ArticlePDF Available

Customer relationship management in higher education: Using information systems to improve the student-school relationship

Authors:

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore customer relationship management (CRM) in a higher education setting. Design/methodology/approach – The development and implementation of a CRM project in a state community college was examined as were the benefits realized by implementing CRM. As colleges increasingly embrace distance learning and e-business, CRM will become stronger and more pervasive. Viewing students as customers provides a competitive advantage for higher education and enhances a college's ability to attract, retain and serve its customers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals involved with the planning, development and implementation of a statewide CIS system. Student support personnel were additionally interviewed. Findings – The benefits of implementing CRM in a college setting include a student-centric focus, improved customer data and process management, increased student loyalty, retention and satisfaction with the college's programs and services. Research limitations/implications – The entire community college system has not implemented the project. Rather, only the phase one colleges have implemented at this juncture. Originality/value – Viewing students as customers provides a competitive advantage and enhances a college's ability to attract, retain and serve its customers. As colleges increasingly embrace distance learning and e-business, CRM will become more pervasive.
Campus-Wide Information Systems
Emerald Article: Customer relationship management in higher education:
Using information systems to improve the student-school relationship
Elaine D. Seeman, Margaret O'Hara
Article information:
To cite this document: Elaine D. Seeman, Margaret O'Hara, (2006),"Customer relationship management in higher education: Using
information systems to improve the student-school relationship", Campus-Wide Information Systems, Vol. 23 Iss: 1 pp. 24 - 34
Permanent link to this document:
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/10650740610639714
Downloaded on: 18-10-2012
References: This document contains references to 24 other documents
Citations: This document has been cited by 13 other documents
To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com
Users who downloaded this Article also downloaded: *
Wing M. Fok, Jing Li, Sandra J. Hartman, Lillian Y. Fok, (2003),"Customer relationship management and QM maturity: an examination
of impacts in the health-care and non-health-care setting", International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, Vol. 16 Iss:
5 pp. 234 - 247
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09526860310486688
Chor-Beng Anthony Liew, (2008),"Strategic integration of knowledge management and customer relationship management", Journal of
Knowledge Management, Vol. 12 Iss: 4 pp. 131 - 146
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13673270810884309
Yonggui Wang, Hui Feng, (2012),"Customer relationship management capabilities: Measurement, antecedents and consequences",
Management Decision, Vol. 50 Iss: 1 pp. 115 - 129
http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00251741211194903
Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY
For Authors:
If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service.
Information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit
www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information.
About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com
With over forty years' experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in
business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as
well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is
a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive
preservation.
*Related content and download information correct at time of download.
Customer relationship
management in higher education
Using information systems to improve the
student-school relationship
Elaine D. Seeman and Margaret O’Hara
East Carolina University, Winterville, North Carolina, USA
Abstract
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore customer relationship management (CRM) in a
higher education setting.
Design/methodology/approach The development and implementation of a CRM project in a
state community college was examined as were the benefits realized by implementing CRM. As
colleges increasingly embrace distance learning and e-business, CRM will become stronger and more
pervasive. Viewing students as customers provides a competitive advantage for higher education and
enhances a college’s ability to attract, retain and serve its customers. Semi-structured interviews were
conducted with individuals involved with the planning, development and implementation of a
statewide CIS system. Student support personnel were additionally interviewed.
Findings The benefits of implementing CRM in a college setting include a student-centric focus,
improved customer data and process management, increased student loyalty, retention and
satisfaction with the college’s programs and services.
Research limitations/implications The entire community college system has not implemented
the project. Rather, only the phase one colleges have implemented at this juncture.
Originality/value Viewing students as customers provides a competitive advantage and enhances
a college’s ability to attract, retain and serve its customers. As colleges increasingly embrace distance
learning and e-business, CRM will become more pervasive.
Keywords Customer service management, Higher education, Students, Relationship marketing,
Colleges, United States of America
Paper type Case study
Introduction
In this dynamic, competitive environment the future success of educational establishments
rests on their ability to differentiate themselves and build meaningful relationships not only
with existing students but with potential students as well. To achieve this, internal systems
need to be maximized to their full potential through the integration and use of internal CRM
which can pull together disseminated pieces of information from all types of databases and
sources (King, 2005).
Customer relationship management (CRM) is a set of practices that provide a
consolidated, integrated view of customers across all business areas to ensure that each
customer receives the highest level of service (Karakostas et al., 2005; TDWI Industry
Study, 2000). CRM enables an ongoing one-to-one relationship with the customer.
When relationship management is enhanced by technology, a “seamless integration of
every area of business that touches the customer” is provided (DCI, 2004). In higher
education, students are the customers; some areas that touch the students are the
The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at
www.emeraldinsight.com/1065-0741.htm
CWIS
23,1
24
Campus-Wide Information Systems
Vol. 23 No. 1, 2006
pp. 24-34
q Emerald Group Publishing Limited
1065-0741
DOI 10.1108/10650740610639714
registration processes, transcript services, career counseling and academic support
services.
Graduating high school seniors today have a wide variety of choices in higher
education; competition for their business is keen, especially in a tight economy.
Students can choose four-year colleges, technical schools, or community colleges in a
face-to-face or online learning environment. While the academic reputation of a school
is a major factor in determining its selection, other performance indicators that
prospective students may examine include pass rate of licensure examinations,
improvement in critical thinking and communication skills, alumni satisfaction with
their college experience, and the percentage of graduates who find employment (Cleary,
2001).
Satisfaction with the college’s programs and services is also a critical performance
measure. CRM can play a significant role in this area. While being able to obtain
information about a course prerequisite or a schedule listing is not germane to the
student’s learning, it is nonetheless an integral part of the college experience. Most
students view administrative activities as a necessary evil; thus, an information system
with an enhanced CRM initiative that provides an individualized fast-track to
completing these activities can be a strong incentive for selecting a particular institution.
In this paper, we first define customer relationship management, discuss how
technology facilitates CRM, and explain its place in higher education. We then offer a
brief history of the community college system and explore the concept of students as
primary stakeholders. Finally, we examine the life cycle of an actual CRM project in a
state community college system.
CRM
CRM has been described as “a customer-focused business strategy that aims to increase
customer satisfaction and customer loyalty by offering a more responsive and
customized service to each customer” (Croteau and Li, 2003). In the early twentieth
century, managing customer relationships was a fairly simple task. Merchants had
fewer customers and most were local. Recordkeeping was done in the merchant’s head or
in a simple ledger. Merchants knew who their customers were and what they wanted.
In the last 20 years, the super store concept, the internet, the rise of the suburbs, and
increased consumer mobility, have made the customer relationship more complex.
Customers had more choices and marketing needed to become customer-centric. While
information systems provided far more customer-related data, making sense of that
data became nearly impossible. Attempting to glean useful information from myriad
sources was very labor intensive. The organization needed to identify, acquire and
retain new customers, to understand what they wanted, and to develop customer
loyalty. CRM systems accomplish this task by consolidating information from all
customer touch points into a central repository accessible by all business areas.
CRM systems enable customers to interact with the business in an individualized,
need-specific manner, and include processes to bring together information about both
the customer and the business. The tasks performed by CRM systems fall into two
CRM in higher
education
25
main areas operational and analytical. In brief, the operational side gathers data
from various touch points; the analytical systems make sense of it.
Although CRM systems employ sophisticated technology, a CRM initiative involves
more than just technology. CRM is both a business strategy and a technology-software
set. The technology and software automate and enhance the processes associated with
managing customer relationships. The business strategy positions the customer as the
focus of the organization, creating a “customer centric” orientation (Grant and
Anderson, 2002).
In implementing a CRM system, the firm must first decide what information it needs
about the customer and what it will do with it. Next, it must determine how the
information is gathered, where the data are stored, how it is used, and who uses it. In
the typical firm, information about a customer might be gathered from a web site, a
physical store location, sales reports, and mail (electronic or traditional) campaigns.
Using the data gained from these customer touch points, analysts can develop a
complete view of each customer and pinpoint where additional services are needed
(Deck, 2001).
While CRM efforts are often daunting, the benefits achieved are impressive. Firms
who successfully implement CRM systems report improved customer data and process
management, increased number of transactions and improved analysis and reporting.
Information is more timely and accurate and customer complaints are reduced
(Integrated Technologies Corporation, 2005).
CRM in education
Postsecondary schools are increasingly challenged to maintain student enrollment
levels. Enrollment management programs to market the institution are growing in
number and their efforts are paying off. While the number of high school graduates
declined in the 1980s and 1990s, university and community college enrollment did not
(McDonough, 1994). Once students arrive on campus, however, the challenge is to keep
them there. Retention activities had focused traditionally on comprehensive orientation
programs, in-depth student advising, and a variety of student-focused activities.
Community colleges in North Carolina realized that an enterprise-wide information
system, focused on the student as customer, could also enhance enrollment and
retention.
A total of 75 percent of incoming traditional-age freshman have significant
experience with information technology (Milliron, 2001). This experience translates
into higher student expectations regarding the available technology resources.
Students expect technology to be an integral part of their entire educational process
and anticipate a higher level of access to information. From the “student-as-customer”
perspective, an educational CRM system would provide interaction with all the
traditional student touch points admissions, registration, financial aid, etc.
through a single system that would facilitate a complete understanding of each
student’s unique situation (Grant and Anderson, 2002).
CWIS
23,1
26
The community college in America a brief history
Community colleges focus on the community and its needs and offer workforce
training, open admissions and low tuition (Phillippe and Patton, 2000). Courses offered
may be applied to a vocational diploma or associate degree, or transferred to a
four-year college. Other courses include non-credit, continuing education courses in
literacy, basic skills and life enhancement areas. The open admission policy, low cost,
proximity, and courses offered at the community college often add up to the only
chance for many students to obtain an education.
In the early twentieth century, American leaders realized that a skilled workforce
was needed for continued economic strength and successful competition in a global
economy. However, only 25 percent of high school graduates were continuing their
education due, in part, to a reluctance to leave home for a distant college (www.aacc.
nche.edu, 2003). From this need the earliest community colleges emerged, committed to
meeting local needs through small classes, close student-faculty relations and a
program that included academics and extracurricular activities.
The initial focus in community college education was on liberal arts studies;
however, during the Depression, community colleges began offering job-training
programs. After the Second World War, the conversion of military industries to
consumer goods created new, skilled jobs. This economic transformation along with
the GI Bill created the drive for more higher education options. In 1948, a network of
public, community-based colleges was initiated to serve local needs (American
Association of Community Colleges, 2003).
Today, community colleges provide educational marketplaces where student
choices and community needs influence course offerings. Two-thirds of the
approximately 20 million students enrolling in community college courses take
courses for academic credit; the rest enroll in noncredit classes, typically in workforce
training courses.
The Nort h Carolina comm unity college system
The North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS) is the 3rd largest in the USA,
serving more than 750,000 students each year at the state’s 59 institutions. NCCCS is
the state’s primary provider of job training, literacy and adult education. NCCCS
provides high-quality, accessible educational opportunities that improve the lives and
well-being of individuals by providing support for economic development through
services to business and industry; and services to communities and individuals to
improve the quality of life.
Students as stakeholders
All institutions of higher education have a variety of stakeholders, and while each
institution must work to satisfy them, the stakeholder with the most influence is the
customer the student. The typical college student makes several trips to campus
before classes start. These include one visit prior to college selection, a registration
visit and another visit to pay fees and purchase textbooks. While telephone and
web-based registration systems have alleviated some problems, students are still faced
CRM in higher
education
27
with numerous administrative tasks to be completed during their college careers. All
too often, these tasks involve considerable time spent waiting
For community college students, many of whom work full-time, these tasks can be a
deterrent to completing or even initiating their education. A CRM system can ease the
complexities of accomplishing these administrative tasks by providing a means of
anytime-anywhere registration, as well as payment, advising and requirements
checking that is individualized to meet the student’s needs.
The CRM project
By 1997, the computing system used by NCCCS, never able to adequately support the
larger community colleges, was unable to meet the state reporting requirements.
Designed to support only the administrative functions of the colleges, colleges were
using it as a management information system to support decision making. At each
college, separate databases stored employee and curriculum information. Student data
was split in two databases one for traditional students and the other for continuing
education students. This disparate data resulted in inaccurate and redundant data and
frustrated students. Continuing education students, for example, were not recognized
as students in the college they weren’t in the “college student” database! In 1997, a
survey of college business managers in the state showed that nearly 80 percent of those
responding supported investigating other options for administrative computing
systems.
In the sections that follow the North Carolina Community College System’s CIS
project is presented in chronological order from conception to implementation. Since
the student system is only one part of the enterprise-wide CIS, it is necessary to take a
broad view of the system’s development before returning focus to the CRM portion.
1997-1998
A steering committee was appointed to clarify the need for an enhanced administrative
system, establish the vision for the financial, student, and business systems
architecture, establish the scope, priorities and character of the project and provide an
evaluation process for the project outcomes. Based on information gathered from three
focus group meetings, the steering committee developed a vision statement for the
project:
The comprehensive, fully integrated administrative system of the twenty-first century will
support student-centred learning, management decisions, accountability to external
constituencies, and business operations for all community colleges through a flexible,
seamless electronic network that is accessible to all (NCCCS, 2000, p. 2).
A project management team composed of functional experts from the 59 community
colleges was tasked with developing a systems requirements document and
recommending an administrative system harmonious with the vision statement.
Working with functional subgroups from areas such as curriculum, faculty, continuing
education, the registrar, and financial aid, the team formalized the overall requirements
and the steering committee issued a request for information (RFI) in early 1998. The
RFI required that vendors:
CWIS
23,1
28
.
provide information on the best combination of build, buy and partner solutions;
.
provide information on the feasibility and estimated costs of potential build, buy
and partner solutions;
.
identify potential vendors/partners for subsequent Request for Bids (NCCCS,
2000).
A total of eight vendors responded to the RFI. After a formal evaluation of the
responses, the team recommended the purchase, customization and implementation of
an integrated information system that would include a student information system,
financial information system and human resources system. In addition, the team
suggested that the system integrate and support specialized third party systems and
recommended the development of a system-level operational database and a data
warehouse.
1999-2000
In 1998, the state legislature had passed a bill that required that the colleges develop a
plan for an information system to support NCCCS processes. The plan must identify
the needs of local colleges as well as the costs and benefits of meeting these needs. To
comply with the bill, a plan was developed and approved by the State Board of
Community Colleges. This plan required an information system to support the
administrative operations and the management information needs of the colleges and
the Department of Community Colleges (NCCCS, 1999). The NC General Assembly
appropriated $8 million for the 1999-2000 fiscal year and $15 million for the 2000-2001
fiscal year.
A request for proposals (RFP) that outlined system requirements and specific needs
was issued to all interested venders. Their responses were evaluated and in May 2000,
a contract was awarded to Affiliated Computer Services (ACS) to implement Datatel’s
Colleague software and custom develop several unique applications. While the contract
included student, financial and human resource systems, only the student system is
addressed in this paper.
The student system components included: academic records, accounts
receivable/cash receipts, campus organizations, curriculum management, degree
audit, faculty information, financial aid, recruitment/admissions management,
registration, and residence life. Enhancements to the existing Datatel components
consisted of curriculum standards, curriculum program design and approval, program
auditing, and career planning and placement (NCCCS, 2000). In addition, third-party
products to be integrated with the Student System included an electronic
communications web portal, a bookstore system, telephone-based registration, and
several information analysis tools.
Participation by each college was essential to produce an efficient and effective
system owned by all of the colleges. To ensure that the three systems would meet the
needs of all the constituents, teams for each system, along with a technology
coordination team, were assembled to provide detailed knowledge specific to their
business area. Teams included members from colleges of all sizes and with all degrees
CRM in higher
education
29
of existing technical systems. Collectively, these teams were called the “build team”
(NCCCS, 2000).
The project consisted of two major phases. Phase I included the development and
installation of the standard CIS configuration at eight colleges of various sizes chosen
based on their location, commitment to the project and resource capability. In Phase 2,
half the remaining colleges would implement the project in the first year with the
remainder rolling out the systems in the second year (NCCCS, 1999).
2001-2002
The template for the student system was scheduled for August 2001; full
implementation was scheduled for spring 2002. Phase I included the planning and
development of the standard configuration including enhancements by the build team,
the project management team, information services staff and the vendor. Software
installation would follow with customization as required to meet the specifications of
the RFP. Migration of data from the legacy system was to follow, along with the
creation of any temporary interfaces. The vendors provided technical and user
training, and were also responsible for ensuring availability of the data needed for
standard NCCCS reports. At this point, all third-party applications would be enabled.
During Phase I, decision points and implementation processes would be recorded and
maintained for application to the Phase II implementation (NCCCS, 2000).
Following the completion of Phase I, the project management team would evaluate
the information system, and the vendor would make any required modifications to the
standard system. These changes would then be implemented and tested by the Phase I
colleges. When the standard system was in production at all Phase I colleges, Phase II
implementation would begin. In Phase II, the remaining colleges would implement the
standard system over a two-year period (NCCCS, 1999). The Phase I colleges began
implementation in July of 2001 for the financial system and by June 2002, all systems
and components were up and running in the pilot schools (State of NC Information
Resource Management Commission, 2003a, 2003b, 2003c, 2004).
2003-present
Implementation was progressing as scheduled until a disparity was discovered
between the accrual-based accounting system of the Datatel Colleague software and
the cash-based system required by the State of North Carolina (Olson, 2003). This
disparity delayed implementation of the systems in which the AR/CR issue caused
problems. The implementation schedule for Phase II was revised from two to three
college groupings of 14 (2A), 18 (2B) and 18 (2C) colleges, with the planned end date
extended to June 30, 2007 (State of NC Information Technology Services, 2004).
The Phase I colleges completed the Pilot test of the AR/CR System in October 2004
and the system and documentation were approved six months later. The Phase 2A
Student System “Go-Live” is scheduled for completion in July 2005 for all
implementation activities. The Phase 2B colleges began their initial Student System
activities in March 2005, with a planned “Go Live” scheduled for student registration in
July 2006 for the fall, 2006 semester. The Phase 2C colleges will begin implementing the
CWIS
23,1
30
Student System in March 2006 with a planned “Go Live” scheduled for June 2007 (State
of NC Information Technology Services, 2004).
The student system as a CRM system
To support the goal of student-centered learning, the student information system
features a streamlined application process that allows anytime, anywhere registration
with a date-driven set-up to support traditional and distributed learning offerings.
Student services access is provided, and students can access and update their
information without requiring assistance or service from a staff member unless
problems arise. In addition, comprehensive date tracking maintains all history and
status changes with student records available via the web. All transactions are
immediately reflected in the database and in related processes (such as a student
dropping a course and immediately having financial aid recalculated). Information
about students and employees is accessible to all functions (with appropriate security).
With the elimination of multiple databases and resulting duplicate records, the
student view is no longer fragmented across the organization. Instead, student data is
stored in one place on a single system. This data integration increases coordination
among functional areas and synchronizes processes, thereby improving customer
service. Information about all colleges can be collected and stored centrally in the data
warehouse. This central repository accommodates information retrieval and reporting
for both analytical purposes such as data mining and for operational tasks such as
scheduling and registration. All systems utilize electronic forms and workflow instead
of paper forms that must be carried or sent between offices. This enhanced efficiency
improves speed, customer service and satisfaction (NCCCS, 1999).
One pilot college’s experience
Individuals involved with both system development and Phase I implementation at one
of the eight Pilot colleges were interviewed in 2003 and 2005 after the initial rollout.
The following challenges and successes were extracted from those interviews:
Challenges
The disparity in the accounting system was deemed the biggest challenge by those
interviewed. It caused the above-mentioned delays in the implementation and brought
unwelcome and extremely negative publicity about the issue, which made the job of
“selling the system” to colleagues difficult. Although the AR/CR issue received the
most public attention, smaller issues such as creating the customized reports were
more challenging for some builders.
While the involvement of functional experts throughout the system added
knowledge, it was not as successful at ensuring buy-in throughout the community
college system as had been hoped. Build team members were absent from their duties
often and for lengthy periods. This separation caused some difficulties both for the
builders and their co-workers. Burdened with extra work and lacking in supervision
and guidance, many employees began to see the system in negative terms.
CRM in higher
education
31
This project was the largest ever awarded to ACS, and according to some team
members, this lack of experience sometimes showed. In some instances it appeared that
ACS had underestimated the complexity of the community college system wherein
each college did things somewhat differently and used varying terminology. The ACS
employees knew their product so well that they forgot that the trainees were not
familiar with the software. One implementation problem cited by team members was
that the IT employees at the individual colleges were not trained early enough. One
individual felt that the infrequent user would require lots of training because the
system was not user friendly.
Successes
Despite delays in implementation of the entire student system, student services
personnel remain excited about the benefits to come. They cite the move to a student
focus as long overdue. Individuals involved with the admissions and application
processed expressed enthusiasm that students can register for classes on-line. With
students able to do business with the school when convenient for them, registration
personnel expect the students to be delighted with the new system.
Counsellors see convenience as the greatest student benefit. Although the system
requires marketing to the non-traditional student who may not be comfortable with
computer technology, these students will benefit most from the convenience of a
system that allows online transactions. For the younger students at area high schools,
the system provides a great recruiting tool. Even while recognizing the need for careful
communication, training and marketing for the new system, counsellors envision
students taking ownership of their education. With access to online curriculum sheets
and graduation checklists, scheduling and grades, students gain both control and
responsibility for their education.
Often, student services and instructional activities operate as separate entities. By
providing a common platform for customer communication and interaction, faculty
can utilize the system to access student learning profiles to customize student learning
or to refer students to support programs. Staff and faculty members envision using the
system to more effectively interact with and serve students or prospective students.
Conclusion
This paper explored customer relationship management in a higher education setting.
The development and implementation of a CRM project in a state community college
was examined as were the benefits realized by implementing CRM. These include a
student-centric focus, improved customer data and process management, increased
student loyalty, retention and satisfaction with the college’s programs and services.
As colleges increasingly embrace distance learning and e-business, CRM will
become stronger and more pervasive. Viewing students as customers provides a
competitive advantage for higher education and enhances a college’s ability to attract,
retain and serve its customers.
CWIS
23,1
32
References
American Association of Community Colleges (2003), “Community colleges past to present”,
available at: www.aacc.nche.edu/Content/NavigationMenu/AboutCommunityColleges/
HistoricalInformation/PasttoPresent/Past_to_Present.htm
Cleary, T. (2001), “Defining quality through the eyes of campus stakeholders”, Community
College Journal, Vol. 72 No. 1.
Croteau, A. and Li, P. (2003), “Critical success factors of CRM technological initiatives”, Canadian
Journal of Administrative Sciences, Vol. 1 No. 1, pp. 21-34.
DCI (2004), “Conference announcement”, available at: www.dci.com/events/crm/ (accessesd
February 24, 2004).
Deck, S. (2001), What is CRM?, available at: www.cio.com/research/crm/edit/crmabc.html
Gose, B. (1999), “Colleges turn to consultants to shape the freshman class”, Chronicle of Higher
Education, Vol. 45 No. 35, p. A49.
Grant, G. and Anderson, G. (2002), “Customer relationship management: a vision for higher
education”, in Katz, R. (Ed.), Web Portals and Higher Education: Technologies to Make IT
Personal, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, available at: www.educause.edu/ir/
library/pdf/pub5006f.pdf.
Integrated Technologies Corporation (2005), “CRM benefits”, available at: www.intechpr.com/
sections/BusinessSolutionsGroup/CRM/Benefits.htm
Karakostas, B., Kardaras, D. and Papthanassiou, E. (2005), “The state of CRM adoption by the
financial services in the UK: an empirical investigation”, Information & Management,
Vol. 42 No. 4, pp. 853-63.
King, J. (2005), available at: www.crmdistinction.co.uk/education/%modules/CRM, p. 1.
McDonough, P. (1994), “Buying and selling higher education: the social construction of the
college applicant”, The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 65 No. 4, pp. 427-46.
Milliron, M. (2001), “Touching students in the digital age: the move toward learner relationship
management (LRM)”, Learning Abstracts, Vol. 4 No. 1, available at: www.league.org/
publication/abstracts/learning/lelabs0101.htm
NCCCS (1999), Plan for an Efficient and Effective Technology and Management Information
System for the NCCCS, available at: www.ncccs.cc.nc.us/IT_Projects/docs/CIS_Project/
project%20background/Legislative_Report_1-99.pdf
NCCCS (2000), System College Information System Project Approach Document, Version 1.
Olson, F. (2003), “North Carolina, Community Colleges’ and State’s Accounting Systems are
incompatible”, Chronicle of Higher Education, available at: http://chronicle.com/free/2003/
05/2003050103t.htm
Phillippe, K.A. and Patton, M. (2000), National Profile of Community Colleges: Trends &
Statistics, 3rd ed., Community College Press, Washington, DC.
State of NC Information Resource Management Commission (2003a), available at: www.ncccs.cc.
nc.us/IT_Projects/docs/CIS_Project/Status%20Report/NCCCS%20CIS%20%20Project%
20IRM%20Status_09_12_2003.doc
State of NC Information Resource Management Commission (2003b), available at: www.ncccs.cc.
nc.us/IT_Projects/docs/CIS_Project/Status%20Report/NCCCS%20CIS%20%20Project%
20IRM%20Status_11_12_2004.doc
CRM in higher
education
33
State of NC Information Resource Management Commission (2003c), available at: www.ncccs.cc.
nc.us/IT_Projects/docs/CIS_Project/Status%20Report/NCCCS%20CIS%20%20Project%
20IRM%20Status_06_17_2005.doc
State of NC Information Technology Services (2004), available at: http://so9.ncccs.cc.nc.us/
IT_Projects/docs/CIS_Project/Status%20Report/NCCCS%20CIS%20Project%20IRM%
20Status_11-12-2004.doc
TOWI Industry Study (2000), Harnessing Customer Information for Strategic Advantage:
Technical Challenges and Business Solutions, The Data Warehousing Institute, Fairfax,
VA.
Further reading
Best Value Information Technology Procurements (1997), available at: www.ncleg.net/html1997/
bills/currentversion/ratified/house/hbil1357.full.html
Lee, K.C. and Lee, S. (2003), “A cognitive map simulation approach to adjusting the design
factors of the electronic commerce web sites”, Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 24
No. 1, pp. 1-11.
Selland, C. (2002), available at: wwwrealmarketcom/experts/experts102 available at: www.
realmarket.com/experts/experts102802.html
Corresponding author
Elaine D. Seeman is the corresponding author and can be contacted at: seemane@mail.ecu.edu
CWIS
23,1
34
To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight.com
Or visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints
... Despite confused and often conflicting understandings within HEIs, interest in CRM has soared. Implementing CRM in HEIs can help universities better manage applicant interaction, ensure more consistent application of processes, and can help raise student engagement and focus; subsequently increasing student retention, loyalty and satisfaction (Seeman & O'Hara, 2006). Biczysko (2010) highlighted that use of CRM allows HEIs to conduct frequent surveys to measure the students' satisfaction, allowing the university to react immediately to student demandsincreasing student retention which is of significant financial value to HEI management. ...
... The core concept of most HEI CRM strategies is to deliver value to strategic customers, which means understanding customers' needs and seeking to meet their requirements (Kumar, 2010;Seeman & O'Hara, 2006). Accordingly, the more aHEI knows about customer groups, the more likely that the HEI can enhance business performance by improving customer satisfaction and loyalty (Kirkby, 2002). ...
... Although CRM solutions are increasingly being adopted within HEIs, to maximise the value of implementation it is important that universities align development of customer solutions to maximise business strategies. As HEIs increasing compete within an international/global market, the effective use of CRM is critical advantage to ensure ongoing excellence and efficiency; resulting in increased student retention, loyalty and satisfaction (Seeman & O'Hara, 2006). Within this paper, we expanded on the work undertaken by Khashab et al. (2020), who iteratively developed a high-level CRM implementation framework (see Figure 1), which consisted of four compulsory stages (i.e. 1. Scoping and aligning CRM strategy; 2. Analysing desire/expectation/needs requirements; 3. Measuring the quality of 'To Be' desire/expectation/ needs requirements; and 4. Matching CRM types to prioritised gaps) and one optional stage (i.e. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Most Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) have silos of distributed processes, which adds to the confusion and conflict concerning the Customer Relationship Management (CRM), desires, expectation and needs (DEN). Where possible, in order to maximise resource impact and minimise organisational disruption, HEIs should practically map these DEN to processes, roles, events, activities, channels, and technologies (PRE-ACTs) that already exist within the organisation. The paper iteratively considers use of additional practical approaches that need be considered in order to ensure that strategic HEI CRM DEN are effectively captured, and that the requirements are appropriately mapped to existing HEI activities. Design/methodology/approach Content from 27 JISC cases, 10 semi-structured interviews and three focus group sessions have been collected and analysed using thematic analysis to understand how to develop preliminary stage 2 steps and assess the applicability of the final CRM strategy orientation support (CRM-SOS) framework stage 2 methods. Findings The authors believe that this study provides substantial practical support to CRM implementation practitioners when analysing customer CRM desires, expectation, and needs requirements. The developing practical tools aim to 1) support practitioners better comprehend the multifaceted life cycles, needs, and requirements of HEI customers, and 2) aid in the planning and management of CRM change more effectively. Originality/value The paper is extending the recent research around CRM strategy in HEIs by proposing additional practical approaches that need be considered to ensure that strategic CRM are effectively captured. The paper also offers considerable practical support to CRM implementation practitioners when analysing customer CRM desires, expectation, and needs' requirements.
... Los estudiantes no solo requieren información académica, sino también relacionada con admisiones, horarios, eventos semanales y evaluaciones etc. En la actualidad, estos datos se los ofrece al estudiante a través de la página web de su IES, por lo general es genérica, orientada y relacionada a grupos grandes de estudiantes (Asif & Krogstie, 2011), el acceso a la información en este sentido es grupal y para nada personal (Bowen & Pistilli, 2012). Por tal razón, un sistema que aporte servicios individualizados a los estudiantes utilizando tecnología de punta puede incluso aumentar la popularidad de la institución (Seeman & O'Hara, 2006). ...
... La información contenida en este estudio permite suministrar información de gran valor para los ingenieros de sistemas y agencias especializadas en software con competencias en desarrollos móviles, ya que se determinan hallazgos porcentuales validados estadísticamente en una población determinada en diferentes países latinoamericanos y uno europeo. Aquellas App al servicio de los estudiantes que se desarrollen con las funciones de Historia académica, Materias, Horarios de clase y Notificaciones tendrán mayor probabilidad de valoración en estrellas desde 2,8 hasta 5 estrellas por parte de sus usuarios garantizando gran éxito en el desarrollo móvil e incrementando la visibilidad y popularidad de las IES (Seeman & O'Hara, 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
Las aplicaciones móviles (Apps), constituyen un escenario ideal para el desarrollo de tecnologías con enfoque académico. El objetivo es caracterizar las Apps de 607 Universidades identificando patrones de cantidad y funcionalidad. Bajo metodología mixta, se realizó rastreo documental, análisis descriptivo, validación de proporción y variables de dependencia. De 151 Apps, El 35,8% pertenece a Colombia, teniendo más que España, México y Argentina. Las aplicaciones con Historia académica, Materias, Horarios de clase y Notificaciones tendrán valoración alta por sus usuarios.
... Almost all organizations better schooling possess a number of stakeholders, however the essential types are usually college students, alumni, personnel, local community organizations, business plus businesses, and also authorities (Temmerman, 2018). All of them are essential with regard to the near future progress the particular HEI, nevertheless the stakeholder most abundant in impact may be the college students (Seeman and O'Hara, 2006). With this eyesight in your mind, there exists a requirement for a different way associated with conceptualising the way in which people are recognized simply by degree. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
... Almost all organizations better schooling possess a number of stakeholders, however the essential types are usually college students, alumni, personnel, local community organizations, business plus businesses, and also authorities (Temmerman, 2018). All of them are essential with regard to the near future progress the particular HEI, nevertheless the stakeholder most abundant in impact may be the college students (Seeman and O'Hara, 2006). With this eyesight in your mind, there exists a requirement for a different way associated with conceptualising the way in which people are recognized simply by degree. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Science, Education and Innovations in the context of modern problems - SEI IMCRA - International Meetings and Conferences Research Association ISSN 2790-0169 / E-ISSN 2790-0177
... Almost all organizations better schooling possess a number of stakeholders, however the essential types are usually college students, alumni, personnel, local community organizations, business plus businesses, and also authorities (Temmerman, 2018). All of them are essential with regard to the near future progress the particular HEI, nevertheless the stakeholder most abundant in impact may be the college students (Seeman and O'Hara, 2006). With this eyesight in your mind, there exists a requirement for a different way associated with conceptualising the way in which people are recognized simply by degree. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Science, Education and Innovations in the context of modern problems - SEI IMCRA - International Meetings and Conferences Research Association ISSN 2790-0169 / E-ISSN 2790-0177 October, 2021, Baku, ISSUE IV, VOL.IV
... This change happened in concert with HE's progressive movement towards a customer-orientated focus (Denman, 2005;Koris, Örtenblad, Kerem, & Ojala, 2015) which has implications for students' expectations for the HEIs they attend. HEIs' ability to meet customer demands determines how well they can thrive in the current HE context (Koris et al., 2015;Seeman & O'Hara, 2006). ...
Thesis
Amidst the growing demand for internationalisation of the higher education (HE) market globally, and demographic and social challenges domestically, the Japanese government has instituted a series of initiatives intended to create a robust, globally competitive HE sector. This objective attests to both the demands for Japan to foster globally competitive human resources among its own population and a desire to attract competent researchers to secure the nation’s standing in the global knowledge economy. However, despite a substantial investment of resources in overseeing this transformation, research on the topic suggests modest results at best. At the root of many of these challenges is a failure to foster an internationalised professorate, despite international faculty being identified as key to internationalisation. Conspicuous in its absence is a lack of literature on the role of leadership in strengthening this capacity, which the present study addressed. Leveraging Bass’s (1985) full range leadership model, the study employed an explanatory sequential mixed methods design (ESMMD) to examine the leadership preferences of Japanese and non-Japanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) instructors working within the Japanese higher education system. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was first administered to assess and compare leadership preferences between Japanese (n = 26) and non-Japanese (n = 136) EFL faculty members and leaders embedded within Japanese higher education institutions (HEIs). The results informed a second phase of semi-structured interviews with five Japanese (n = 5) and five non-Japanese (n = 5) EFL faculty and leaders and elicited their opinions on effective leadership and the role of leadership in overseeing internationalisation processes. The results of the study suggested a statistically significant difference between Japanese and non-Japanese respondents’ leadership preferences, with non-Japanese scoring the transformational leadership construct higher. Five central themes were identified in the qualitative data which provided further insight into this phenomenon and suggested some practical ways HE leaders in Japan might embolden international faculty within and beyond the scope of the FRLM. The paper concludes by proposing a three-facet model, focused on leadership training, diversity building, and research, which suggests way to strengthen Japanese HEI leadership’s ability to create more internationalised professorates and institutions.
... It is however notable that since "students" has been assumed as main "customers" of universities, this discussion has been put forward on the basis of the importance of customer knowledge in CRM. As Seeman and O'Hara (2006) 25 have stated, having a customer-view about students provides a competitive advantage for educational institutions and improve their capabilities to attract, retain and serve these customers more. Table 1 provides the information about the level of Generic Skills and Competencies of Students by the level of lecturer capabilities with the help of bi-variate analysis and chisquare test of significance. ...
Article
Educational institutions worldwide are undergoing fundamental shifts in how they operate and interact with their “customers”, students, alumni, donors, and faculty members. Higher education, especially the management education has been changing rapidly and educational institutions are compelled to focus and shift their strategies on student community, faculty members, and industrial organizations so that they remain relevant to the society at large. A nation can remain competitive and its economy can continue grow, only if the quality of knowledge provided by higher education institutions becomes meaningful. Technological, economic, sociological, and governmental forces are altering education dramatically, impacting its institutions, teachers, students, funding sources, and basic function in society. To unlock potential and help talented people to gain advanced training, whatever their background, requires customer-centric approach to education.
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to analyse the indicators of the professional Competency of University physical Trainer students, and to explore the importance of these professional indicators. By referring to the two international physical fitness education institutions and literature reviews, three important perspectives of professional Competences are: Professional knowledge, Professional skills, Professional attitude, Furthermore, the result of this research was concluded after three integration of opinions. Method : Delphi technique was used to integrate the opinions of fifty-two experts and scholars, and the research results were obtained after three integrations. Among the 52 indicators at the three levels. Result : experts agree that professional attitude is the most important. followed by professional skills, and then professional knowledge. the professional attitude level, “maintaining a positive and enthusiastic professional attitude” was the most important indicator. In the professional skills level, it was noted that “physical fitness training cycle plan design ability”, “physical fitness action correction ability”, “emergency intervention” Ability to adapt” and “ability to use and demonstrate sports equipment” are the most important indicators. In terms of professional knowledge, “customer sports curriculum design” is the most important. Conclusion : this research can provide references for the university in future development of physical trainer’s training program and establish regulations; fitness club hiring process; self-growth in the industry; future researches and studies.
Chapter
Social Media and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) are already widely used in business settings, but other non-commercial sectors started only recently to adopt them. Among them are Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). Even though research shows positive effects on the quality of services, student satisfaction, and attractiveness towards international students, the adoption is very low. This research in progress reviews the state of research about Social CRM in HEIs and gives an example of the potential of social media for CRM approaches of HEIs by applying Social CRM concepts and techniques for better understanding the negative service experiences of students. By applying analytical Social CRM techniques on large amounts of User-Generated-Content (UGC) in complaint platforms the paper gives insights into problem chains inaccessible with manual methods. Based on the scarce research about Social CRM as well as the demonstrated potential of social media for CRM strategies of HEIs, this paper concludes with a call for further research on Social CRM in HEIs.
Book
Full-text available
KOBİ Yönetimi alanında Türk İşletme Yazınında, bugüne kadar değerli birçok akademik eser özellikle lisansüstü öğrencilerin kullanımına yönelik yayım-lanmış olup, KOBİ yöneticilerine özel uygulamaya yönelik eser sayısı ise yok denecek kadar azdır. KOBİ yöneticilerinin, işletmelerini daha iyiye taşımak ve özellikle dış pazarlara açılması yönünde kendilerini nasıl geliştirebilecek-leri üzerine güncel kaynakların ağırlıkla sosyal medya mecralarındaki kısa videolarla sınırlı kalması, yazılı eserlerin ise sayıca oldukça az veya dış tica-ret, insan kaynakları gibi spesifik bir uzmanlık alanında sıkışıp kalması sebe-biyle, tüm KOBİ faaliyetlerini ve fonksiyonlarına yönelik bir özgün kitap üret-mek üzere KOBİ adlı projemizi başlatmayı bir öz görev olarak KOBİ kitabına katkı veren tüm yazarların destekleriyle birlikte üstlenmiş bulunmaktayız. KOBİ yöneticilerinin uzun vadeli hedefleriyle bugünün rutinleri arasındaki planlamalarına destek olması hedeflenen bu kitapta, KOBİ yöneticileri, uzun vadede ne istediklerini ve bugün ne yapacaklarını çok iyi bildiği, ancak 1 ve 3 yıl arasındaki planlarda kafa karışıklığı içinde olduğu varsayılmıştır. Bu kitap ile hedefimiz KOBİ’lere orta vadede bilgi desteği sağlayarak, ihracat hedefle-rini gerçekleştirmelerine veya ihracatlarını güçlendirmelerine bir nebze ol-sun katkı sağlayabilmektir.
Article
Using a field analysis, the author describes changes in college admissions, including increased competition, higher admission standards, and the advent and boom of admissions management services. The article then offers an analysis of what students gain from private counselors: knowledge, attention, management of the college choice process, and a "cooling out" of unreasonable aspirations.
Article
Companies specializing in college recruitment are building databases to predict the persistence and success rates of college applicants and to help design recruiting and admission strategies. The field began two decades ago, when admissions deans with good reputations began consulting. Many of these companies provide other services, such as college market research. (MSE)
Article
As an increasing number of organizations realize the importance of becoming more customer-centric in today's competitive economy, they are also discovering that they must deliver authentic customer knowledge across multiple organizational functions and at all customer touch points. This paper compiles the critical success factors of customer relationship management (CRM) technological initiatives realized by 57 large organizations in Canada. The data analysis is performed using structural equation modeling techniques such as PLS.RésuméÉvoluant dans une économie fort compétitive, un nombre croissant d'organisations réalisent l'importance de mieux comprendre leurs clients. Elles découvrent alors qu'elles peuvent gérer les connaissances acquises á leur sujet lors des contacts pris avec eux, et les intégrer adéquatement aux multiples fonctions organisationnelles. Cet article relate les facteurs critiques de succés nécessaires lors de l'implantation d'initiatives technologiques supportant la gestion de la relation client (GRC). L'analyse des résultats obtenus auprés de 57 grandes organisations canadiennes est réalisée en testant plusieurs équations structurelles à l'aide de la méthode des moindres carrés partiels (PLS).
Article
In recent years, organisations have begun to realise the importance of knowing their customers better. Customer relationship management (CRM) is an approach to managing customer related knowledge of increasing strategic significance. The successful adoption of IT-enabled CRM redefines the traditional models of interaction between businesses and their customers, both nationally and globally. It is regarded as a source for competitive advantage because it enables organisations to explore and use knowledge of their customers and to foster profitable and long-lasting one-to-one relationships. This paper discusses the results of an exploratory survey conducted in the UK financial services sector; it discusses CRM practice and expectations, the motives for implementing it, and evaluates post-implementation experiences. It also investigates the CRM tools functionality in the strategic, process, communication, and business-to-customer (B2C) organisational context and reports the extent of their use. The results show that despite the anticipated potential, the benefits from such tools are rather small.
Article
The electronic commerce (EC) has been widely studied in the academic as well as practical fields. Especially, a lot of special topics regarding the EC such as B2C and B2B have been investigated in literature. However, there are much less studies about the EC sites themselves. Besides, only a few studies exist about the issues regarding how to adjust the design factors of the EC sites. The main objective of this study is to fill this research void by employing two techniques: (1) cognitive map and (2) linear structural relationship (LISREL). The cognitive map was used to operationalize the causal relationships among design factors of the EC sites, and investigate the simulation to find the optimal strategy of adjusting the design factors. The LISREL was performed to prove the proposed research model, where original Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) [Davis MIS Q. 13 (1989) 319] is adopted as a basic framework for providing causal relationships. Usable questionnaires were collected from 114 respondents who are proved to be qualified for this study. They were educated to surf two typical EC sites appropriately and tested before answering the questionnaires. Those respondents who completed questionnaires successfully were given a book coupon of 5$ equivalent. After LISREL experiments, the proposed research model was tested, and an adjacency matrix was induced which is to be used for the cognitive map simulation. With the adjacency matrix and 15 hypothetical market situations, the cognitive map simulations were successfully performed yielding that the proposed two techniques could be used for successfully adjusting the design factors of the EC sites under consideration in line with the changes in customers' tastes and market situations. One of the noticeable practical advantages of this study is that decision makers can identify the most relevant design factors and thereby allocate limited resources to them reasonably by performing the cognitive map simulation in advance before doing design adjustment to the EC sites in actuality.
Defining quality through the eyes of campus stakeholders
  • T Cleary
Cleary, T. (2001), "Defining quality through the eyes of campus stakeholders", Community College Journal, Vol. 72 No. 1.
Conference announcement
DCI (2004), "Conference announcement", available at: www.dci.com/events/crm/ (accessesd February 24, 2004).
Customer relationship management: a vision for higher education
  • G Grant
  • G Anderson
Grant, G. and Anderson, G. (2002), "Customer relationship management: a vision for higher education", in Katz, R. (Ed.), Web Portals and Higher Education: Technologies to Make IT Personal, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY, available at: www.educause.edu/ir/ library/pdf/pub5006f.pdf.
Touching students in the digital age: the move toward learner relationship management (LRM)
  • M Milliron
Milliron, M. (2001), "Touching students in the digital age: the move toward learner relationship management (LRM)", Learning Abstracts, Vol. 4 No. 1, available at: www.league.org/ publication/abstracts/learning/lelabs0101.htm
System College Information System Project Approach Document, Version 1
  • NCCCS