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What Is Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge?


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This paper describes a framework for teacher knowledge for technology integration called technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge). This framework builds on Lee Shulman's construct of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to include technology knowledge. The development of TPACK by teachers is critical to effective teaching with technology. The paper begins with a brief introduction to the complex, ill- structured nature of teaching. The nature of technologies (both analog and digital) is considered, as well as how the inclusion of technology in pedagogy further complicates teaching. The TPACK framework for teacher knowledge is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology. The interaction of these bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into teaching.
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Koehler, M. J., & Mishra, P. (2009). What is technological pedagogical content knowledge?
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1), 60-70.
Editors’ Note: For the benefit of readers who are unfamiliar with the notion of
technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK), we offer the following condensed
and updated depiction by Mishra and Koehler (2007), which was presented originally at
the annual conference of the Society for Information Technology and Teacher Education
in 2007.
Judi Harris & Matt Koehler
Special Issue Guest Editors
What Is Technological Pedagogical Content
Matthew J. Koehler and Punya Mishra
Michigan State University
This paper describes a framework for teacher knowledge for technology
integration called technological pedagogical content knowledge (originally
TPCK, now known as TPACK, or technology, pedagogy, and content
knowledge). This framework builds on Lee Shulman’s construct of
pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) to include technology knowledge. The
development of TPACK by teachers is critical to effective teaching with
technology. The paper begins with a brief introduction to the complex, ill-
structured nature of teaching. The nature of technologies (both analog and
digital) is considered, as well as how the inclusion of technology in pedagogy
further complicates teaching. The TPACK framework for teacher knowledge
is described in detail, as a complex interaction among three bodies of
knowledge: Content, pedagogy, and technology. The interaction of these
bodies of knowledge, both theoretically and in practice, produces the types
of flexible knowledge needed to successfully integrate technology use into
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
As educators know, teaching is a complicated practice that requires an interweaving of
many kinds of specialized knowledge. In this way, teaching is an example of an ill-
structured discipline, requiring teachers to apply complex knowledge structures across
different cases and contexts (Mishra, Spiro, & Feltovich, 1996; Spiro & Jehng, 1990).
Teachers practice their craft in highly complex, dynamic classroom contexts (Leinhardt &
Greeno, 1986) that require them constantly to shift and evolve their understanding. Thus,
effective teaching depends on flexible access to rich, well-organized and integrated
knowledge from different domains (Glaser, 1984; Putnam & Borko, 2000; Shulman,
1986, 1987), including knowledge of student thinking and learning, knowledge of subject
matter, and increasingly, knowledge of technology.
The Challenges of Teaching With Technology
Teaching with technology is complicated further considering the challenges newer
technologies present to teachers. In our work, the word technology applies equally to
analog and digital, as well as new and old, technologies. As a matter of practical
significance, however, most of the technologies under consideration in current literature
are newer and digital and have some inherent properties that make applying them in
straightforward ways difficult.
Most traditional pedagogical technologies are characterized by specificity (a pencil is for
writing, while a microscope is for viewing small objects); stability (pencils, pendulums,
and chalkboards have not changed a great deal over time); and transparency of function
(the inner workings of the pencil or the pendulum are simple and directly related to their
function) (Simon, 1969). Over time, these technologies achieve a transparency of
perception (Bruce & Hogan, 1998); they become commonplace and, in most cases, are not
even considered to be technologies. Digital technologies—such as computers, handheld
devices, and software applications—by contrast, are protean (usable in many different
ways; Papert, 1980); unstable (rapidly changing); and opaque (the inner workings are
hidden from users; Turkle, 1995).On an academic level, it is easy to argue that a pencil
and a software simulation are both technologies. The latter, however, is qualitatively
different in that its functioning is more opaque to teachers and offers fundamentally less
stability than more traditional technologies. By their very nature, newer digital
technologies, which are protean, unstable, and opaque, present new challenges to
teachers who are struggling to use more technology in their teaching.
Also complicating teaching with technology is an understanding that technologies are
neither neutral nor unbiased. Rather, particular technologies have their own propensities,
potentials, affordances, and constraints that make them more suitable for certain tasks
than others (Bromley, 1998; Bruce, 1993; Koehler & Mishra, 2008). Using email to
communicate, for example, affords (makes possible and supports) asynchronous
communication and easy storage of exchanges. Email does not afford synchronous
communication in the way that a phone call, a face-to-face conversation, or instant
messaging does. Nor does email afford the conveyance of subtleties of tone, intent, or
mood possible with face-to-face communication. Understanding how these affordances
and constraints of specific technologies influence what teachers do in their classrooms is
not straightforward and may require rethinking teacher education and teacher
professional development.
Social and contextual factors also complicate the relationships between teaching and
technology. Social and institutional contexts are often unsupportive of teachers’ efforts to
integrate technology use into their work. Teachers often have inadequate (or
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
inappropriate) experience with using digital technologies for teaching and learning. Many
teachers earned degrees at a time when educational technology was at a very different
stage of development than it is today. It is, thus, not surprising that they do not consider
themselves sufficiently prepared to use technology in the classroom and often do not
appreciate its value or relevance to teaching and learning. Acquiring a new knowledge
base and skill set can be challenging, particularly if it is a time-intensive activity that must
fit into a busy schedule. Moreover, this knowledge is unlikely to be used unless teachers
can conceive of technology uses that are consistent with their existing pedagogical beliefs
(Ertmer, 2005). Furthermore, teachers have often been provided with inadequate
training for this task. Many approaches to teachers’ professional development offer a one-
size-fits-all approach to technology integration when, in fact, teachers operate in diverse
contexts of teaching and learning.
An Approach to Thinking About Technology Integration
Faced with these challenges, how can teachers integrate technology into their teaching?
An approach is needed that treats teaching as an interaction between what teachers know
and how they apply what they know in the unique circumstances or contexts within their
classrooms. There is no “one best way” to integrate technology into curriculum. Rather,
integration efforts should be creatively designed or structured for particular subject
matter ideas in specific classroom contexts. Honoring the idea that teaching with
technology is a complex, ill-structured task, we propose that understanding approaches to
successful technology integration requires educators to develop new ways of
comprehending and accommodating this complexity.
At the heart of good teaching with technology are three core components: content,
pedagogy, and technology, plus the relationships among and between them. The
interactions between and among the three components, playing out differently across
diverse contexts, account for the wide variations seen in the extent and quality of
educational technology integration. These three knowledge bases (content, pedagogy, and
technology) form the core of the technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge (TPACK)
framework. An overview of the framework is provided in the following section, though
more detailed descriptions may be found elsewhere (e.g., Koehler & 2008; Mishra &
Koehler, 2006). This perspective is consistent with that of other researchers and
approaches that have attempted to extend Shulman’s idea of pedagogical content
knowledge (PCK) to include educational technology. (A comprehensive list of such
approaches can be found at
The TPACK Framework
The TPACK framework builds on Shulman’s (1987, 1986) descriptions of PCK to describe
how teachers’ understanding of educational technologies and PCK interact with one
another to produce effective teaching with technology. Other authors have discussed
similar ideas, though often using different labeling schemes. The conception of TPACK
described here has developed over time and through a series of publications, with the
most complete descriptions of the framework found in Mishra and Koehler (2006) and
Koehler and Mishra (2008).
In this model (see Figure 1), there are three main components of teachers’ knowledge:
content, pedagogy, and technology. Equally important to the model are the interactions
between and among these bodies of knowledge, represented as PCK, TCK (technological
content knowledge), TPK (technological pedagogicalknowledge), and TPACK.
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
Figure 1. The TPACK framework and its knowledge
Content Knowledge
Content knowledge (CK) is teachers’ knowledge about the subject matter to be learned or
taught. The content to be covered in middle school science or history is different from the
content to be covered in an undergraduate course on art appreciation or a graduate
seminar on astrophysics. Knowledge of content is of critical importance for teachers. As
Shulman (1986) noted, this knowledge would include knowledge of concepts, theories,
ideas, organizational frameworks, knowledge of evidence and proof, as well as established
practices and approaches toward developing such knowledge. Knowledge and the nature
of inquiry differ greatly between fields, and teachers should understand the deeper
knowledge fundamentals of the disciplines in which they teach. In the case of science, for
example, this would include knowledge of scientific facts and theories, the scientific
method, and evidence-based reasoning. In the case of art appreciation, such knowledge
would include knowledge of art history, famous paintings, sculptures, artists and their
historical contexts, as well as knowledge of aesthetic and psychological theories for
evaluating art.
The cost of not having a comprehensive base of content knowledge can be prohibitive; for
example, students can receive incorrect information and develop misconceptions about
the content area (National Research Council, 2000; Pfundt, & Duit, 2000). Yet content
knowledge, in and of itself, is an ill-structured domain, and as the culture wars
(Zimmerman, 2002), the Great Books controversies (Bloom, 1987; Casement, 1997;
Levine, 1996), and court battles over the teaching of evolution (Pennock, 2001)
demonstrate, issues relating to curriculum content can be areas of significant contention
and disagreement.
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
Pedagogical Knowledge
Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is teachers’ deep knowledge about the processes and
practices or methods of teaching and learning. They encompass, among other things,
overall educational purposes, values, and aims. This generic form of knowledge applies to
understanding how students learn, general classroom management skills, lesson
planning, and student assessment. It includes knowledge about techniques or methods
used in the classroom; the nature of the target audience; and strategies for evaluating
student understanding. A teacher with deep pedagogical knowledge understands how
students construct knowledge and acquire skills and how they develop habits of mind and
positive dispositions toward learning. As such, pedagogical knowledge requires an
understanding of cognitive, social, and developmental theories of learning and how they
apply to students in the classroom.
Pedagogical Content Knowledge
PCK is consistent with and similar to Shulman’s idea of knowledge of pedagogy that is
applicable to the teaching of specific content. Central to Shulman’s conceptualization of
PCK is the notion of the transformation of the subject matter for teaching. Specifically,
according to Shulman (1986), this transformation occurs as the teacher interprets the
subject matter, finds multiple ways to represent it, and adapts and tailors the
instructional materials to alternative conceptions and students’ prior knowledge. PCK
covers the core business of teaching, learning, curriculum, assessment and reporting,
such as the conditions that promote learning and the links among curriculum,
assessment, and pedagogy. An awareness of common misconceptions and ways of looking
at them, the importance of forging connections among different content-based ideas,
students’ prior knowledge, alternative teaching strategies, and the flexibility that comes
from exploring alternative ways of looking at the same idea or problem are all essential
for effective teaching.
Technology Knowledge
Technology knowledge (TK) is always in a state of flux—more so than the other two core
knowledge domains in the TPACK framework (pedagogy and content). Thus, defining it is
notoriously difficult. Any definition of technology knowledge is in danger of becoming
outdated by the time this text has been published. That said, certain ways of thinking
about and working with technology can apply to all technology tools and resources.
The definition of TK used in the TPACK framework is close to that of Fluency of
Information Technology (FITness), as proposed by the Committee of Information
Technology Literacy of the National Research Council (NRC, 1999). They argue that
FITness goes beyond traditional notions of computer literacy to require that persons
understand information technology broadly enough to apply it productively at work and
in their everyday lives, to recognize when information technology can assist or impede the
achievement of a goal, and to continually adapt to changes in information technology.
FITness, therefore, requires a deeper, more essential understanding and mastery of
information technology for information processing, communication, and problem solving
than does the traditional definition of computer literacy. Acquiring TK in this manner
enables a person to accomplish a variety of different tasks using information technology
and to develop different ways of accomplishing a given task. This conceptualization of TK
does not posit an “end state,” but rather sees it developmentally, as evolving over a
lifetime of generative, open-ended interaction with technology.
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
Technological Content Knowledge
Technology and content knowledge have a deep historical relationship. Progress in fields
as diverse as medicine, history, archeology, and physics have coincided with the
development of new technologies that afford the representation and manipulation of data
in new and fruitful ways. Consider Roentgen’s discovery of X-rays or the technique of
carbon-14 dating and the influence of these technologies in the fields of medicine and
archeology. Consider also how the advent of the digital computer changed the nature of
physics and mathematics and placed a greater emphasis on the role of simulation in
understanding phenomena. Technological changes have also offered new metaphors for
understanding the world. Viewing the heart as a pump, or the brain as an information-
processing machine are just some of the ways in which technologies have provided new
perspectives for understanding phenomena. These representational and metaphorical
connections are not superficial. They often have led to fundamental changes in the
natures of the disciplines.
Understanding the impact of technology on the practices and knowledge of a given
discipline is critical to developing appropriate technological tools for educational
purposes. The choice of technologies affords and constrains the types of content ideas
that can be taught. Likewise, certain content decisions can limit the types of technologies
that can be used. Technology can constrain the types of possible representations, but also
can afford the construction of newer and more varied representations. Furthermore,
technological tools can provide a greater degree of flexibility in navigating across these
TCK, then, is an understanding of the manner in which technology and content influence
and constrain one another. Teachers need to master more than the subject matter they
teach; they must also have a deep understanding of the manner in which the subject
matter (or the kinds of representations that can be constructed) can be changed by the
application of particular technologies. Teachers need to understand which specific
technologies are best suited for addressing subject-matter learning in their domains and
how the content dictates or perhaps even changes the technology—or vice versa.
Technological Pedagogical Knowledge
TPK is an understanding of how teaching and learning can change when particular
technologies are used in particular ways. This includes knowing the pedagogical
affordances and constraints of a range of technological tools as they relate to
disciplinarily and developmentally appropriate pedagogical designs and strategies. To
build TPK, a deeper understanding of the constraints and affordances of technologies and
the disciplinary contexts within which they function is needed.
For example, consider how whiteboards may be used in classrooms. Because a
whiteboard is typically immobile, visible to many, and easily editable, its uses in
classrooms are presupposed. Thus, the whiteboard is usually placed at the front of the
classroom and is controlled by the teacher. This location imposes a particular physical
order in the classroom by determining the placement of tables and chairs and framing the
nature of student-teacher interaction, since students often can use it only when called
upon by the teacher. However, it would be incorrect to say that there is only one way in
which whiteboards can be used. One has only to compare the use of a whiteboard in a
brainstorming meeting in an advertising agency setting to see a rather different use of
this technology. In such a setting, the whiteboard is not under the purview of a single
individual. It can be used by anybody in the group, and it becomes the focal point around
which discussion and the negotiation/construction of meaning occurs. An understanding
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
of the affordances of technology and how they can be leveraged differently according to
changes in context and purposes is an important part of understanding TPK.
TPK becomes particularly important because most popular software programs are not
designed for educational purposes. Software programs such as the Microsoft Office Suite
(Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Entourage, and MSN Messenger) are usually designed for
business environments. Web-based technologies such as blogs or podcasts are designed
for purposes of entertainment, communication, and social networking. Teachers need to
reject functional fixedness (Duncker, 1945) and develop skills to look beyond most
common uses for technologies, reconfiguring them for customized pedagogical purposes.
Thus, TPK requires a forward-looking, creative, and open-minded seeking of technology
use, not for its own sake but for the sake of advancing student learning and
Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge
TPACK is an emergent form of knowledge that goes beyond all three “core” components
(content, pedagogy, and technology). Technological pedagogical content knowledge is an
understanding that emerges from interactions among content, pedagogy, and technology
knowledge. Underlying truly meaningful and deeply skilled teaching with technology,
TPACK is different from knowledge of all three concepts individually. Instead, TPACK is
the basis of effective teaching with technology, requiring an understanding of the
representation of concepts using technologies; pedagogical techniques that use
technologies in constructive ways to teach content; knowledge of what makes concepts
difficult or easy to learn and how technology can help redress some of the problems that
students face; knowledge of students’ prior knowledge and theories of epistemology; and
knowledge of how technologies can be used to build on existing knowledge to develop
new epistemologies or strengthen old ones.
By simultaneously integrating knowledge of technology, pedagogy and content, expert
teachers bring TPACK into play any time they teach. Each situation presented to teachers
is a unique combination of these three factors, and accordingly, there is no single
technological solution that applies for every teacher, every course, or every view of
teaching. Rather, solutions lie in the ability of a teacher to flexibly navigate the spaces
defined by the three elements of content, pedagogy, and technology and the complex
interactions among these elements in specific contexts. Ignoring the complexity inherent
in each knowledge component or the complexities of the relationships among the
components can lead to oversimplified solutions or failure. Thus, teachers need to
develop fluency and cognitive flexibility not just in each of the key domains (T, P, and C),
but also in the manner in which these domains and contextual parameters interrelate, so
that they can construct effective solutions. This is the kind of deep, flexible, pragmatic,
and nuanced understanding of teaching with technology we involved in considering
TPACK as a professional knowledge construct.
The act of seeing technology, pedagogy, and content as three interrelated knowledge
bases is not straightforward. As said before,
… separating the three components (content, pedagogy, and technology) …
is an analytic act and one that is difficult to tease out in practice. In actuality,
these components exist in a state of dynamic equilibrium or, as the
philosopher Kuhn (1977) said in a different context, in a state of ‘‘essential
tension’’…. Viewing any of these components in isolation from the others
represents a real disservice to good teaching. Teaching and learning with
technology exist in a dynamic transactional relationship (Bruce, 1997;
Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 9(1)
Dewey & Bentley, 1949; Rosenblatt, 1978) between the three components in
our framework; a change in any one of the factors has to be ‘‘compensated’’
by changes in the other two. (Mishra & Koehler, 2006, p. 1029)
This compensation is most evident whenever using a new educational technology
suddenly forces teachers to confront basic educational issues and reconstruct the
dynamic equilibrium among all three elements. This view inverts the conventional
perspective that pedagogical goals and technologies are derived from content area
curricula. Things are rarely that simple, particularly when newer technologies are
employed. The introduction of the Internet, for example – particularly the rise of online
learning – is an example of the arrival of a technology that forced educators to think
about core pedagogical issues, such as how to represent content on the Web and how to
connect students with subject matter and with one another (Peruski & Mishra, 2004).
Teaching with technology is a difficult thing to do well. The TPACK framework suggests
that content, pedagogy, technology, and teaching/learning contexts have roles to play
individually and together. Teaching successfully with technology requires continually
creating, maintaining, and re-establishing a dynamic equilibrium among all components.
It is worth noting that a range of factors influences how this equilibrium is reached.
Implications of the TPACK Framework
We have argued that teaching is a complex, ill-structured domain. Underlying this
complexity, however, are three key components of teacher knowledge: understanding of
content, understanding of teaching, and understanding of technology. The complexity of
technology integration comes from an appreciation of the rich connections of knowledge
among these three components and the complex ways in which these are applied in
multifaceted and dynamic classroom contexts.
Since the late 1960’s a strand of educational research has aimed at understanding and
explaining “how and why the observable activities of teachers’ professional lives take on
the forms and functions they do” (Clark & Petersen, 1986, p. 255; Jackson, 1968). A
primary goal of this research is to understand the relationships between two key
domains: (a) teacher thought processes and knowledge and (b) teachers’ actions and their
observable effects. The current work on the TPACK framework seeks to extend this
tradition of research and scholarship by bringing technology integration into the kinds of
knowledge that teachers need to consider when teaching. The TPACK framework seeks to
assist the development of better techniques for discovering and describing how
technology-related professional knowledge is implemented and instantiated in practice.
By better describing the types of knowledge teachers need (in the form of content,
pedagogy, technology, contexts and their interactions), educators are in a better position
to understand the variance in levels of technology integration occurring.
In addition, the TPACK framework offers several possibilities for promoting research in
teacher education, teacher professional development, and teachers’ use of technology. It
offers options for looking at a complex phenomenon like technology integration in ways
that are now amenable to analysis and development. Moreover, it allows teachers,
researchers, and teacher educators to move beyond oversimplified approaches that treat
technology as an “add-on” instead to focus again, and in a more ecological way, upon the
connections among technology, content, and pedagogy as they play out in classroom
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Author Note:
The authors contributed equally to this work. We rotate order of authorship in our
Matthew J. Koehler
Michigan State University
Punya Mishra
Michigan State University
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... Although the TPACK model currently has the essential structure developed by Mishra and Koehler (2006) and Koehler and Mishra (2008), it has been adapted several times in recent years (Angeli and Valanides, 2009;Jang and Chen, 2010;Van Vaerenewyck et al., 2017). These adaptations have been especially important for contextual knowledge (XK) as another element in teaching development (Porras-Hernández and Salinas-Amescua, 2013; Rosenberg and Koehler, 2015;Phillips et al., 2016;Swallow and Olofson, 2017), which was included in the last revision of the TPACK by Mishra (2019). ...
... The TPACK model is based on integrating the knowledge types (Koehler and Mishra, 2008) needed for successful teaching and appropriate DCE. Consequently, the results of this study are presented below on the basis of these knowledge types (CK, PK, and TK), and, especially, of their integration (PCK, TPK, and TCK). ...
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) now form part of virtually all aspects of our daily lives, including education. However, teacher training in digital competence has been pushed into the background, especially in social sciences and in history instruction, in which digitalization and the use of ICTs is an opportunity for improvement and educational innovation. Consequently, proposals integrating the various types of knowledge into the training of history teachers are still rare and scarce. To solve this problem, this study presents a mixed quantitative and qualitative analysis using a pre- and posttest questionnaire with a sample of 235 students of the primary education degree at the Public University of Navarre who took part in an innovative didactic proposal that was implemented using the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) model based on digitized primary sources in three resources: PARES (Spanish Archive Portal), EUROPEANA, and BNE (National Library of Spain). The primary aim of this study was for preservice teachers to develop digital competence in teaching social sciences by integrating the technological, pedagogical and content knowledge types using the TPACK model. There were three specific objectives. The first was analyzing the digital knowledge of students following a primary education degree concerning the use of ICTs in history instruction. The second was implementing a didactic proposal in the teaching social sciences course based on the TPACK model by integrating ICTs and history instruction using Spanish and European digitized primary historical sources. Finally, the third was evaluating the impact of this didactic proposal on developing the knowledge types linked to the TPACK model, especially content knowledge (CK) and its technological content knowledge (TCK) and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) combinations.
... There are some connections and interactions between teachers and students, along with learners with learners at the same and different levels, including with the outside community (Office of the Education Council of Thailand, 2014;Panit, 2014). Regarding the outcomes, the integration of technology teaching methods and contents by using the TPACK model (Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge: TPACK) is really necessary in the classroom., Koehler and Mishra (2008) state that TPACK refers to the combination of technology, teaching methods, and the contents. It's the basic knowledge to understand technology-based teaching whenever the concept of contents is presentd by using technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2008). ...
... Koehler and Mishra (2008) state that TPACK refers to the combination of technology, teaching methods, and the contents. It's the basic knowledge to understand technology-based teaching whenever the concept of contents is presentd by using technology (Koehler & Mishra, 2008). Problem based learning (PBL) is a student-centered educational method which aims to improve problem-solving skills through a self-directed learning and team work skills (Ali, 2019). ...
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The objectives of the research were: 1) to develop the lesson plans for “Weight and Measurement” of Mathematics by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL based on the efficiency of the process and the overall result (E1/E2) at the established criteria of 75/75; 2) to compare the students’ learning achievement in “Weight and Measurement” of the 1st grade students before and after by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL; 3) to study the students’ satisfaction with Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL. The research samples were thirty-five 1st grade students of class 1 in the 1st semester of the academic year 2020 at Sanambin School in Khon Kaen Province. They were selected by purposive sampling. The instruments used in this study were lesson plans, an achievement test, and a questionnaire on students’ satisfaction. The statistics used for analyzing the collected data were mean, standard deviation, percentage, and gain score. The research results showed that 1) the average efficiency of the lesson plans for “Weight and Measurement” by using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL with exercises was 85.54/78.71, which was higher than theestablished criteria. 2) The mean score of the 1st grade students for “Weight and Measurement” of Mathematics after using Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL was significantly higher than that of before using the Problem-Based Learning Model. 3) The overall satisfaction of the students with the Problem-Based Learning on TPACK MODEL for “Weight and Measurement was at a high level.
... A három komponens együttesen alkotja meg azt a közös metszetet, melyben a pedagógus képessé válik a technológia alkalmazására a tanítási folyamat során, oly módon, amely az eltérő szükségletű diákokat a leginkább segíti a tananyag megértésében, elsajátításában (Koehler és Mishra, 2008). ...
... In fact, in mathematics education literature, the technological knowledge is integrated as part of teacher knowledge under the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) framework. Teachers are expected to deep understandings of each of the components of knowledge in order to orchestrate and coordinate technology, pedagogy, and content into teaching (Koehler & Mishra, 2008). Reform should include such issues in the 21st century. ...
This article provides discussion points for reform in mathematics education in Ethiopia. The rationale for reform is presented based on the recent developments in the teaching and learning of mathematics. The need for the reform is argued from different standpoints including the philosophy of mathematics education, learning theories, curriculum revision, knowledge for teaching, indigenous mathematics, quality of education, and digital literacy. Theory, research, and pragmatic experiences are used to address the issue of reform in mathematics education in Ethiopia. The how-to reform is not dealt with in-depth, but it is implicated via the why-to reform argument. Actually, there is no one way to reform education programs. It requires the involvement of teacher educators, teachers, policymakers, and parents via communication, collaboration, and cooperation at different levels for meaningful change to happen. Two cases, from the USA and Singapore, are also provided as an example of such reform. Though the issues raised here are in connection to the Ethiopian context, these discussions points are generic enough and relevant for other countries in Africa and elsewhere, with a need for reform in mathematics education. The issues raised here are also applicable to other subjects also.
... Until recently different frameworks of digital competence have been suggested. Mishra and Koehler (2006) have proposed TPACK framework that contains three teacher knowledge areas: technological, pedagogical and content knowledge. The suggested model shows the necessity of "technology integration at multiple levels: theoretical, pedagogical, and methodological" (p. ...
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The study aims to investigate pre-service teachers’ readiness to use digital resources for foreign language teaching; to find out the pre-service teachers’ attitudes to the development of their digital competence; to outline the ways of the development of the digital competence. A mixed research design was employed which involved 56 pre-service teachers of Kyiv National Linguistic University in 2019-2020. The quantitative research method was employed to assess the level of digital competence in the pre-service foreign language (FL) teachers using the Fisher Criterion. The qualitative research method allowed analysing and interpreting data of the experimental learning. The results showed that the pre-service FL teachers who were consulted by in-service teachers and used checklists for systematical assessment of their digital skills in progress had higher results than those who were only consulted by in-service teachers. Also, the qualitative method aimed to gain data about the pre-service teachers’ attitudes to using digital resources for teaching foreign languages. For that purpose, a closed-ended questionnaire for the pre-service teachers was suggested as a data collection tool. It was determined that the digital competence is a necessary component of the teacher’s professional competence which affects the success of the learning process. The digital competence can be developed in two areas: the Digital Resources Managing Area and Methodological Managing of Digital Resources Area. The criteria for critical selection, analysis and assessment of digital resources were singled out.
... In 2008, contexts were introduced into TPACK as the eighth element. So far, TPACK framework contains three core elements, content knowledge (CK), pedagogical knowledge (PK) and technology knowledge (TK), four interacted knowledge, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), technological content knowledge (TCK), technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) and technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), and context (Koehler & Mishra, 2008), which can be shown in Figure 1. ...
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The paper is an attempt to evaluate an effective Technology based Teacher Education course for Pre Service Science Teachers. The Technology in Science Education-a core course-is prescribed for an University based Pre-Service Science teachers Education program. The particular course is evaluated based on the TPACK framework which is an extension of the pedagogical content knowledge (Shulman,1986).The TPACK framework offers a viable and effective means for actual tryout of a Technology enabled Teacher Education Program. The volume of research that extruded from the TPCK/TPACK construct has provided deeper understanding of how teacher knowledge is related to pedagogical integration of digital technologies in educational contexts. As part of curricular transaction during the eleven week semester, the seven dimensions of TPACK viz., Technology Knowledge(TK), Content Knowledge (CK), Pedagogical Knowledge(PK), Technology Content Knowledge (TCK), Pedagogical content Knowledge (PCK), Technology Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK),TPACK (Technology pedagogical Content Knowledge) and an eighth dimension TechnoPedagogy Integration Skill (TPIS) was evaluated with reference to the attainment of concepts and acquisition of skills. The effectiveness of the course was assessed by a Pre service Teacher's TPACK assessment inventory which comprised of an achievement test in Science which assessed pre service teachers attainment of science related concepts based on School level Science. The inventory comprised of a list of questions which pertain to the 7 dimensions as identified by the TPACK framework, The abbreviations and explanations are the same used by Mishra and Kohler(2006). TechnoPedagogical Integration Skill (TPIS) was assessed by the assessment of teaching performance using technology before and after the course. Studies have reported that the implementation of TPACK framework has contributed to enhancement of Technological and Pedagogical concepts related to the subject (Hammond &
This open access book contains observations, outlines, and analyses of educational robotics methodologies and activities, and developments in the field of educational robotics emerging from the findings presented at FabLearn Italy 2019, the international conference that brought together researchers, teachers, educators and practitioners to discuss the principles of Making and educational robotics in formal, non-formal and informal education. The editors’ analysis of these extended versions of papers presented at FabLearn Italy 2019 highlight the latest findings on learning models based on Making and educational robotics. The authors investigate how innovative educational tools and methodologies can support a novel, more effective and more inclusive learner-centered approach to education. The following key topics are the focus of discussion: Makerspaces and Fab Labs in schools, a maker approach to teaching and learning; laboratory teaching and the maker approach, models, methods and instruments; curricular and non-curricular robotics in formal, non-formal and informal education; social and assistive robotics in education; the effect of innovative spaces and learning environments on the innovation of teaching, good practices and pilot projects.
Lack of guidelines for implementing distance learning, lack of infrastructure, lack of competencies, and security‐related problems were the challenges met during the pandemic. These challenges firstly fall on the administration of a higher education institution. To assist in solving the challenges of the pandemic for the administration of a higher education institution, the paper presents several models for the organization of the processes of distance learning. These models are as follows: a conceptual model of distance learning, a model of strategic planning of distance learning, a model of the assessment before the start of distance learning, a model of the preparation for distance learning, and a model of the process of distance learning and remote work. Student profile, lecturer profile, organizational environment, assessment, and planning of the infrastructure of information and communication technology (ICT), assessment and planning of the virtual learning environment, and assessment of distance learning competencies of participants of the study process are also considered. The developed models are based on five main processes of instructional design, i.e., analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. The models provide guidelines for the administration of higher education institutions on the preparation and delivery of distance learning during the pandemic. The models were validated by 10 experts from different higher education institutions. The feasibility of the data collection instrument was determined by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient that is above 0.9.
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Although the conditions for successful technology integration finally appear to be in place, including ready access to technology, increased training for teachers, and a favorable policy environment, high-level technology use is still surprisingly low. This suggests that additional barriers, specifically related to teachers' pedagogical beliefs, may be at work. Previous researchers have noted the influence of teachers' beliefs on classroom instruction specifically in math, reading, and science, yet little research has been done to establish a similar link to teachers' classroom uses of technology. In this article, I argue for the importance of such research and present a conceptual overview of teacher pedagogial beliefs as a vital first step. After defining and describing the nature of teacher beliefs, including how they are likely to impact teachers' classroom practice I describe important implications for teacher professional development and offer suggestions for future research.
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In this study, we followed three faculty members' experiences with designing and teaching online courses for the first time. In order to complete the activity, the faculty members had to work collaboratively with others across the university. Activity theory provided a framework within which to study faculty members' collaborative activities with members of different activity systems that had different goals, tools, divisions of labor and accountabilities. In concordance with activity theory, such differences led to contradictions, disturbances, and transformations in thinking and work activities. The results of the study have implications for individuals and systems undertaking technology integration in teaching.