iş sistemleri ve bilgi sitemlerini depoladıkları veriyi analiz ve değerlendirme noktasında ortak bir platformda birleştiren sistemlerdir. İş zekâsı sistemleri; veri tabanı, veri deposu ve veri ambar gibi veri saklama birimlerine sahip olan ve kullanıcıları için OLTP ve OLAP gibi ileri veri analiz tekniklerini içeren, veri madenciliği ve diğer ileri istatistik analizler yaparak nicel karar verme süreçlerine destek olacak sonuçlar üreten sistemlerdir. İş zekâsı sistemleri; karar alma süreçlerine destek olarak, müşterilerin davranış ve beklentilerinin anlaşılmasını kolaylaştırarak, maliyetlerin düşürülmesini sağlayarak rekabet avantajına katkı sunmak için kullanılırlar. Böylece örgütlerin içsel süreçlerinin, politikalarının, rutinlerinin ve kültürel uygulamalarının değişmesini sağlarlar. Örgütsel unutma, örgütlerin hem daha yeni elde etmiş olduğu hem de kökleşmiş örgütsel bilgilerinin gerek örgütün iradesi dışında ve gerekse iradesi ile örgütün hâkimiyetinden çıkmasıdır. Teknolojik gelişmeler, çalkantılı ve dinamik çevre koşulları, iş gören devri, iş gören profillerindeki değişimler örgütlerin mevcut bilgilerinden hem iradesiyle hem de iradesi dışında vazgeçmesine neden olabilir. Bu durum ise iş süreçlerinin, rutinlerin, politikaların ve kültürel uygulamaların değişmesi sonucunu doğurur. İş zekâsı sistemleri, örgütlerin değerli bilgisinin tutulmasına sahip olduğu veri saklama birimleri ve ileri analiz teknikleri sayesinde yardımcı olabilir. Ayrıca başta müşteriler olmak üzere dış çevrenin analiz edilmesini sağlayarak rekabet konusunda yararsız bilgilerin örgütte kalmasını engelleyebilir. Bu çalışmada; iş zekâsı sistemlerinin örgütsel unutma üzerindeki etkisinin ortaya konabilmesi amacıyla Yurtiçi Kargo firmasının Erzurum Bölge Müdürlüğü yetkilileri ile yarı-yapılandırılmış bir görüşme gerçekleştirilerek nitel bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Araştırmada hem Kurumsal Kaynak Planlaması (ERP) özelliklerine sahip hem de Müşteri İlişkileri Yönetimini (CRM) içeren Kargo Operasyonları Sistemi (KOPS) esas alınmıştır. Bu sistemin esas alınmasında, şirketlerin iş zekâsı sistemlerinin büyük ölçüde ERP ve CRM sistemleri üzerine kurulu olması etkili olmuştur. Araştırmanın neticesinde; iş zekâsı sistemlerinin örgütsel unutmanın tüm boyutları ile ilişkili olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Abstract Business intelligence systems are combine enterprise systems and information systems that fed from multiple data sources to a common platform at the point of analysis and evalution of storaged data. Business intelligence systems have data storage units such as data base, data mart, data warehouse and support quantitative decision making process for users doing data mining that including OLTP and OLAP advanced data analysis techniques and other advanced statistical analysys. Business intelligence systems are used to gain competition advantages by providing supporting decision making, to facilitate understanding of consumer behavior and expectations, reducing costs. Thus they provide to changes of internal process, politics, routines and cultural applications. Organizational forgetting is loss of both recently and ingrained organizational knowledges. It may be implemented intentionally or unintentionally by enterprise. Technological developments, ambiguous and dynamic environment, labor turnover, changes of labor demographics cause to both loss of organizational knowledges. So, it is caused changes of internal process, politics, routines and cultural applications. Business intelligence systems can ensure that keeping the valuable knowledge of the organization through theirs data storage units and advanced analysis techniques. Also, Business intelligence systems can prevent to remain in organization useless knowledges for competition by providing analyze the external environment especially customers. The aims of the study is express the effect of business intelligence systems on organizational forgetting through qualification research methods that semi-structured interviews with authorities of Yurtiçi Kargo's Regionale Directorates in Erzurum in Turkey. Cargo Operations Systems (KOPS) is recognized as the fundamental information system in this study. Because KOPS have features of both Enterprise Resource Systems (ERP) and Customer Relationship Management (ERP) systems. As is known, ERP and CRM especially is based of business intelligence systems. As a result of the study, intelligence systems are concerned with all aspects of organizational forgetting.
Article
p xss=removed> W otoczeniu organizacji zachodzą nieprzewidywalne zjawiska społeczne, gospodarcze czy techniczne. W tak zmiennym otoczeniu sięganie przez organizacje po dotychczasowe praktyki zarządzania staje się niewystarczające, a nawet szkodliwe. W odpowiedzi, organizacje odrzucają wcześniej przyjęte procedury, wiedzę, normy, wartości, aby zrobić miejsce dla nowych. Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja wyłaniających się kierunków badań nad organizacyjnym oduczaniem się. Aby ujawnić dotychczasowe osie badań, przeprowadzono systematyczny przegląd literatury. Na tej podstawie zidentyfikowano pięciu kierunków badań nad organizacyjnym oduczaniem się: (1) identyfikacja czynników warunkujących i wzmacniających; (2) uwzględnienie w badaniach trzech poziomów: indywidualnego, grupowego oraz organizacyjnego; (3) rozpoznanie znaczenia organizacyjnego oduczania się dla uczenia się organizacji; (4) rozpoznanie znaczenia kadry kierowniczej w organizacyjnym oduczaniu się; (5) rozpoznanie znaczenia organizacyjnego oduczania się dla implementacji innowacji technologicznych. </p
Article
We trace the evolution of research on organizational learning. As organizations acquire experience, their performance typically improves at a decreasing rate. Although this learning-curve pattern is found in many industries, organizations vary in the rate at which they learn. In order to understand this variation, we separate organizational learning into four processes: search, knowledge creation, knowledge retention, and knowledge transfer. Within each process, we present research on how dimensions of experience and of the organizational context affect learning processes and outcomes. Our goals are to describe major findings and to identify opportunities for future research. The article concludes with a discussion of research directions that are likely to be productive in the future. These directions include investigating how new technological and organizational developments are likely to affect organizational learning. This paper was accepted by David Simchi-Levi, finance.
Article
Full-text available
To cope with the already large, and ever increasing, amount of information stored in organizational memory, "forgetting," as an important human memory process, might be transferred to the organizational context. Especially in intentionally planned change processes (e.g., change management), forgetting is an important precondition to impede the recall of obsolete routines and adapt to new strategic objectives accompanied by new organizational routines. We first comprehensively review the literature on the need for organizational forgetting and particularly on accidental vs. intentional forgetting. We discuss the current state of the art of theory and empirical evidence on forgetting from cognitive psychology in order to infer mechanisms applicable to the organizational context. In this respect, we emphasize retrieval theories and the relevance of retrieval cues important for forgetting. Subsequently, we transfer the empirical evidence that the elimination of retrieval cues leads to faster forgetting to the forgetting of organizational routines, as routines are part of organizational memory. We then propose a classification of cues (context, sensory, business process-related cues) that are relevant in the forgetting of routines, and discuss a meta-cue called the "situational strength" cue, which is relevant if cues of an old and a new routine are present simultaneously. Based on the classification as business process-related cues (information, team, task, object cues), we propose mechanisms to accelerate forgetting by eliminating specific cues based on the empirical and theoretical state of the art. We conclude that in intentional organizational change processes, the elimination of cues to accelerate forgetting should be used in change management practices.
Article
Following recent calls to extend our understanding of organizational unlearning, we gain empirical insights into how the process unfolds in practice. Based on the findings of a study with change consultants in Europe, we conceptualize two forms of organizational unlearning. First, open-ended unlearning refers to instances where organizational knowledge is intentionally discarded, but the outcomes of the change process are not known. Second, goal-directed unlearning refers to situations where organizations implement specified knowledge structures that are incompatible with established ones. We also find that both forms of organizational unlearning necessitate preparatory work and interventions that increase their likelihood to succeed. Outlining the implications of the organizational unlearning concept in organizational practice contributes to a better understanding of existing research. We further discuss implications for theory and outline avenues for future research.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to systematically review and synthesize the literature on organizational forgetting. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature review approach was used to synthesize current theoretical and empirical studies on organizational forgetting. Findings The review and synthesis of the literature revealed that the organizational forgetting literature is fragmented, with studies conducted across disparate fields and using different methodologies; two primary modes (i.e. accidental and purposeful) and three foci (i.e. knowledge depreciation, knowledge loss and unlearning) define current organizational forgetting literature; and the factors that influence organizational forgetting can be grouped into four clusters related to individuals, processes, tools and organizational context. Research limitations/implications This literature review has limitations related to time span coverage and journal article accessibility. Originality/value This paper offers an integrative view of organizational forgetting that proposes a holistic and multilevel research approach and systematic synthesis of organizational forgetting research.
Article
Purpose Insight has grown that for an organization to learn and change successfully, forgetting and unlearning are required. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the relevant existing body of empirical research on forgetting and unlearning, to encourage research using a greater variety of methods and to contribute to a more complementary body of empirical work by using designs and instruments with a stronger reference to previous studies. Design/methodology/approach As the number of theoretical papers clearly exceeds the number of empirical papers, the present paper deals with the main insights based on the empirical state of research on unlearning and forgetting. So far, these empirical results have shown relationships between unlearning and other organizational outcomes such as innovation on an organizational level, but many of the other proposed relationships have not been investigated. The authors presents suggestion to apply a larger variety of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods in organizational research. Findings Unlearning and forgetting research can benefit both from more diverse theoretical questions addressed in research and from a more complementary body of empirical work that applies methods, designs and instruments that refer to previous research designs and results. To understand and manage unlearning and forgetting, empirical work should relate to and expand upon previous empirical work to form a more coherent understanding of empirical results. Originality/value The paper presents a variety of research designs and methods that can be applied within the research context of understanding the nature of organizational forgetting and unlearning. Additionally, it illustrates the potential for different methods, such as experience sampling methods, which capture the temporal aspects of forgetting and unlearning.
Article
Purpose Learning, unlearning and relearning (LUR) has been preached as a panacea to organizations. Whereas, research on learning and unlearning has grown exponentially, relearning is still considered as an obscure concept. This paper aims to provide a new insight on organizational relearning and highlight its linkages with organizational unlearning. Design/methodology/approach This study is based upon a systematic literature review of organizational unlearning and organizational relearning. Papers expounding upon relearning were carefully analyzed vis-à-vis organizational unlearning. Findings Organizational unlearning and organizational relearning assume a vital place in developing a learning organization. However, linking the two processes in a sequence tends to arouse certain conceptual difficulties. First, it is not necessary that relearning follows this prescribed ordering sequence. It is a process that can happen without prior unlearning. Second, based on the process model and multiple definitions of unlearning, the very purpose of organizational unlearning is to acquire new knowledge (relearning in literature). Therefore, in this sense, relearning seems to become a redundant concept and a neologism. As a result, this hampers the proper contextualization of relearning. Originality/value This paper attempts to expound upon the debate of organizational relearning and its interplay with organizational unlearning. As the concept of lifelong learning and building learning organizations assumes the center stage in contemporary organizations, it is suggested that unless the conceptual issues of related to LUR are not adequately addressed, academicians will naturally find it difficult to prescribe proper course of action to practitioners.
Article
Full-text available
While organizations acquire new knowledge, a process called organizational learning, they also discard obsolete knowledge, a process called organizational unlearning. Organizational unlearning focuses on the disposal of old routines to make way for new ones, and its study has received limited attention from research. Thus, due to the need for greater understanding of the unlearning process, the study presented here aims to describe the organizational unlearning process in a public organization, a context even less studied than private organizations. For this, support by the theory of organizational routines, we used field research to describe the organizational unlearning process in one of Colleges of the Federal University of Santa Catarina. Among other things, changes were found to act as levers for organizational unlearning, and organizational learning and unlearning are closely linked through the introduction and disposal of organizational routines.
Article
Full-text available
Much of the prior research on interorganizational learning has focused on the role of absorptive capacity, a firm's ability to value, assimilate, and utilize new external knowledge. However, this definition of the construct suggests that a firm has an equal capacity to learn from all other organizations. We reconceptualize the Jinn-level construct absorptive capacity as a learning dyad-level construct, relative absorptive capacity. One firm's ability to learn from another firm is argued to depend on the similarity of both firms' (1) knowledge bases, (2) organizational structures and compensation policies, and (3) dominant logics. We then test the model using a sample of pharmaceutical-biotechnology RED alliances. As predicted, the similarity of the partners' basic knowledge, lower management formalization, research centralization, compensation practices, and research communities were positively related to interorganizational learning. The relative absorptive capacity measures are also shown to have greater explanatory power than the established measure of absorptive capacity, R&D spending. (C) 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Full-text available
Organizations are prone to ego defenses, such as denial, rationalization, idealization, fantasy, and symbolization, that maintain collective self-esteem and the continuity of existing identity. These defenses are dysfunctional when they militate against necessary organizational change. Maladaptive identity defense mechanisms can be mitigated through processes of organizational learning in the form of critical self-reflexivity and an identity-focused dialogue, which promote attitudes of wisdom.
Article
Full-text available
This article prescribes how an organization can be designed to meet social and technological changes and to reap advantage from them. Long-term viability maximizes in a self-designing organization, in which those who perform activities take primary responsibility for learning and for inventing new methods, and in which nonparticipant designers restrict themselves to a catalytic role. Such an organization is formed by putting together processes, the generators of behaviors. Although the complex interactions among processes make designers' forecasts unreliable, serious future problems can be avoided by keeping processes dynamically balanced. The desired balance can be caricatured with six aphorisms: Cooperation requires minimal consensus. Satisfaction rests upon minimal contentment. Wealth arises from minimal affluence. Goals merit minimal faith. Improvement depends on minimal consistency. Wisdom demands minimal rationality.
Article
Full-text available
This paper studies the different mechanism used in organizations to enact voluntary organizational forgetting. Based on a literature review, previous and original research, four main mechanisms are identified: assets and technologies, routines and procedures, structure and understandings. Each mechanism is discussed and implications are drawn for future research.
Article
Full-text available
Traditionally, theories of organizational learning have taken one of two approaches that share a common characterization of learning but differ in focus. One approach focuses on learning by individuals in organizational contexts; the other, on individual learning as a model for organizational action. Both base their understanding of organizational learning on the cognitive activity of individual learning. However, there is something organizations do that may be called organizational learning, that is neither individuals learning in organizations nor organizations employing processes akin to learning by individuals. This form of organizational learning can be seen in the case of three small workshops that make "the finest flutes in the world." This essay proposes a perspective on organizational learning, drawing on the concept of organizational culture, that can be useful in understanding the case. This perspective provides a fruitful basis for exploring the above distinctions in both theory and practice.
Article
Full-text available
A comparative model of organizations as interpretation systems is proposed. The model describes four interpretation modes: enacting, discovering, undirected viewing, and conditioned viewing. Each mode is determined by (1) management's beliefs about the environment and (2) organizational intrusiveness. Interpretation modes are hypothesized to be associated with organizational differences in environmental scanning, equivocality reduction, strategy, and decision making.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this work is to develop a systematic understanding of embeddedness and organization networks. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted at 23 entrepreneurial firms, I identify the components of embedded relationships and explicate the devices by which embeddedness shapes organizational and economic outcomes. The findings suggest that embeddedness is a logic of exchange that promotes economies of time, integrative agreements, Pareto improvements in allocative efficiency, and complex adaptation. These positive effects rise up to a threshold, however, after which embeddedness can derail economic performance by making firms vulnerable to exogenous shocks or insulating them from information that exists beyond their network. A framework is proposed that explains how these properties vary with the quality of social ties, the structure of the organization network, and an organization's structural position in the network.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines knowledge flows within and across geographic boundaries of clusters and nations in the biotechnology industry. We hypothesize that these flows are characterized by various factors relating to the knowledge itself and by firm innovativeness and the presence of prior knowledge flows at the firm level. Surprisingly, our findings suggest that geographic proximity does not matter in some instances, while in others it has a decidedly nonlinear effect opposite to that hypothesized. The pattern of findings points to the greatest contrast in the comparison of between-cluster and between-country flows and presents an opportunity to reevaluate the role of geography and knowledge flows.
Article
Full-text available
Given assumptions about the characteristics of knowledge and the knowledge requirements of production, the firm is conceptualized as an institution for integrating knowledge. The primary contribution of the paper is in exploring the coordination mechanisms through which firms integrate the specialist knowledge of their members. In contrast to earlier literature, knowledge is viewed as residing within the individual, and the primary role of the organization is knowledge application rather than knowledge creation. The resulting theory has implications for the basis of organizational capability, the principles of organization design (in particular, the analysis of hierarchy and the distribution of decision-making authority), and the determinants of the horizontal and vertical boundaries of the firm. More generally, the knowledge-based approach sheds new light upon current organizational innovations and trends and has far-reaching implications for management practice.
Article
Full-text available
Factors impacting the organizational structure of firms have been analyzed often utilizing organizations theory. However, several other theories and perspectives have been proposed as potential alternative means of analyzing organizational structure and functioning. While previous studies regarding organizational structure have utilized such perspectives as adaptation and exchange theory, few studies have utilized population ecology theory, thus leading to the current study. Although population ecology theory is most often used in the biological sciences, many of its principles lend well to organizational analysis. Due to internal structural arrangements (e.g. information constraints, political constraints) and environmental pressures (e.g. legal and fiscal barriers, legitimacy) of an organization, the inflexibility of an organization limits the firm's organizational analysis utilizing an adaptation perspective. The challenges and discontinuities associated with utilizing an ecological perspective are identified, including issues related to the primary sources of change (selection and adaptive learning) and related to differentiating between selection and viability. Utilizing competition theory and niche theory, several models for analyzing organizational diversity are incorporated to address factors not encompassed by ecological theory. By compiling elements of several theories, a population ecology model applicable to business related organizational analyses is derived. (AKP)
Article
Full-text available
Knowledge, once generated, spills only imperfectly among firms and nations. We posit that since institutions and labor networks vary by region, there should be regional variations in the localization of spillovers. We investigate the relationship between the mobility of major patent holders and the localization of technological knowledge through the analysis of patent citations of important semiconductor innovations. We find that knowledge localization is specific to only certain regions (particularly Silicon Valley) and that the degree of localization varies across regions. By analyzing data on the interfirm mobility of patent holders, we empirically show that the interfirm mobility of engineers influences the local transfer of knowledge. The flow of knowledge is embedded in regional labor networks.
Article
Full-text available
This paper draws on the social construction perspective and on social learning theory to examine the cross-cultural influences on organizational learning in MNCs. Social learning theory suggests that constructive engagement and member solidarity are key constituents of organization-based collective learning. Literature suggests, however, that cross-cultural differences in assumptions about social participation by organization members may impair organizational learning. The paper also reports a qualitative study, conducted at five Japanese-invested manufacturing companies in the Pearl River Delta, China. The research found that managers perceived Chinese frontline workers as lacking constructive engagement and member solidarity as compared with their Japanese counterparts, thus limiting organizational learning, and attributed these perceived differences to deep-seated cultural values. Attempts in two of the companies to 'Japanize' the workforces were reported to have had some impact, but appeared not to have substantially changed this picture. Urging caution regarding cross-cultural stereotyping and home country bias, we consider the implications for organizations with international manufacturing operations.
Article
Full-text available
Enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems and other complex information systems represent critical organizational resources. For such systems, firms typically use consultants to aid in the implementation process. Client firms expect consultants to transfer their implementation knowledge to their employees so that they can contribute to successful implementations and learn to maintain the systems independent of the consultants. This study examines the antecedents of knowledge transfer in the context of such an interfirm complex information systems implementation environment. Drawing from the knowledge transfer, information systems, and communication literatures, an integrated theoretical model is developed that posits that knowledge transfer is influenced by knowledge-related, motivational, and communication-related factors. Data were collected from consultant-and-client matched-pair samples from 96 ERP implementation projects. Unlike most prior studies, a behavioral measure of knowledge transfer that incorporates the application of knowledge was used. The analysis suggests that all three groups of factors influence knowledge transfer, and provides support for 9 of the 13 hypotheses. The analysis also confirms two mediating relationships. These results (1) adapt prior research, primarily done in non-IS contexts, to the ERP implementation context, (2) enhance prior findings by confirming the significance of an antecedent that has previously shown mixed results, and (3) incorporate new IS-related constructs and measures in developing an integrated model that should be broadly applicable to the interfirm IS implementation context and other IS situations. Managerial and research implications are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we argue that the ability of a firm to recognize the value of new, external information, assimilate it, and apply it to commercial ends is critical to its innovative capabilities. We label this capability a firm's absorptive capacity and suggest that it is largely a function of the firm's level of prior related knowledge. The discussion focuses first on the cognitive basis for an individual's absorptive capacity including, in particular, prior related knowledge and diversity of background. We then characterize the factors that influence absorptive capacity at the organizational level, how an organization's absorptive capacity differs from that of its individual members, and the role of diversity of expertise within an organization. We argue that the development of absorptive capacity, and, in turn, innovative performance are history- or path-dependent and argue how lack of investment in an area of expertise early on may foreclose the future development of a technical capability in that area. We formulate a model of firm investment in research and development (R&D), in which R&D contributes to a firm's absorptive capacity, and test predictions relating a firm's investment in R&D to the knowledge underlying technical change within an industry. Discussion focuses on the implications of absorptive capacity for the analysis of other related innovative activities, including basic research, the adoption and diffusion of innovations, and decisions to participate in cooperative R&D ventures.
Article
Full-text available
Researchers have used the absorptive capacity construct to explain various organizational phenomena. In this article we review the literature to identify key dimensions of absorptive capacity and offer a reconceptualization of this construct. Building upon the dynamic capabilities view of the firm, we distinguish between a firm's potential and realized capacity. We then advance a model outlining the conditions when the firm's potential and realized capacities can differentially influence the creation and sustenance of its competitive advantage.
Article
Full-text available
This paper differs from previous examinations of organizational learning in that it is broader in scope and more evaluative of the literatures. Four constructs related to organizational learning (knowledge acquisition, information distribution, information interpretation, and organizational memory) are articulated, and the literatures related to each are described and critiqued. The literature on knowledge acquisition is voluminous and multi-faceted, and so the knowledge acquisition construct is portrayed here as consisting of five subconstructs or subprocesses: (1) drawing on knowledge available at the organization's birth, (2) learning from experience, (3) learning by observing other organizations, (4) grafting on to itself components that possess knowledge needed but not possessed by the organization, and (5) noticing or searching for information about the organization's environment and performance. Examination of the related literatures indicates that much has been learned about learning from experience, but also that there is a lack of cumulative work and a lack of integration of work from different research groups. Similarly, much has been learned about organizational search, but there is a lack of conceptual work, and there is a lack of both cumulative work and syntheses with which to create a more mature literature. Congenital learning, vicarious learning, and grafting are information acquisition subprocesses about which relatively little has been learned. The literature concerning information distribution is rich and mature, but an aspect of information distribution that is central to an organization's benefitting from its learning, namely how units that possess information and units that need this information can find each other quickly and with a high likelihood, is unexplored. Information interpretation, as an organizational process, rather than an individual process, requires empirical work for further advancement. Organizational memory is much in need of systematic investigation, particularly by those whose special concerns are improving organizational learning and decision making.
Article
A comparative model of organizations as interpretation systems is proposed. The model describes four interpretation modes: enacting, discovering, undirected viewing, and conditioned viewing. Each mode is determined by (1) management's beliefs about the environment and (2) organizational intrusiveness. Interpretation modes are hypothesized to be associated with organizational differences in environmental scanning, equivocality reduction, strategy, and decision making.
Article
In this paper, we examine organizational characteristics, structural mechanisms and contextual factors that influence knowledge acquisition from the foreign parent in international joint ventures (IJVs). We in turn relate assessments of knowledge acquisition to IJV performance. The data come from a survey of IJVs in the Hungarian context, where learning and knowledge acquisition from the foreign parent is thought to be particularly critical. Adaptation mechanisms, such as capacity to learn, articulated goals, and structural mechanisms, such as the provision of training, technology and managerial assistance by foreign parents, all were positively associated with the degree to which IJVs reported acquiring knowledge from their foreign parents. We also found limited support for the belief that cultural conflicts can impede knowledge acquisition, but only for two-party joint ventures with 50/50 equity arrangements. We also looked at the relationship between knowledge acquisition and different dimensions for evaluating IJV performance. The relationship between knowledge acquisition and performance was significant for all indicators of performance, through knowledge acquisition from the foreign parent and the organizational characteristics hypothesized to enhance IJV knowledge acquisition affected assessments of some dimensions of performance more than others. Our findings contribute to advancing knowledge about the relationship between organizational characteristics and organizational knowledge acquisition in IJVs, as well as the relationships between knowledge acquisition and different dimensions of IJV performance.
Article
Emerging economies such as India have become an increasingly important part of the global business landscape. Until recently, multinational corporations (MNCs) relied on joint ventures (JVs) with local companies to exploit these business opportunities. Lately, however, there has been a marked reduction in the formation of new JVs between MNCs and local companies. Moreover, many earlier JVs also are increasingly being terminated, often with great acrimony. This article highlights how ''regulatory liberalization" of the business environment in India has played a big role, directly and indirectly, in driving this change. It also demonstrates how three other factors, namely "resource complementarity (or lack thereof) between partners," the "race to learn" between partners, and "returns to globalization to MNC partners" are affecting the formation of JVs in an increasingly liberalized environment.
Article
Organizational memory plays a central role in theories of organizational learning and forgetting. However, we still know little about how knowledge becomes embedded in organizational memory or the reasons and processes through which organizational memory decays. The objective of this article is to clarify the relationship between organizational memory and forgetting, and identify areas that require development if we are to improve our understanding of these constructs. Specifically, we point to the importance of theorizing about (a) the dynamic nature of organizational memory and forgetting, (b) the role of time in theories and research of organizational memory and forgetting, and (c) the processes through which individuals maintain, discard, or remember knowledge, including the dynamics of power.
Article
This article examines a fundamental characteristic of modern organizations: the dynamics of exploitation and exploration in intra- and interorganizational learning processes. Exploitation is about creating reliability in experience, and thrives on productivity and refinement. Exploration is concerned with creating variety in experience, and thrives on experimentation and free association. The findings of a case study on product development within a leading Scandinavian software producer and its interorganizational collaborations with business partners suggest how experiential learning processes of exploitation and exploration within the organizations concerned generate interorganizational exploitation and exploration. Conversely, the data suggest how exploitation and exploration between the organizations generate intraorganizational exploitation and exploration. A conceptual framework describing the nature of such learning dynamics is proposed. This framework emphasizes that experiential learning is a driving force behind much intra- and interorganizational change in the form of transformations between exploitation and exploration.
Article
While the recent focus on knowledge has undoubtedly benefited organizational studies, the literature still presents a sharply contrasting and even contradictory view of knowledge, which at times is described as "sticky" and at other times "leaky." This paper is written on the premise that there is more than a problem with metaphors at issue here, and more than accounts of different types of knowledge (such as "tacit" and "explicit") can readily explain. Rather, these contrary descriptions of knowledge reflect different, partial, and sometimes "balkanized" perspectives from which knowledge and organization are viewed. Taking the community of practice as a unifying unit of analysis for understanding knowledge in the firm, the paper suggests that often too much attention is paid to the idea of community, too little to the implications of practice. Practice, we suggest, creates epistemic differences among the communities within a firm, and the firm's advantage over the market lies in dynamically coordinating the knowledge produced by these communities despite such differences. In making this argument, we argue that analyses of systemic innovation should be extended to embrace all firms in a knowledge economy, not just the classically innovative. This extension will call for a transformation of conventional ideas coordination and of the trade-off between exploration and exploitation.
Article
The entry of young and aggressive multinational corporations from emerging economies into developed countries’ markets is an important trend that promises to shape the global competitive landscape. Brazilian, Chinese, and Indian multinationals typify this growing trend. The individual and collective experiences of these multinationals provide an interesting context in which organizational unlearning becomes a means for inducing multifaceted learning that enables these companies to develop and exploit their entrepreneurial capabilities. In this article, the authors discuss the challenges associated with unlearning and how it sets the stage for learning and exercise of entrepreneurial capability for competitive advantage. The authors also identify important research questions that deserve exploration.
Article
Knowledge---which is closely linked to firm innovativeness---is accessed across organizational boundaries and geographic space via networks operating at different levels of analysis. However, we know tantalizingly little about the comparative influence of geography on knowledge flow across organizational boundaries over different types of ties, despite warnings that research needs to account for the geographic context of ties to fully understand causal relationships. Using a combination of primary and secondary data on 77 Canadian mutual fund companies, we find that institutional-level ties are valuable in knowledge transmission only when such ties are geographically proximate. Organization-level ties fail to act as transmitters of knowledge, regardless of geographic location. Interestingly, we find that geographically distant individual-level friendship ties are superior conduits for knowledge flow, which suggests they span “geographic holes.”
Article
Although the high rate of instability of international joint ventures (IJVs) hers been well documented, the underlying reasons for the instability need clarification. In this article, we develop ct theoretical framework for instability of IJVs grounded in a bargaining power and dependence perspective. Instability is defined as a major change in partner relationship status that is unplanned and premature from one or both partners' perspectives. The core argument is that the instability of IJVs is associated with shifts in partner bargaining power. Shifts in the balance of bargaining power occur when partners of an IJV acquire sufficient knowledge and skills to eliminate a partner dependency and make the IJV bargain obsolete. Our primary focus is on the acquisition of local knowledge by the foreign partner and the impact that this acquisition of knowledge has on the stability of the IJV.
Article
The ability to transfer best practices intemally is critical to a firm's ability to build competitive advantage through the appropriation of rents from scarce internal knowledge. Just as a firm's distinctive competencies might be difficult for other firms to imitate, its best practices could be difficult to imitate internally. Yet, little systematic attention has been paid to such intemal stickiness. The author analyzes intemal stickiness of knowledge transfer and tests the resulting model using canonical correlation analysis of a data set consisting of 271 observations of 122 best-practice transfers in eight companies. Contrary to conventional wisdom that blames primarily motivational factors, the study findings show the major barriers to internal knowledge transfer to be knowledge-related factors such as the recipient's lack of absorptive capacity, causal ambiguity, and an arduous relationship between the source and the recipient. The identification and transfer of best practices is emerging as one of the most important and widespread practical management issues of the latter half of the 1990s. Armed with meaningful, detailed performance data, firms that use fact- based management methods such as TQM, bench- marking, and process reengineering can regularly compare the perfonnance of their units along operational dimensions. Sparse but unequivocal evidence suggests that such comparisons often reveal surprising perfonnance differences between units, indicating a need to improve knowledge utilization within the firm (e.g., Chew, Bresnahan, and Clark, 1990).' Because intemal transfers typi-
Article
This paper reviews the literature on organizational learning. Organizational learning is viewed as routine-based, history-dependent, and target-oriented. Organizations are seen as learning by encoding inferences from history into routines that guide behavior. Within this perspective on organizational learning, topics covered include how organizations learn from direct experience, how organizations learn from the experience of others, and how organizations develop conceptual frameworks or paradigms for interpreting that experience. The section on organizational memory discusses how organizations encode, store, and retrieve the lessons of history despite the turnover of personnel and the passage of time. Organizational learning is further complicated by the ecological structure of the simultaneously adapting behavior of other organizations, and by an endogenously changing environment. The final section discusses the limitations as well as the possibilities of organizational learning as a form of intelligence.
Article
No theory or model of organizational learning has widespread acceptance. This paper clarifies the distinction between organizational learning and organizational adaptation and shows that change does not necessarily imply learning. There are different levels of learning, each having a different impact on the strategic management of the firm.
Article
Absorptive capacity is regarded as an important factor in both corporate innovation and general competitive advantage. The concept was initially developed largely from reviews of the literature and has subsequently been extended by empirical studies, although some people suggest that progress since 1990 has been disappointing. This article argues that this limited development results from the dominance of quantitative studies which have failed to develop insights into the processes of absorptive capacity, and builds on recent qualitative studies which have successfully opened up new perspectives. Using case studies drawn from three different sectors, the article argues that a process perspective on absorptive capacity should include the role of power in the way knowledge is absorbed by organizations, and provide better understanding of the nature of boundaries within and around organizations.
Article
This paper makes a comparison between research work going on in management science, particularly that taking a systems approach, and the research which underlies what is being offered to managers on the market in the form of the so-called management ‘fads’—concentrating here on guru theory, total quality management, business process re-engineering and the learning organization. This comparison proves favourable to the systems approach which, with its carefully crafted foundations, seems to offer much more to managers than the fads. Broadening the debate beyond management, a final section discusses the relationship between systems thinking and postmodernism—the latter usually associated with a pessimism about adopting any systemic or systematic approach.
Article
The research examined how knowledge embedded in an organization's structure can persist over time and buffer the organization from the disruptive effects of turnover. We hypothesized that turnover would affect the performance of organizations that are low in structure more than those that are high in structure. By contrast, we expected to see little difference between the performance of groups low and high in structure when there is no turnover. A total of 240 participants arranged in three‐person groups performed five trials of a production‐type task. The level of turnover and the structuring of activities were varied. Groups that were high in structure had specialized roles and routines; groups that were low in structure were not given any roles or routines. The analysis of the performance data revealed the predicted significant interaction between turnover and structure. Theoretical implications of the findings and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Building on the resource-based view of the firm, this paper explores the notion of ‘resource recombinations’ within the firm. We suggest such recombinations can occur when competencies within the firm (which are interpreted as organized clusters of firm resources) either combine to synthesize novel competencies (synthesis-based recombinations) or experience a reconfiguration or relinking with other competencies (reconfiguration-based recombinations). Central to this paper is an examination of the antecedents necessary for such innovation to occur, and in particular the nature of knowledge in the firm. We argue that several characteristics of knowledge (tacitness, context specificity, dispersion) and its social organization (the way competencies come to be formed and institutionalized) will have important consequences on the likelihoods of resource recombinations. Our paper develops a model of resource recombination likelihoods and propositions. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Much of the prior research on interorganizational learning has focused on the role of absorptive capacity, a firm's ability to value, assimilate, and utilize new external knowledge. However, this definition of the construct suggests that a firm has an equal capacity to learn from all other organizations. We reconceptualize the firm-level construct absorptive capacity as a learning dyad-level construct, relative absorptive capacity. One firm's ability to learn from another firm is argued to depend on the similarity of both firms' (1) knowledge bases, (2) organizational structures and compensation policies, and (3) dominant logics. We then test the model using a sample of pharmaceutical–biotechnology R&D alliances. As predicted, the similarity of the partners' basic knowledge, lower management formalization, research centralization, compensation practices, and research communities were positively related to interorganizational learning. The relative absorptive capacity measures are also shown to have greater explanatory power than the established measure of absorptive capacity, R&D spending. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Global competition highlights asymmetries in the skill endowments of firms. Collaboration may provide an opportunity for one partner to internalize the skills of the other, and thus improve its position both within and without the alliance. Detailed analysis of nine international alliances yielded a fine-grained understanding of the determinants of interpartner learning. The study suggests that not all partners are equally adept at learning; that asymmetries in learning alter the relative bargaining power of partners; that stability and longevity may be inappropriate metrics of partnership success; that partners may have competitive, as well as collaborative aims, vis-à-vis each other; and that process may be more important than structure in determining learning outcomes.
Article
This article theorizes about the kinds of knowing present in organizations that share both a structural similarity in the organization of work and work practices – a ‘double periphery’ in which a community of practitioners acts across both a horizontal, geographic periphery and a vertical, hierarchical periphery – and a common mode of practice – translating across these peripheral borders. In principle, these workers develop knowledge in interaction with clients and customers that could be valuable to the organization, were it but to learn from them. Instead, the ‘local knowledge’ they learn in acting across these peripheries is discounted, if not disparaged, by more centrally-located managers and executives. The article theorizes about the nature of translating local knowledge concerning organizational practices and about the structural character of local versus ‘expert’ knowledge.
Article
This paper explores the relationships among four fundamental determinants of intrafirm competence transfers that have hitherto been analyzed only separately: formal organization structure, informal relations, geographical distance, and relatedness of competencies across subsidiaries. Using a data set consisting of 4840 dyads between new product development teams and subsidiaries that were potential targets for competence transfers in a high-technology multinational company, we find that these determinants interact in surprising ways to explain different patterns of transfers. Results revealed that teams preferred to approach people they knew rather than people who knew related technologies well. They also showed that teams steered away from spatially distant subsidiaries that had related competencies and that the negative effect of large spatial distances could be overcome through established informal relations. These findings indicate that studying one of the determinants separately can yield biased results, as their net effect may change when the moderating effects of the other determinants are considered. Research on synergies, integration, technology transfers, and geographical and cultural differentiation in multinational enterprises therefore needs to be broadened by analyzing multiple determinants of competence transfers. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
The persistence of learning within organizations and the transfer of learning across organizations are examined on data collected from multiple organizations. Results indicate that knowledge acquired through production depreciates rapidly. The conventional measure of learning, cumulative output, significantly overstates the persistence of learning. There is some evidence that learning transfers across organizations: organizations beginning production later are more productive than those with early start dates. Once organizations begin production, however, they do not appear to benefit from learning in other organizations. The implications of the results for a theory of organizational learning are discussed. Managerial implications are described.
Article
In studying teams at large companies in Europe and the United States, the authors found that diversity and complexity are becoming the rule. Diverse teams bring to bear a range of experiences and attitudes to tackle companies' hardest challenges. Paradoxically, however, the very nature of team diversity often creates conditions that reduce teams' innovative capacity. The authors observed many failures in collaboration and knowledge-sharing that resulted from faultlines - subgroups or coalitions that emerge naturally within teams, typically along demographic lines such as age, gender and functional background. Yet the authors found that some teams were able to collaborate and share knowledge despite the presence of faultlines. A defining factor was the behavior of the team leader and, in particular, the extent to which the leader was task-oriented or relationship-oriented. Where it is likely strong faultlines will emerge, many leaders tend to encourage team members to come together. However, simple socializing can make people's differences more apparent and cause faultlines to solidify. The authors recommend that leaders vary their leadership style according to how long a team has been together. The article outlines four steps for successful functioning of diverse teams. First, leaders should diagnose the likely extent of faultlines in a new team. (The article contains a survey for gauging this probability.) Next, leaders should focus on task orientation when a team is newly formed. They then should consider when a switch in leadership style would be most appropriate. Finally, leaders should build a relationship-oriented style. Switching from task orientation to relationship orientation will be successful only when a team has developed a clear protocol for communication and coordination and an established operational structure. Copyright © Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2007. All rights reserved.
Article
The organisational learning literature has so far focused primarily on intraorganisational learning processes. However, during the last 10 years or so, a growing number of organisational learning studies have focused explicitly on interorganisational learning. So far this literature has concentrated on the requirements for such learning. Little attention has been devoted to examining the potentially unique dynamics of interorganisational learning processes. Consequently, few if any studies have examined whether interorganisational learning processes differ from traditional intraorganisational learning and, if so, in what respects. The purpose of this paper is to make an empirical comparison between intra- and interorganisational learning processes by drawing on a longitudinal qualitative case study of experiential learning processes within and between a business organisation and its partners, continued over a period of 3 years.
Article
This study uses survey data to examine factors associated with a firm's protection of knowledge from unwanted appropriation by an alliance partner. The findings show that a firm tends to be more protective when the capabilities it contributes to the alliance are highly tacit and core, when its partner has a higher learning intent, and when the firm and its partner have highly similar resources. Higher trust in a partner tends to reduce knowledge protection.
Article
In this concluding article to the Management Science special issue on ÜManaging Knowledge in Organizations: Creating, Retaining, and Transferring Knowledge,Ý we provide an integrative framework for organizing the literature on knowledge management. The framework has two dimensions. The knowledge management outcomes of knowledge creation, retention, and transfer are represented along one dimension. Properties of the context within which knowledge management occurs are represented on the other dimension. These properties, which affect knowledge management outcomes, can be organized according to whether they are properties of a unit (e.g., individual, group, organization) involved in knowledge management, properties of relationships between units or properties of the knowledge itself. The framework is used to identify where research findings about knowledge management converge and where gaps in our understanding exist. The article discusses mechanisms of knowledge management and how those mechanisms affect a unit's ability to create, retain and transfer knowledge. Emerging themes in the literature on knowledge management are identified. Directions for future research are suggested.