ArticlePDF Available

Gifted Students with Attention Deficits: Fact and/or Fiction? Or, Can We See the Forest for the Trees?

Authors:

Abstract

According to Gordon (1990), far too many high ability students arc referred for problems with impulsivity, hyperactivity, and sustaining attention. Several important issues, rarely discussed in the literature on attention deficits, offer alternative hypotheses for the increasing incidence of hyperactivity and attention problems of gifted youngsters. These include theories on emotional development and excitability of gifted students (Dabrowski, 1938; Piechowski & Colangelo, 1984), evidence of unchallenging curricula for high ability students (Reif, 1993), implications of the multiple intelligences paradigm (Gardner, 1983), and adult reaction to students' extreme precocity (Rimm, 1994). These issues are examined in light of Barkley's theory of inhibition as it relates to the manifestation of ADHD. The issues represent environmental conditions that may cause or influence ADHD-like behaviors in high ability students. Diagnostie and intervention strategies are suggested to counteract environmental contributors to the problem.
... Diğer bir yandan belirtilen bulgularla çelişen çalışmalar da bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmalarda üstün zekâlı çocukların dikkat becerilerinin normal yaşıtlarına göre daha düşük olduğu öne sürülmektedir (Latimer & Webb, 1993 Baum, Olenchak, & Owen, 1998). Başka bir çalışmada ise DEHB olan bireyler ile üstün zekâlı bireylerin zayıf dikkat becerileri yönünden ortak özellikler gösterdiği belirtilmiştir (Latimer & Webb, 1993 Öğrencilerin İTDH, İTDS tarama süreleri ve İT5 puanları incelendiğinde üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin en yavaşının normal zekâlı öğrencilerin en hızlısından daha hızlı olduğu görülmektedir. ...
... Gordon DEHB tanısı alan üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin düşük dürtüsellik, hiperaktivite ve sürekli dikkat becerilerine sahip olduğunu belirtirken (akt. Baum, Olenchak & Owen, 1998) mevcut araştırmadan elde edilen bulgular üstün zekâlı öğrencilerin dürtüleri kotrol edebilmeyi de içeren sürekli dikkat becerileri açısından Gordon'un elde ettiği bulgularla çelişmiştir. ...
... z uyaranları göz ardı etmektedirler. Araştırmada elde edilen sonuçlar tüm bu açıklamalar ile tutarlı olarak üstün zekâlı çocukların sürekli dikkat performansının normal yaşıtlarından daha iyi olduğunu göstermiş; üstün zekâlı çocukların dikkat becerilerinin normal yaşıtlarından daha düşük olduğu yönündeki sınırlı sayıdaki bulgu ile çelişmiştir (akt.Baum, Olenchak, & Owen, 1998;Chae, Kim, & Noh, 2003;Latimer, & Webb, 1993;Schweizer, & Moosbrugger, 2004).Pascual-Leone (1987) zihinsel dikkat modelinde inhibisyonun seçici dikkati ortaya çıkardığını bildirmiştir. Üstün zekâlı çocuklar daha üstün bilişsel kontrol ve inhibisyon becerilerine sahiptir. Doğru uyarana tepki verirken, yanlış uyarana verilecek tepkinin eng ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to compare attention abilities of gifted students and their average peers. The sample consisted 17 gifted and 18 average students. The groups were matched in terms of age and gender. Students' age ranged from 7 to 11. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was used to assess intelligence, Stroop Test TBAG Form to assess selective/focused attention and Cancellation Test Turkish Form to assess sustained attention. The results showed that gifted students performed significantly better than average students in selective/focused and sustained attention. Reaction time of gifted students were significantly shorter than average students in both tests, and their errors and corrections were significantly less than their average peers.
... Bearing in mind that children with heigh intelligence are sometimes not challenged academically at school, they may exhibit symptoms of ADHD. Professionals raised a question about the validity of diagnosing gifted children with ADHD, because many factors can affect the diagnosis, and they can indicate their behaviour rather than clinical symptoms of ADHD (Baum et al., 1998;Tucker & Hafenstein, 1997;Webb & Latimer, 1993). Evidence based studies from the Massachusetts General Hospital Family ...
Thesis
Full-text available
ADVERTIMENT. Lʼaccés als continguts dʼaquesta tesi doctoral i la seva utilització ha de respectar els drets de la persona autora. Pot ser utilitzada per a consulta o estudi personal, així com en activitats o materials dʼinvestigació i docència en els termes establerts a lʼart. 32 del Text Refós de la Llei de Propietat Intel·lectual (RDL 1/1996). Per altres utilitzacions es requereix lʼautorització prèvia i expressa de la persona autora. En qualsevol cas, en la utilització dels seus continguts caldrà indicar de forma clara el nom i cognoms de la persona autora i el títol de la tesi doctoral. No sʼautoritza la seva reproducció o altres formes dʼexplotació efectuades amb finalitats de lucre ni la seva comunicació pública des dʼun lloc aliè al servei TDX. Tampoc sʼautoritza la presentació del seu contingut en una finestra o marc aliè a TDX (framing). Aquesta reserva de drets afecta tant als continguts de la tesi com als seus resums i índexs. ADVERTENCIA. El acceso a los contenidos de esta tesis doctoral y su utilización debe respetar los derechos de la persona autora. Puede ser utilizada para consulta o estudio personal, así como en actividades o materiales de investigación y docencia en los términos establecidos en el art. 32 del Texto Refundido de la Ley de Propiedad Intelectual (RDL 1/1996). Para otros usos se requiere la autorización previa y expresa de la persona autora. En cualquier caso, en la utilización de sus contenidos se deberá indicar de forma clara el nombre y apellidos de la persona autora y el título de la tesis doctoral. No se autoriza su reproducción u otras formas de explotación efectuadas con fines lucrativos ni su comunicación pública desde un sitio ajeno al servicio TDR. Tampoco se autoriza la presentación de su contenido en una ventana o marco ajeno a TDR (framing). Esta reserva de derechos afecta tanto al contenido de la tesis como a sus resúmenes e índices.
... Some children exhibit intense energy levels in one or more of these five areas: psychomotor, intellectual, emotional, imaginational, and sensual. These can often be identified and misinterpreted by teachers and counselors in the labeling of children as hyperactive, impulsive, or unable to sustain attention (Baum, Olenchak, & Owen, 1998). These traits can be challenging for adults dealing with young people, but such traits when guided and nurtured, can lead to successful accomplishments, and when ignored can often lead to pathology. ...
Chapter
Young people who present with concomitant high ability and disabilities represent one of education's greatest conundrums. While on one hand they appear capable of superior academic performance, on the other hand they struggle as students. Consequently, identification and educational services for the twice-exceptional student population remain bewildering and elusive as the combination of seemingly paradoxical traits puts them at great risk for identification and consequently this population of students is rarely served appropriately. This chapter explores the complexities of the twice-exceptional (2e) population, how they should be viewed, how schools and homes can accommodate what seem to be dichotomous needs, and how ultimately they can be successful and contented. Case examples amplify understanding of this challenging group of young people.
Article
Full-text available
Tanulmányunk a tehetség és az azt befolyásoló, különböző tényezők koncepcióját járja körül társadalmi-történelmi és aktuális keretek között, az ősi kultúráktól napjainkig követve a jelenség definiálását, meglétének következményeit, mérésének lehetőségeit és fejlődését. Kifejtjük az intelligencia, a kreativitás, a motiváció, a teljesítményigény és egyéb, más tényezők hatását, azt, hogy e folyamatok, képességek hogyan, miben járulnak hozzá (vagy nem) a tehetség kibontakozásához. Végezetül pedig szót ejtünk egy olyan tehetségcsoportról – kétszeresen kivételesek –, akik különösen nagy segítséget igényelnek abban, hogy képességeik a leghatékonyabb módon jöjjenek felszínre és szilárduljanak meg. Our study revolves around the concept of giftedness and the various factors that influence it, in a socio– historical and current context, following the definition of the phenomenon from ancient cultures to the present day, the consequences of its existence, its measurement possibilities and development. We explain the impact of intelligence, creativity, motivation, performance needs and other factors, how these processes and skills contribute (or not) to the development of giftedness. In the end, we will talk about a group of talents -the twice-exceptional talents -who need a great deal of help in getting their skills to the surface and consolidating in the most effective way.
Article
El objetivo del presente estudio se basa en describir las tendencias de investigaciones sobre orientación escolar (OE) en América Latina, durante los últimos 5 años, a través de una revisión sistemática en bases de datos académicas como Redalyc, Scielo, Proquest y Dialnet. Se estiman como artículos de elegibilidad aquellos estudios con objetivos comunes en relación a la orientación escolar. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian que dentro de este ámbito las investigaciones se centran en a) el acompañamiento familiar en la educación, b) la educación sexual, c) la inclusión escolar y d) las dificultades del aprendizaje. Acerca de la tendencia metodológica se puede inferir que es la fenomenología hermenéutica la estrategia de investigación más practicada en el campo educativo y sus campos adyacentes.
Article
Full-text available
z Giriş: İki kere farklı (2f; twice exceptional [2e]) kavramı; bireylerin bir ya da birden fazla alanda özel yetenek gösterirken bir ya da birden fazla alanda yetersizlik göstermesi ya da bu alanlarda güçlük yaşaması olarak açıklanmaktadır. 2f terimi; özel yeteneğinin yanı sıra özel öğrenme güçlüğü, dikkat eksikliği ve hiperaktivite bozukluğu, otizm spektrum bozukluğu veya sosyal duygusal gelişim bozukluğu gibi durumlardan birine de sahip olmayı içermektedir. Yöntem: Bu araştırmanın amacı, özel yetenek ve öğrenme güçlüğü tanısı almış 2f bireylere yönelik 2014-2019 yılları arasında yapılan ulusal ve uluslararası çalışmaları inceleyerek betimsel analiz yapmaktır. Belirlenen anahtar kelimeler veri tabanlarında taranmış ve toplam 41 makale araştırma kapsamında incelenmiştir. Bulgular: Araştırmanın sonucunda, 2f bireylere yönelik çalışma sayısının az olması nedeniyle tam olarak tanımlanamadıkları ve daha fazla sayıda çalışmaya ihtiyaç olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Ayrıca incelenen makalelerin büyük çoğunluğunun betimsel araştırma olarak gerçekleştirildiği ve müdahale araştırmalarının sayısının oldukça sınırlı olduğu dikkat çekmektedir. Tartışma: Bulgular tartışılarak araştırma kapsamında incelenen makaleler hakkında genel bakış oluşturulmuştur. Anahtar sözcükler: İki kere farklı, 2f, özel öğrenme güçlüğü, özel yetenek, betimsel analiz.
Article
Full-text available
We present evidence for the reliability and validity of the Talent Identification Instrument (TII), an observation process in music and dance in which multiple judges rate students throughout a multisession audition. The approach was designed to recognize previously overlooked abilities in urban elementary students, including low income, bilingual, and special education students. The TII observation process was designed to evoke artful behaviors that can be readily recognized by arts specialists and classroom teachers. We found strong agreement among raters and adequate stability estimates. Evidence for validity was obtained through factor analysis and a variety of construct validity procedures. The performance-based assessment described here may have implications for discovering hidden potential in academic as well as artistic domains.
Article
Far more gifted children suffer from learning disabilities than anyone realizes. When gifts and handicaps exist in one individual, they often mask each other so that the child may appear “average” or an “underachiever.” Thorough diagnosis is necessary to detect major discrepancies between strengths and weaknesses. In clinical assessments many gifted children have been found to have auditory sequential processing impairments. This syndrome results in difficulties with phonics, spelling, rote memorization, timed tests, and handwriting. Spatial strengths are often seen as a means of compensation. Gifted programs need to become “handicapped accessible.” Specific suggestions are given for modifying instructional strategies to enable these children to be successful in regular classes and in the gifted program.
Book
Howard Gardner’s brilliant conception of individual competence is changing the face of education today. In the ten years since the publication of his seminal Frames of Mind, thousands of educators, parents, and researchers have explored the practical implications of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory—the powerful notion that there are separate human capacities, ranging from musical intelligence to the intelligence involved in understanding oneself. Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice brings together previously published and original work by Gardner and his colleagues at Project Zero to provide a coherent picture of what we have learned about the educational applications of MI theory from projects in schools and formal research over the last decade.
Article
The concept of learning disabilities in childhood and youth is based on a confusion of ideas and understandings, and for the newcomer to the problem, it is often difficult to identify myths and unfounded concepts from the realities. The author has attempted to identify a number of misconceptions and to counterbalance these with statements based on historical, research, or theoretical facts. He deals with such matters as the issue of definition of the field, focus of child population included in the concept of learning disability, personnel preparation, and integration of these children into regular grades.