BEES, BIRDS AND MANKIND

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BEES, BIRDS AND MANKIND
Destroying nature by “electrosmog”
Ulrich Warnke
Preamble by the publishers 1
Author’s introduction 3
1. The organisation of life underlying its
vulnerability
5
2. About the disappearing bees and
birds
9
3. Mechanisms of disorientation and
damage
11
4. Humans suffer functionality
disorders
30
5. Summary 37
Scientific literature 38
Glossary (GL) 42
Preamble
1
For different protection of mankind, environment and democracy
Preamble by the publishers at the launch of the series of papers: Effects of Mobile Radio and Wireless
Communication
The bio-scientist Ulrich Warnke is
more familiar with nature’s
electromagnetic housekeeping than
most. In this paper, he shows how
wise and sensitive nature was about
using electrical and magnetic fields in
the creation of life. But he can for this
reason also convincingly criticise the
present foolish and irresponsible
interference in nature’s house-
keeping. It is clear from his paper that
the powers that be in politics, the
economy and science are in the
process of destroying what nature
has built up over millions of years.
The traces of this destruction have
long been evident in our living
environment. The paper shows,
however, how short-sightedly we are
treating not only our health and the
economy, but especially also future
generations’ right to life.
1
All of the
above is documented not as
probabilities but based on
reproducible effects. This should give
pause also to those who regularly
justify their actions with the argument
that they are unaware of any proof of
damage.
Under the term “radio
communication”, we combine all
wireless communication technology,
increasingly flooding our residential
zones and the environment with
electromagnetic fields. A recent,
comprehensive research report by
the BioInitiative Working Group, a
consortium of renowned international
scientists, shows how many of the
damaging effects of such fields have
already been proven
(www.bioinitiative.org). The report
evaluates the present limiting values
as a useless edifice, protecting
nobody. Based on this, the European
Environment Agency (EEA), the top
scientific environment authority of the
EU, has warned of the possibility of
looming environmental disasters
following the increasing density of
electromagnetic fields. And the
coordinator of the European Reflex
project, Prof. Franz Adlkofer, has
informed the public on the new
research results, proving the high
degree of gene-toxicity of UMTS
radiation.
The public is little aware of these
risks because they are hardly
addressed in the “enlightenment”
provided by officialdom and industry.
The public is given the assurance that
they are well-protected by the limits
and the compliance-assuring
measurements and that UMTS
radiation is as harmless as GSM
radiation – more antennae in
residential areas are recommended in
principle.
2
And whilst Ulrich Warnke
demonstrates how vulnerable man
and environment are, we are told that
we are more robustly organised than
our machines.
3
The original “radiation
protection” has deteriorated to the
protection of commercial interests.
The involvement of government in
industry and the high percentage of
industry-financed research and
industry-beholden panels and
consultants, have spawned a
questionable system of environment
and consumer protection. Only that
which does not seriously endanger
common commercial interests is
noted and supported. The rights of
the citizen to protection and the
suffering of the people are flatly
ignored. Those with political
responsibility have apparently still not
realised that their negligent handling of
the obligation to take precautions has
long since been proven to be one of
the main causes of past environmental
disasters and scandals.
4
As a result of their quarrel with politics
of carelessness, an interdisciplinary
association of scientists and
physicians founded the Competence
Initiative for the Protection of
Mankind, Environment and
Democracy in May 2007
(www.kompetenzinitiative.de). This
paper is the first in a new scientific
series. The reported results are
intended as a correction to trivialising
“enlightenment” that does not protect,
but endangers. The series intends to
maintain a high level of technical
information, without being unreadable
to the interested layman.
1
On injury to the health of children and the youth refer also to the collection published by Heike-Solweig Bleuel “Generation Handy... grenzenlos im Netz verführt”,
St. Ingbert 2007.
2
Quoting scientists of the Jacobs University Bremen-Grohn under Prof. Alexander Lerchl: “UMTS doch nicht schädlicher als GSM”, www.pcmagazin.de, 2.7.2007,
and A. Lerchl at a presentation in Ritterhude acc. to a newspaper report of the Osterholzer Kreisblatt dated 16.6.2007: “More radio masts in the centre of town".
Professor Lerchl appeals to all communities not to spend further tax money on mobile radio studies
3
Statement at the end of a brochure: Mobilfunk und Funkwellen: Information, Fakten, Antworten; published by the Saarland Department of Justice, Health and Social
matters, Saarbrucken 2005 (copy of a brochure of the LfU Baden-Wurtemberg).
4
Compare the paper published by the European Environmental Agency and its German translation published by the Federal environmental office:Späte Lehren
aus frühen Warnungen: Das Vorsorgeprinzip 1896-2000”, Copenhagen and Berlin 2004.
5 “
Die große Gier. Korruption, Kartelle, Lustreisen: Warum unsere Wirtschaft eine neue Moral braucht”; Berlin 2007.
Preamble
2
Placing economic interests above
culture and morality has contributed
significantly to turning Germany into
a country of declining education. As
the journalist Hans Leyendecker so
tellingly describes in his book Die
große Gier
5
, it started Germany too
on a new career on the ladder of
corruption. There is nothing that the
business location Germany needs
more, he concludes, than “new
ethics”. But this also requires a
different perception of progress.
Whether we can watch TV via our
mobile telephone, is irrelevant to our
future. Our future will depend on
whether we can return to more human,
social and ethical values again in the
shaping of our lives and our
relationship with nature.
Everyone who thinks beyond today
and who inquires about what it means
to be human is, in our opinion, called
upon to contribute to this future:
politicians guided by values rather
than economical and tactical election
issues; scientists and doctors more
often remembering their obligation to
the wellbeing of society and mankind;
companies understanding, also in
Germany, that profit and morality
must be in harmony if they wish to
remain successful in the long term.
But what we need above all is critical
citizens, who can spot the difference
between technical progress and
consumer foolishness: Citizens who, in
both their roles as voters and
consumers, remember that democracy
once meant rule of the people, not
ruling the people.
The dramatic escalation of recorded
degradation challenges those with
political responsibility to take to heart
the protection directives of the
constitution and the European
Convention on Human Rights. To
base your actions affecting millions of
your protégés on a half truth, at best,
appears to us a political crime affecting
health and the future – considering the
state of our knowledge.
Religious and ethical cultures still
profess to the mandate of
conserving creation. But its actual
treatment is guided by the pseudo
culture of a new class of masters who
ruthlessly exploit and manipulate the
organisation, finally destroying it.
Prof. Dr. Karl Hecht
Dr. med. Markus Kern
Prof. Dr. Karl Richter
Dr. med. Hans-Christoph Scheiner
Introduction
3
Electromagnetic fields as prerequisite and
hazard to life
Author’s introduction to this paper
The question of causal effects and
biological relevance of electrical and
magnetic parameters is generally
posed without simultaneous
reference to their relevance to life’s
organisation. These questions can-
not, however, be considered in
isolation of each other. What role
have the electrical and magnetic
fields played in the evolution of life on
earth? What role are they playing in the
individual development and
physiological capacities of an
organism? Whoever investigates these
questions must sooner or later
conclude: Not only did the electrical
and magnetic fields of our planet
exist before all life, but they have had
a decisive hand in the evolution of
the species – in water, on land and in
the near-earth atmosphere. Living
creatures adapted to it in the
development of their kind.
Biological experience teaches us that
life will use the energy pool in which
it finds itself to its best advantage.
Advantageous not only because the
absorbed energy is a carrier of
information, useful for orientation in
the environment (see glossary;
hereinafter GL). But advantageous
also because the organism developed
to make use of gravitational and
electromagnetic interactions, creating
decisive functionalities of life. The
biological system expresses itself just
as the environment does and unity
and coordination with its environment
is its guiding principle.
But if bees and other insects
disappear, if birds are no longer
present in their traditional territories
and humans suffer from inexplicable
functional deficiencies, then each on
its own may appear puzzling at first.
The apparently unrelated and puzzling
phenomena actually have a common
trigger, however. Man-made
technology created magnetic,
electrical and electromagnetic
transmitters which fundamentally
changed the natural electromagnetic
energies and forces on earth’s
surface – radically changing million-
year-old pivotal controlling factors in
biological evolution.
This destruction of the foundations of
life has already wiped out many
species for ever. Since this extinction
of species mostly affected ecological
niches and hardly ever own life, most
of us were not interested. But now,
the endangerment of animals is also
threatening the survival of man in a
new and unexpected way.
Animals that depend on the natural
electrical, magnetic and electro-
magnetic fields for their orientation and
navigation through earth’s atmosphere
are confused by the much stronger
and constantly changing artificial fields
created by technology and fail to
navigate back to their home
environments. Most people would
probably shrug this off, but it affects
among other one of the most
important insect species: the
honeybee.
Because the bee happens to be the
indispensable prerequisite for
fructification: without bees, the fruit,
vegetable and agricultural crops will
fall short.
We are, however, not only affected by
the economic consequences of our
actions. It can also be proven that the
mechanisms evidently affecting birds
and bees are also affecting the human
organism. An all-round unnatural
radiation with an unprecedented
power density (GL) is also harming
human health in a novel way.
But, unless mankind reminds itself of
the basics of its existence and unless
the politicians in charge put a stop to
the present development, the damage
to health and economic fundamentals
is predictable and will fully manifest
itself not now, but in the next
generation.
The reasons for this are explained in
this paper. It endeavours to quantify
natural electrical and magnetic
signals provided to men and animals
as guiding signals throughout
evolution. The paper, however,
places particular emphasis on what
happens when these natural signal
amplitudes are suppressed, changed
and distorted on an unprecedented
scale by technically generated
artificial fields. Mankind can only take
successful countermeasures if the
damage mechanisms are understood.
Introduction
4
The following analyses are intended
to remain readable also for interested
laymen. This approach has its limits
where experimental fundamentals or
specific technical descriptions must be
included. The following text therefore
offers three options for reading. In its
totality, it is intended for readers with a
scientific background. It has, however,
also the interested layman in mind, by
allowing him to skip identified parts
containing specific technical
justification and arguments. And the
parts against a coloured background
are intended as a first overview.
I thank Prof. Dr. Karl Richter for the
editorial supervision of the paper and
Dipl.-Met. Walter Sönning, medical
meteorologist, for his technical
comments on the sferics question
and the compilation of a glossary for
the interested layman.
If all the functions bees perform for natural life and its preservation are observed holistically,
their importance cannot be overstated. Without the bees, we humans will also suffer major
deficiencies.
The organisation of life underlying its vulnerability
5
1. The organisation of life underlying its vulnerability
1.1 We should have known long
ago
The relationship between life and the
physical parameters of earth’s
surface and atmosphere have been
known for many decades. Those
responsible therefore had the
opportunity long ago to question to
what extent the excesses of
technically created electrical and
magnetic fields might have the
potential to destroy nature’s
housekeeping.
There are only two types of energy
capable of transmitting information
over great distances: electromagnetic
and gravitational energy. Any forces
acting beyond the boundaries of an
atom can be traced back to these two
energies; ultimately they have an
infinite reach. Both energies are
universally present and can be
modulated in many ways (GL). This is
true, for instance for light, the earth’s
magnetic field, cloud charges,
atmospheric electric fields and
changes in atmospheric pressure.
Together with atmospheric moisture
and olfactory particles, they are
recognised as orientation aids to
mobile organisms.
In the natural environment, there are
“oscillating” electromagnetic fields of
many orders of magnitude and with
frequencies ranging over a virtually
unlimited spectrum covering many
frequency decades. They manifest
themselves as a continuous and
enormous “hiss” – like an unlimited
ocean, the surface of which is
agitated by waves of any imaginable
amplitude and extent. Nature has
created senses that filter out very
specific frequencies and intensities
from this ocean of waves, analyse
them and convert them to forces.
These filtered frequencies identify a
specific sphere of life for specific life
forms.
Only those energies that are
important to the life of an animal are
transformed. The forces generated
from these energies control nerve cell
membranes and protein structures
such as enzymes – creating patterns,
images and impressions that we call
experience. Sensory organs are
organs functioning as frequency
analysers (GL), information amplifiers
(GL) with gains up to a million,
sometimes including contrast
enhancement and noise suppression.
Eyes, ears, sense of smell, taste,
sensitivity of touch, light, warmth,
chemical, electrical, magnetic and
pain receptors. The living world
perceives stimuli such as light
(including ultraviolet and infrared),
sound (including ultrasound and
infrasound), electrical fields and
currents, magnetic fields and also
smells and water currents. And the
sensory performance of animals is
often comparable to our technical
measurement apparatus, sometimes
even far superior. Physiologists can
prove this by some astounding
numbers: Snakes, for instance, can
sense temperature variations of a
thousandth of a degree centigrade;
long-horned grasshoppers and
cockroaches can register mechanical
surface vibrations with amplitudes
(GL) down to 1/25
th
of the diameter of
a hydrogen atom.
The high “intelligence of the systems”
is particularly obvious, however, with
orientation, navigation and early
warning systems. In this regard, the
earth’s magnetic field has an
important role to play. The local
geographic position and time of day
can be established from the density,
direction and inclination of the field
lines and their temporal variation.
Every location, together with other
physical information, has a specific
identifiable pattern. The sensitive
reception apparatus of animals use
the magnetic field information for
orientation and navigation, among
other (WARNKE, 2006).
1.1.1 Magnetic fields as global
parameter for space and time
orientation of all life
To the best of our present knowledge,
biological organisms depend less on
static magnetic fields than on the very
important intensity variations of
sufficiently high frequency. If we take
a closer look at such variations, the
earth’s magnetic field cannot be
considered in isolation. Other
magnetic fields must also be included
in the analysis: such as the
ionospheric field, for instance, and
the field of the Van Allen belt – a
radiation belt of very high intensity
with rotational symmetry around the
magnetic axis and mirror symmetry
around the magnetic equator around
the earth. Both the ionosphere and
the Van Allen belt are held together by
earth’s magnetic field. The protons
and electrons captured from the
cosmic radiation or the solar wind (=
stream of ionised particles emanating
from the sun) by earth’s magnetic
field, create a protective shield for all
life on earth – the Van Allen radiation
belt.
The organisation of life underlying its vulnerability
6
The external magnetic fields act as
moderators (GL) on the earth’s
magnetic field. They exhibit both a
pronounced solar and also a lunar
(moon-dependent) diurnal variation.
The reason for the solar-induced
variation lies in the diurnal warming
of the atmosphere through solar
radiation. This is accompanied by
horizontal eddy currents with
amplitudes up to 90 000 Ampere in
the ionosphere, that generate
magnetic fields again. These daily
variations also have a pronounced
annual cycle.
The moon-dependent variations are
furthermore only evident during the
day. These are also generated by
electrical currents at about 100 km
altitude, but they have current
amplitudes of “only” 10 000 Ampere.
These eddy currents cannot be
explained by temperature gradients
as with the solar effects, but they are
influenced by the gravitational remote
action of the moon. The earth’s
atmosphere is rocked to and fro
inside the earth’s magnetic field in
the rhythm of the tides, inducing
electrical currents in the ionised
layers of the upper atmosphere
where the conductivity is high
through the presence of the
negatively and positively charged
particles (ions). It appears that the
conductivity of the ionosphere is too low
at night to maintain induction processes
(GL) – due to reduced ion densities
(WARNKE 1993).
Within the realm of the conventional variations
of the magnetic field that have been explained
so far, electromagnetic oscillations that occur
in mainly two frequency bands also deserve to
be mentioned: 10 Hz and 10-25 kHz. On the
one hand, there is a resonating electromagnetic
oscillation between earth and ionosphere in the
10 Hz region (Schumann resonance, 7.83 Hz)
and on the other, thunderstorm activities on
earth constantly reinforce certain electro-
magnetic oscillations. The dominant frequency
of approximately 10 kHz generated by vertical
lightning flashes corresponds to a transmitter
dipole of cloud-to-earth length, whilst horizontal
cloud-to-cloud lighting generates about 20 kHz.
These characteristics may be exploited for the
design of thunderstorm warning apparatus.
Our device measures the thunderstorm activity
in a range of at least 800 km and
simultaneously also the activity within a range
of 200 km .Under favourable conditions, we
can therefore register thunderstorms over the
Mediterranean from our location in
Saarbrücken.
Lightning also simultaneously generates very
low frequency electromagnetic oscillations.
Under certain conditions, these oscillations are
all guided through the ionosphere along the
magnetic filed lines, travel far into space and
return to earth along the opposite magnetic
field lines. They are reflected at the ground and
the waves travel the same way again and again
until their energy is dissipated. The higher
frequencies are propagated somewhat faster
than the lower ones. If this process is made
audible through an amplifier, a whistling noise
is heard, continuously decreasing in frequency
down to a hum, as in a switched-off siren, but
much faster, typically for approx. 1/3 of a
second. This phenomenon was therefore
called “Whistler”.
The so-called earth-magnetic storms (magnetic
induction ß~ 1
µ
T) are triggered by the magnetic
shock waves escaping from the solar flare
region at 2000 km/sec and still have a speed of
100 km/sec as they reach earth. This induces
unusually high currents in the earth’s magnetic
field, which in turn change the earth’s magnetic
field and generate secondary currents. Such
currents manifest themselves in long
conductive paths such as pipelines,
transmission lines etc. and routinely cause
technical headaches.
The most important parameters, constant over
millions of years, are: earth’s static magnetic
field: 31
µ
T (geomagnetic equator); resultant
diurnal variation of the earth’s field: 60 nT;
magnetic storms: 500 nT; sferics field strengths:
0.25 – 3.6 pT per
Hz.
The natural high frequency radiation sources
have far less energy than the technically
generated transmission powers and energies.
This is a precondition for transmission of news
and communication.
The integrated power density over all
frequencies is 600-800 pW/m
2
at the earth’s
surface. The power density of the microwave
solar radiation is about 0.1
µ
W/m
2
, escalating
to several 100
µ
W/m
2
during solar flares.
Fig. 1 Top: The “midnight phenomenon”.
The activity of the electromagnetic
impulses (shown on 5 different days)
abruptly ends at midnight.
Ref. Hans Baumer: (1987) Sferics. Die
Entdeckung der Wetterstrahlung. Rowohlt,
Hamburg
Bottom: Our original recorded activity
cycles of 20 caged bees in a laboratory
experiment. The vertical axis (ordinate)
shows the total electrical field arising from the
electrostatic charging of the wings. It is clear
that the bees suddenly all come to rest at
midnight.
Acc. to Warnke (1982), published in Baumer’s
book (1987)
The organisation of life underlying its vulnerability
7
1.1.2 Examples of the utilisation of
earth’s magnetic field parameters
For a period of millions to a billion
years, life on earth had the time in the
evolution of the species to adapt to
the magnetic and electromagnetic
conditions of their environment. They
learned to use the natural magnetic
field parameters also as conveyors or
carriers of a diversity of information:
- The geographic location can be
established by the density of the
field lines, their direction and
variation in time.
- Time of day and annual seasons
can be deciphered in the daily,
lunar and solar periodic magnetic
signals.
- Frontal weather systems and air
mass movements transmit
characteristic electromagnetic
signals, the so-called sferics. These
are short oscillations comprising
just a few cycles (= impulses) in the
range between approx. 3 kHz and
60 kHz (= very low frequency) with
a repetition frequency of up to
100/sec or more, depending on the
intensity and type of atmospheric
processes.
The biosphere at the earth’s surface
is in contact with the electromagnetic
fields of the universe via two narrow
frequency windows through the
atmosphere. One of these windows is
in the narrow medium to long
wavelength UV radiation region,
including the visible light spectrum and
the near (short wave) infrared radiation
(average 1milliwatt/m
2
); another
window is in the high frequency
radiation region at wavelengths of
0.1 to 100 m (average 1 nanowatt/m
2
up to 1 milliwatt/m
2
(GL) during solar
flares).
Effects of the earth’s field and of its
compensation or effects of weak
artificial fields have been detected in
life at all levels of development: with
bacteria, single and multi-cellular
algae, higher plants, protozoa,
flatworms, insects, snails and
vertebrates:
Magneto bacteria (Aquaspirillum
magnetotacticum) in the bottom
sludge of the oceans utilise the
intensity of the earth’s magnetic field
for orientation. Magnetite crystals
(Fe
3
0
4
) in their bodies form a chain of
“compass needles” creating a
magnetic moment that the bacteria
align against the thermal movement
of the water molecules. (The earth’s
magnetic field applies an energy of
1.4 x 10
-18
J (GL) to the bacteria –
200 times greater than the energy of
the thermal movement at 22°C).
- Fish navigate in the earth’s
magnetic field. When sharks and
stingrays, for instance, move in
earth’s magnetic field, they
experience induced electrical fields
of varying strength. The field
strength is a function of the
direction of movement relative to
the direction of the magnetic field.
Local physical water currents also
generate direction-dependent
electrical fields that can be
detected. The sensory organ for
electrical fields is highly sensitive.
(So-called Lorenzian ampoules
responding to voltage gradients of
less than 0.1 microvolt/m).
- Compass termites (Amitermes)
build their metre-high mounds in a
north-south direction. With other
termites and the woodlouse, the
feeding activity is subject to natural
magnetic alternating fields (sferics)
and the earth’s magnetic field.
- Bees make use of the earth’s
magnetic field and its daily
fluctuations for their orientation and
communication. They also gain
information on weather
developments through the natural
impulse signals in the atmosphere,
i.e. the sferics already mentioned
above.
- Whales can sense the magnetic
field of the earth.
- Carrier pigeons are affected by
variations in the earth’s magnetic
field down to flux densities in the
nano-Tesla region.
- Migratory birds have a mechanism
acting like a compass.
Humans react to atmospheric
alternating electromagnetic fields
between 10 and 50 kHz through
various symptoms of the central
nervous system. There are also
correlations between activities in
earth’s magnetic field and sleep-
affecting factors, circadian rhythms
(HECHT 2005, 2006, 2007),
enzyme conversion and hormone
production in the central nervous
system, the vitamin level in the
blood serum, the average skin
temperature, vision in half-light and
iron content in the blood serum.
All the examples support the
existence and the vital control
functions of biologically active
magnetic and electromagnetic
fields with a specific frequency
structure and corresponding
information content, “arranged” to
suit biological systems.
They are characterised by, among other:
- specific flux densities and gradients
(“amplitude windows”), i.e. weak fields
may have a greater effect than strong
fields,
- specific impulse frequencies and
impulse sequences (“frequency
window”),
- specific impulse shapes and a certain
complexity of the impulse spectrum,
- specific vector characteristics with
respect to the body,
- minimum effective duration of
coherency and specific co-factors, e.g.
light.
Life forms, even of the same species,
may be quite differently organised, but
coordinated in a collective or social group
(fish shoals and flocks of birds). In an
isolated form of life, the instantaneous
interaction with its environment is
therefore exceedingly varied.
Reproducible magneto experiments in or
between individuals are therefore unlikely
in the case of complex organisms,
including humans; the specific
metabolism parameters are, for instance,
also too varied. None of these parameters
can be kept as constant as required for
reproducibility. “Proof”, in the sense of
classical scientific criteria, is therefore
illusory.
The organisation of life underlying its vulnerability
8
1.1.3 Technical wireless com-
munication is only possible because
the transmission is stronger than the
natural high-frequency radiation
Technical wireless communication
such as mobile radio, radio, TV and
satellite communication is only
possible because the power density
of the utilised technical high
frequency spectrum far exceeds that
of natural radiation. Natural radiation
at the surface of the earth in the
300 MHz to 300 GHz range is
approximately 0.001 microwatt/m
2
(=0.001 µW/m
2
); today’s typical
technically created radiation level in
cities is 10 000 µW/ m
2
. And the legal
German limits even allow values up
to 4.5 million µW/m
2
for the D-grid, up
to 9 million µW/m
2
for the E-grid and
up to 9.8 million µW/m
2
for UMTS.
As we evolved, we were of course
also exposed at times to strong static
and low-frequency electrical fields
(typical voltages: cloud electricity up
to 10 000 V, volcano electricity up to
20 000 V, lightning 500 000 V, sferics
10 V), in addition to constant static
and low-frequency magnetic fields
(earth’s field, lonospheric field, cosmic
field, lightning). But there were never
fields as constant and with as many
superpositions of different frequencies
from different sources as we are now
generating with our technology.
1.1.4 Radiation by organisms
themselves could be established in
the evolution, because there was no
interference by continuously
changing external radiation
The same high frequency radiation
that technology utilises for
communication is also copiously
generated inside our bodies. The
body also requires it for
communication purposes: for
biological communication through
functional oscillation of our
molecules.
Provided there is no interfering
external radiation, the body can
utilise its built-in frequencies for its
internal organisation.
The body internally radiates
frequencies in the 1 to 1 000 gigahertz
(GHz) range at power densities of
about 0.1 µW/m
2
, i.e. lower than those
of average solar radiation. If we add
up the total range of high frequencies
(HF and VHF) present within our
organism, we arrive at natural power
densities of about 10 000 µW/m
2
.
The power generated by our internal
electromagnetic oscillations, that we
describe as heat (wavelengths
around 3 – 10 µm), corresponds
approximately to that of a 100 Watt
globe.
To understand the natural oscillation
of our functional molecules (enzymes
and other proteins, nucleic acids,
hormones and many more) it is
important to realise that what we
generally describe as "chemistry" is
actually pure physics. All the bonds
and their modulations (changes)
between atoms on the one hand and
molecules on the other are based on
physical phenomena. In this context,
the electrostatic Coulomb forces (=
force between different electrical
charges) and the electromagnetic force
(e.g. van der Waal force = force
between dipoles with different
moments and fast oscillations) are
prominent. DNA and all the enzymes,
for instance, can only carry out their
functions through their natural
electromagnetic oscillations.
Resonances are of particular
importance here. Chain molecules,
for instance, can be excited to so-
called wring-resonances by high-
frequency electromagnetic fields.
Proteins exhibit such natural
resonances in the range of
1 - 10 GHz; DNA resonates at
10 MHz to 10 GHz. Both of these
therefore fall into the spectrum of
common mobile radio frequencies.
Wring frequencies (modes) cause
wringing of the molecular chains that
directly affect
the structure of the individual
molecules. The structure of the
molecules (conformance and
configuration) is essential, however,
for their specific functionality. Even
minor displacements render the
molecule useless. The chains may
even break apart under energetic
external influences.
Biological systems are obviously very
sensitive in their reaction to
microwave fields. For instance,
Belyaev et al, 1996, reported
resonance effects on the DNA
structure at extremely low power
densities of 0.000001 µW/m
2
in the
40 – 50 GHz frequency range. This
surprising result must still be confirmed
by other working groups.
Nevertheless, it must be stated that:
The ultra-weak, but biologically very
effective natural electromagnetic
fields are contrasting strangely with
the technical radiation fields permitted
in Germany. On recommendation by
the ICNIRP association (Munich),
technical radiation fields up to power
densities of 10 000 000 µW/m
2
were
legalised – still considered as
harmless by the experts. The
population, animals and plants may
therefore be legally subjected to
radiation in the critical frequency
spectrum that is more than 10 orders
of magnitude higher than the natural
fields.
But organisms are not only sensitive
to high frequencies; the following
examples show that very high
sensitivities evolved also in the low
frequency ranges.
About the disappearing bees and birds
9
2. About the disappearing bees and birds
2.1 The bees as evolutionary
force and indispensable economic
factor
Honeybees existed on earth from
about 40 million years ago; a “primal”
honeybee encased in amber was
found on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Man soon realised the usefulness of
animals. And we know today that the
enormous development of earth’s
vegetation, comprising about 200 000
species of a variety of flowering plants,
is based on animals. Because about
85% of these flowers are pollinated
mainly by bees and propagate
through the formation of fruit and
seeds.
Since also fruit trees (such as cherry,
apple, pear and plum) and agricultural
crops (such as rap, sunflower, red
clover, lucerne, horse bean as well as
vegetables such as tomato, cucumber,
pumpkin) fall under these, it is not
difficult to understand that bees are
one of mankind’s most important
production animals.
In central Europe the commercial
benefit of bees is estimated at
4 billion euros per annum, in the US
it is estimated at over 15 billion
dollars. These figures are from the
New York Times. It quotes estimates
by Cornell University, New York
State. This included the pollination of
fruit and vegetable plants, almond
trees and fodder such as clover. That
said, however, even the global honey
production of 25 000 tons per annum
is an important economic factor
already.
But if we aggregate all the functions
the bees are performing for nature’s
life and the preservation thereof, their
significance can hardly be
overestimated. Their industry cannot
be substituted either by other insects
or by technical measures. If the bees
should disappear, we humans will
also suffer major deficiencies.
2.2 No chance of survival: Colony
Collapse Disorder (CCD)
In some countries there are reports of
mysteriously dying bees. It appears as
if the losses are at their worst in the
northern American states and in
neighbouring Canada. 25% to 50% of
the American bee-keepers report
losses through “Colony Collapse
Disorder” (New Scientist, 2007). They
reported 50% to 90% of their bees to
have disappeared within the previous
6 months, and the remaining bee
colonies were said to be so weak they
can produce hardly any honey (CNN,
2007).
But unusual losses are also reported
in Germany, Switzerland, Austria,
South Tyrol, Spain, Poland and New
Zealand. In Germany, for instance,
the beekeeper associations last
winter recorded a loss of about 13%
in over 7 000 bee colonies - double
the previous year’s figure
(http://orf.at/070416-11296/-
index.html). In accordance with a
report in the Stern magazine edition
34/2007, German bee monitoring did
not confirm this number, only
acknowledging an average loss of just
on 8%. A 10% loss over the winter
months is not regarded as unusual.
What is completely unusual,
however, is the statement by the
president of the DBIB (German
Federation of Occupational and
Purchasing Beekeepers), Manfred
Hederer, in the Deutschlandradio
Kultur, on the Federal territory: The
beehives are empty.” He paints a
picture of bee colonies reduced by
25% - in some cases even 80%
(Spiegel 12/2007).
In 2006, the Swiss federal research
institute for production animals and
dairy farming, Agroscope, (Federal
office for agriculture), reported that
also all of Switzerland was affected
by bee deaths, to a regionally more
or less severe degree
(Zürichseezeitung, 5. May 2006).
Roughly 30 percent of the bees were
lost without a trace after winter –
about half a billion animals in this
year alone (http://www.heute-online.
ch/wissen/play/artikel 60601).
Beekeepers from Styria are also
reporting a mysterious disappearance
of bees. Beekeepers in Vienna
estimate a 30% loss. They agree on
the following: “The bees are not
developing properly anymore. They
do survive the winter, but in spring
they disappear as if by magic. The
hives are simply empty.” (This
according to beekeeper Hermann
Elsasser of Fladnitz in the Raab valley;
http://oesterreich.orf.at/steiermark/stories/
184609/
). Only the brood remains in
the hives, and without the care of the
older bees, they will die.
Ferdinand Ruzicka, scientist and
beekeeper himself, reports: “I
observed a pronounced restlessness
in my bee colonies (initially about 40)
and a greatly increased urge to
swarm. As a frame-hive beekeeper, I
use a so-called high floor, the bees
About the disappearing bees and birds
10
did not build their combs in this
space in the manner prescribed by
the frames, but in random fashion. In
the summer, bee colonies collapsed
without obvious cause. In the winter, I
observed that the bees went foraging
despite snow and temperatures below
zero and died of cold next to the hive.
Colonies that exhibited this behaviour
collapsed, even though they were
strong, healthy colonies with active
queens before winter. They were
provided with adequate additional
food and the available pollen was
more than adequate in autumn. The
problems only materialised from the
time that several transmitters were
erected in the immediate vicinity of
my beehives" (RUZICKA, 2003).
Ruzicka organised a survey through
the magazine Der Bienenvater
(2003/9):
- Is there a mobile radio antenna
within 300 m of your beehives? -
This was confirmed in 20 replies
(100%).
- Are you observing increased
aggressiveness of the bees
compared to the time before the
transmitters were in operation?
- 37.5% confirmed this.
- Is there a greater tendency to
swarm? – 25% confirmed.
- Are colonies inexplicably
collapsing? - 65% confirmed.
Such colony collapses, heralded by
“angry” swarming of the bees, were also
reported in New Zealand (FIR-
STENBERG, 2007).
Other reasons possibly explaining the
disappearance of the bees are also
under discussion: Monocultures,
pesticides, the Varroa mite, migratory
beekeeping, dressed seed, winters
too severe, genetically modified
plants. There is no doubt that some
problems can be attributed to this. But
the fairly sudden and country-
spanning appearance two to three
years ago of the dying bees
phenomenon cannot be convincingly
explained by any of the
aforementioned causes. Should the
bees simply be too weak or ill, they
should also die in or near the hive.
But no ill bees were found in the
research into this phenomenon.
2.3 Some bird species are
disappearing
But not only are bees and other
insects disappearing – birds as well.
The house sparrow, for instance, has
become clearly scarcer in England
and some western European
countries. An investigation carried out
between October 2002 and May 2006
in Valladolid in Spain, was launched
to examine whether this decline in the
sparrow population was related to
electromagnetic radiation by mobile
base stations. The result showed with
a high decree of statistical
confidence that the number of
sparrows was reduced when the
electrical field strengths of the
antennae exceeded certain values.
(BALMORI, HALLBERG, 2007).
A similar investigation was carried out
in Belgium. The numbers of house
sparrows were counted in the vicinity
of several mobile radio base stations,
during their breeding season. This
confirmed a significant relationship
between the electrical field strength
in the 900 and 1 800 MHz bands and
the diminishing numbers of birds
(EVERAERT et al. 2007).
It was noticed even earlier that storks
that built their nests within a
200 metre radius of base stations
could not rear any chicks, remaining
without offspring. The results
improved at distances of 200 to
300 metres. From a distance
exceeding 300 m, the storks bred with
a success rate of 96.7%. The
electrical field strength at a distance
of 200 metres averaged 2.36 ± 0.82
V/m, and only 0.53 ± 0.82 V/m at 300
metres. From their results, the
authors concluded that the electrical
fields of base stations are damaging
to the reproduction of the white stork
(BALMORI, 2005).
A
bout 85% of these flowers are pollinated mainly by bees and propagate through the
formation of fruit and seeds. We have the utility of animals to thank for the enormous
development of earth’s vegetation, comprising about 200 000 species of a variety of flowering
plants.
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
11
3. Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
3.1 Magnetic field sensitivity in
the animal world
Birds, insects, fish and snails are
assumed to have a specific organ for
sensing magnetic forces. It is
questionable, however, whether it is
always necessary to assume such a
specific magnetic sense. Electrical
fields do not penetrate deep into
living organisms and currents follow
only certain paths. A magnetic field,
however, fully penetrates the
organism, without major changes. It is
too short-sighted to conclude from this
that such fields have no effect because
they are not absorbed. To start off with,
even weak magnetic fields in the body
are more energetic than strong
electrical fields. As such, the energy in
earth’s magnetic field inside us is
10 000 times stronger than the
strongest possible electrical field in
the atmosphere (3 Megavolt/m;
WEISS, 1991). Such penetrating
forces as the quasi-static magnetic
field and the low-frequency
electromagnetic field do not
theoretically need an own amplifying
reception organ. Inside the organism,
they can also directly couple into
aggregates of orderly paramagnetic
molecules or into the electro-
mechanical (photon-phonon) code of
the endogenous information
transmission and storage.
Magnetite was found in all animals
that can navigate using their own
compass, sometimes in the form of
ferritin-proteins (KIRSCHVINK et al.
1981). But it is also present in our
brains (KIRSCHVINK et al. 1992).
And it reinforces the external
magnetic fields in both cases. In the
tissue of birds, bees, fish and whales
(WALKER et al. 1992), the magnetite
concentration exceeds that in the
human brain. Most areas of our brain
nevertheless contain about 5 million
magnetite crystals per gram
and even 100 million in the brain
membrane.
Because magnetite reacts about
10 000 000 times stronger to external
magnetic fields than normal dia- and
para-magnetic tissue, the trans-
mission of information separate from
the neurons must be considered.
Oscillating magnetite excited by ELF
fields could, for instance, play a role
in transport channels or cell-
interconnection channels, raising the
possibility of interference by
communication and other negative
effects of technically created electro-
/magneto-smog.
It is easy to prove mechanically acting forces in
insects subjected to relatively strong magnets.
Own experiments with bees and flies yielded the
following results (WARNKE, not published):
- A newly captured swarm of bees is
exceptionally sensitive to magnetic forces. If
a magnet with only a few mT field strengths
is brought close to the swarm in a dark
wooden hive, the entire swarm becomes
excited.
- Captive bees assume a horizontal rest
position at night, aligned to an artificial
magnetic field of several mT in the
environment.
- Dead bees, flies and a range of other insects
can be made to float on an electrostatically
neutral water surface and in this condition an
electrostatically neutral strong magnet can be
used to attract them, drag them across the
surface and in some cases repel them.
In the laboratory, bees can sense not only the
compass direction but also the intensity and
the gradient of this magnetic field (SCHMITT et
al. 1993). It was found in a 1982 publication
(KUTERBACH et al. 1982) already that the
magnetite found in bees is the source of this
sensitivity to magnetic fields, and this theory
was recently checked and finally confirmed
(HSU et al. 2007).
We also found ferrite particles together with
pollen lodged in the bristles of the body
surface; these might also be responsible for
the abovementioned magnetic moment.
It has been demonstrated that the birds’
magnetic compass only functions in a certain
range of intensities between 43
µ
T and 56
µ
T –
precisely in the range of the earth’s magnetic
field intensity. After a three-day adaptation
period the animals could, however, also
orientate themselves in fields of 16
µ
T and 150
µ
T (SCHNEIDER et al. 1992) – interpreted as an
adaptation to the environment.
The platypus of Australia (Ornit-horhynchus
anatinus) has the electrical receptors for
detecting its prey, in its bill. The receptors can
sense direct and alternating voltages in the
range of 20 mV and have a connection to the
Trigeminus nerve. Fish with similar receptors
use the acoustical nerve for transmission of the
electrical stimulus. This shows that evolution
exploited the electrical and magnetic
environment in different ways. The Lorenzian
ampoules of fish are capable of distinguishing
between stimuli of magnetical or electrical
origin (BROWN et al. 1978). It has not been
established whether the receptors of platypus
also have this capability. This question is of
interest because ducks also have bill
receptors. Although these are specialised to
react to mechanical stimuli, they are so
sensitive that the mechanical Coulomb forces
accompanying electrical fields might well be
detectable as well.
When magnetic fields penetrate an organism,
two fundamentally different aspects must be
clarified:
1. Is the organism merely subjected to a large
increase in energy - or
2. does the organism gain information?
In various insect species we are aware of a
time function based on magnetic field
variations. In particular, the feeding habit of
termites is correlated with the 27-day solar
cycle (BECKER, 1973), and there is also an
increased building activity for a few days
around new and full moon in laboratory
experiments – as it is with bees. It is also
known that termites show directional behaviour
under the influence of extremely low field
strengths (BECKER 1976, 1979). Time triggers
via similar channels sensing sun and moon
appears a reasonable assumption.
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
12
The changes to the circadian activity rhythm of
the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) can
be correlated with cyclical changes of the
earth’s magnetic field. The sparrow reacts
down to 200 nT in laboratory experiments.
Without doubt, light is the dominant timing
mechanism of life. But also the earth’s
magnetic field is meanwhile recognised as a
timing mechanism.
3.2 Bees and other small life
forms under investigation
Insects have many aids for their
navigation and orientation in space:
sunlight, also polarised (WARNKE,
1975), gravity, aromatic molecules,
colour as electromagnetic oscillation in
a specific frequency range, variations
in air pressure, occasionally also the
degree of ionisation of the air (ALT-
MANN et al. 1971, WARNKE, 1976).
Many species, however, cannot do
without the magnetic field.
In this respect, bees are welcome
objects for experimentation. Because
different modalities of their
orientation are inseparably linked to
the magnetic field of the earth and to
electromagnetic oscillations
(LINDAUER and MARTIN 1968;
HÜSING et al. 1959, SCHUA 1952,
WARNKE, 1976).
In our working group, we recorded
the directional behaviour of captive
bees in an artificial field and during
the night. A preference to assume rest
positions with the body either parallel
or orthogonal to the field lines was
evident.
They share this alignment reaction
with other insects such as various
termites (BECKER, 1963), diptera
(BECKER et al. 1964) and Drosophila
(WEHNER et al. 1970).
The behaviour of termites (BEKKER,
1963) was studied particularly
intensively in Germany, that of the
Christmas beetle (SCHNEIDER, 1961,
1963) in Switzerland and that of
insects, worms, snails, snakes and
other small creatures in the USA. The
investigations concentrated on the
influence of cosmic physical fields in
which the magnetic field time and
again played a pivotal role. All
experiments confirmed the existing
relationships. They also all showed,
however, that constant laboratory
conditions are impossible in practise,
because cosmic influences change
the magnetic component in any
normal room and cage, thereby
affecting the orientation behaviour of
the animals.
The experiments with Christmas beetles and
termites may be termed spectacular. In
accordance with the above literature,
Christmas beetles not only determine their rest
position by magnetic and electrostatic fields,
but also by interference patterns of
gravitational waves of terrestrial and cosmic
matter. In the final analysis, the evidence
points to the influence of a physical field or
radiation, varying in space and time in
accordance with an unknown programme, that
is registered through an unknown organ in the
Christmas beetle for an unknown purpose, but
the existence of which physicists doubt
because it cannot be measured by any
instrument. The Christmas beetle therefore
becomes the instrument for measuring this
unknown agent. The effect is often intimately
coupled to that of the magnetic fields
(SCHNEIDER, 1974). The orientation at rest is
based on the Christmas beetle choosing the
position of least or most symmetrical stimuli
when awakening from the rigor of cold. Using
interference patterns and models resonating
with gravitational Earth-Sun waves, complex
combinations of dynamic stimuli were
constructed, to which the Christmas beetle
responded by changing its position
(SCHNEIDER, 1972).
Also termites (Isoptera), whose feeding activity
and 0
2
consumption are important indicators,
react to more than just magnetic components.
Their communication modes also include
natural electromagnetic sferics impulse
patterns, gravitational influences and electrical
fields. The statistical correlation between the
feeding activity of termites in the laboratory and
the number of deaths in Berlin is described in
detail; the consequences of this are as yet
unfathomable. There is an increased frequency
of human deaths on the days on which termites
feed less.
The authors point to the magnetic field of the
earth and its variation with solar influences as
the common factor linking the apparently
unconnected facts. Further down, other and
earlier literature is cited in which an increased
incidence of human death is described during
unusual variations in the magnetic field.
3.3 Birds as prototypes of
magnetic field orientation
This research shows that birds’
orientation by magnetic fields has
been a frequently discussed topic for
decades. Thanks to the thorough and
meticulous work of a number of
researchers (WILTSCHKO, WALCOTT,
MERBEL), it is today beyond doubt that
several species of birds sense the
earth’s magnetic field and use it to
establish their position during
migration. As described for insects and
snails, some species of birds are also
particularly sensitive to a range of
magnetic field strengths corresponding
exactly to the earth’s magnetic field –
the robin, for instance. When the field is
attenuated or amplified, the birds
become disoriented. Setting on a
certain field range could, however,
change through adaptation.
The mechanism by which birds sense
magnetic fields has meanwhile been
largely explained. An area with iron-
containing tissue was discovered in the
skull of pigeons. Strangely, only one
half of the skull contains material that is
permanently magnetic. But opposite to
this, material was found that is only
very weakly permanently magnetic.
Measurements indicate magnetite
inclusions - the same crystal that was
found in bees, bacteria, snails,
whales and humans. The magnetite-
containing tissue of the pigeons is
even supplied with nerve ends that
can sense the orientation changes
signalled by the crystals (WARNKE,
1993).
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
13
It could be demonstrated at the
Zoological institute of the University of
Frankfurt/Main that the top half of the
pigeon’s bill has three magnetite-
containing bodies, with a neuron ending
at each of these. They constitute a
three-channel system enabling the
brain to construct a spatial picture of
the surrounding magnetic field the
pigeon can use to orientate itself in
flight (source: TV programme Planet
Wissen in BR on 18.09.2007 at 16.15
on carrier pigeons. Reference by W.
Sönning).
Birds also have magnetite in the
edge of the bill. In addition, light and
magnetic fields result in an increase
of certain free radicals in the eye, the
concentration of which can obviously
be accurately registered by the
animals (WARNKE, 1995). This
relationship will be dealt with again
further on.
3.4 Animals with a navigation
system are extremely sensitive to
electrical and magnetic fields
Birds having a navigation system are
extremely sensitive to the weather. A
thunderstorm changes the magnetic
field, light and many other
characteristics – potentially causing
the orientation to collapse. Birds and
other animals are particularly sensitive
to a solar eclipse. They exhibit an
abnormally changed behaviour:
sometimes lethargic, sometimes
restless. Research attributes the
reactions to the suddenly occurring
electromagnetic long and medium
wave radiation, typical for night time,
but surprising with the suddenly
occurring darkness of a solar eclipse.
The lack of ionisation in the
ionosphere by light has the effect of
many oscillating impulses propagating
100 times better on the surface of the
earth.
This unexpected electromagnetic
impulse effect may also, in principle,
explain the early warning system
animals have for earthquakes.
The so-called sensitivity to weather
or inclement weather, traceable to
short electromagnetic impulses with a
certain frequency content and rapidly
decreasing amplitudes, has also
been known for a long time.
These impulses originate at frontal
weather systems, where colder air
from sub-polar regions undercuts
warm subtropical air masses. In the
regions where warm or cold fronts
mix, thermodynamically driven
turbulent air currents with vertical and
horizontal components are created.
This is in essence where the
abovementioned natural electro-
magnetic impulse radiation of the
atmosphere, also known as sferics, is
created. Many life forms such as
insects, frogs, birds and various
mammals react to this
meteorologically based impulse
activity in the atmosphere. By
receiving and frequency-analysing
these “weather code” signals of
changes in the weather or
approaching thunder-storms, they can
then dive for cover or fly around these
thunderstorm regions (WARNKE,
2006).
Walter Sönning: “These weather signals or
sferics are indicators of unstable processes in
the troposphere – the weather-creating layer of
the atmosphere -, since their source is in the
weather centre. They originate in invisible
discharges between positive and negative
space charge clouds, created and maintained
by different processes of ionisation such as
cosmic radiation, UV radiation, natural
radioactivity or the Lenard effect (= spray
electrification or break-up of droplets or ice
crystals with opposite charges). In terms of
physics, our air could therefore also be
described as a “plasma” gas. When differing
space charges of possibly predetermined
magnitude are electrically equalised, the ion-
front of this basic plasma or gas discharge
propagates at velocities of about 200 km/s
along a tubular channel of about 40 cm
diameter in the direction of the maximum
potential difference, covering distances
between 40 and 100 metres, until the electrical
potentials are equalised. If the ion density in
the air is sufficiently high, the following
discharge impulse follows immediately. Each
of these invisible and “quiet” discharges that
occur at varying intensities in all weather
conditions, is the source of an electro-
magnetic, three-dimensional impulse or space
wave, a so-called EMP or primal impulse,
similar in its waveform to impulses from other
sources (nerves, atmospheric nuclear
explosions etc.). This 3-dimensional wave
propagates at the speed of light. When
recorded on an oscilloscope, for instance, it
vaguely resembles a sinusoidal half-wave, but
has a steeper rise time and an exponential
decay of the amplitude. In a Fourier analysis, it
is therefore not equivalent to a sine wave of a
certain frequency.
Depending on the meteorological and
atmospheric electrical propagation conditions,
these EMP’s are dampened at a distance of 60
to 100 km from the source to lower frequency
sinusoidal Fourier components with a
continuous spectrum between approx. 3 kHz
and 60 kHz. True to their origin in an impulse
discharge, these “impulses” have waveshapes
of a few oscillations with rapidly decaying
amplitudes from a maximum down to zero.
Particularly well-defined impulse shapes in the
total collection of atmospheric impulses
convey, through their resonating sinusoidal
oscillations at certain frequencies and also in
the subsequent impulse frequencies up to
100 Hz, the meteorological information on their
origin and propagation conditions – like a kind
of code. These impulses can be displayed
after suitable electronic filtering and are known
in the technical literature as CD sferics a.t.B.
(CD = convective discharge, i.e. created in
atmospheric convection or turbulence without
luminosity; a.t.B. = according to BAUMER).
They gained special significance, however, at
the beginning of the eighties in the context of
industrial four-colour copper gravure printing.
In this context, their highly differentiated
effectiveness in the diffusion capability of bio-
chemical biological membrane systems, in
dependence on characteristic weather
processes, was also shown.
The signals of visible lightning, occurring over
the period of the main lightning discharge
comprising of virtually uninterrupted
sequences of such EMP’s, together showing
impulse periods up to tenths of seconds with a
continuous spectrum into the MHz range, are a
strictly different phenomenon.
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
14
As such, however, they are suitable as a
special weather or thunderstorm signal for the
animal and possibly the plant world, i.e. for any
organism fitted with the corresponding
reception sensors.
Sferics or atmospherics of the various kinds
could therefore deliver an almost complete
picture of the weather of the day, including
prognostic clues, for a biological strategy,
considering that the sferics propagate from a
weather front at the speed of light and are
travelling for hundreds of kilometres, always
clearly recognisable as encoded weather to
those who have the reception sensors. This
can be proven by the example of the reactions
of the biochemical membrane system of
dichromate gelatine. Also: throughout
evolutionary time, both the constant impulse
frequency spectrum of the CD sferics a.t.B.
and the daily excursions, constant in their
climatological average, have provided a wealth
of precision information on the meteorological
and geophysical environment to those
equipped with the receptors for the signals and
the experience; which is more than today’s
weather services can achieve with the most
modern high-tech equipment.” (End of the
contribution by Walter Sönning).
Animals have a typical electrical charge
pattern for each weather phase. Since all
movement of charge is associated with forces,
animals can analyse the approaching weather
via the electrical quantities, even long before
the arrival of a thunderstorm.
As a function of special electrical
weather events, the bodies of the
animals are therefore affected
through a complicated interaction of
different components: charged,
reverse charged, discharged,
dielectrically polarised. Polarisation is
by a natural electrical DC field. It can
be shown that animals are slowly
electrically charged in good weather,
whilst approaching thunderstorms
cause a rapid discharge due to a high
concentration of small ions in the
atmosphere and charging changes
rapidly between positive and negative
as the thunderstorm approaches.
Insects such as bees receive these
oscillations and recognise them as
storm warnings. We were able to
show that bees return in great
numbers when these oscillations are
simulated and transmitted, using a
highly amplified signal generator
signal. If the amplitudes of the
artificial oscillations overlap with the
natural signals, however, the return
rate rapidly decreases. The bees fail
to find their way home.
The sensitivity of the honeybee to weather is
based mainly on electromagnetic information.
When an approaching thunderstorm threatens
the bees, flying bees return en masse when
the natural 10 – 20 kHz component of the
sferics activity increases within a radius of
approx. 200 km (WARNKE 1973). The suction
performance of the bees also correlates with
the approach of the front and the associated
sferics (SCHUA, 1952).
And ultimately, bees even use the receptor
channel for electromagnetic waves for
communication. Russian researchers found in
1975 already that bees generate
electromagnetic signals with a modulation
frequency between 180 and 250 Hz as they
perform their communication dance. Hungry
bees react to the frequencies by holding their
antennae erect (ESKOV et al. 1976).
Such electromagnetic communication impulses
of the antennae when touching another bee
can be measured with an oscilloscope
(WARNKE, 1989).
Fig. 2: Top sketch: The electrical charging of the insects changes typically as the weather
p
arameters change. The bottom curve shows the changes in the electrical field of a freely
flying bee as a function of the weather condition.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
15
Some bird species, such as carrier
pigeons, are sensitive to exactly the
same electromagnetic oscillation
amplitudes as the bees. Birds,
particularly species of duck, also
communicate by means of electrical
fields (WARNKE, 1989). This
interesting aspect will be dealt with in
more detail below.
3.5 Humans are also sensitive to
weather through electro-magnetic
pulses
The interest in sferics and their effect
was greater in the sixties than it is
today. In those days, a number of
valuable overviews were compiled of
their effects on the organism (REITER,
1960; ASSMANN, 1963).
Mammals and man are also influenced
by sferics.
Sferics impulses change the tissue
pH independent of the amplitude of
the field. This is true in the minimal
field strengths occurring in nature and
also in the laboratory with simulated
impulses and increased field
strengths. Especially in the frequency
band between 2 and 20 kHz, in which the
energy of the atmospheric-electrical
waves is at a peak, the effect is the
strongest. Pain associated with
amputations and with brain injury
also correlates with the presence of
sferics both in the laboratory and in
nature (REITER, 1960). The paper by
Reiter also contains notes on the
triggering of bronchial asthma, heart
and circulatory disorders, insomnia,
headaches, glaucoma, gall and urinary
convulsions, heart attacks and strokes
– among other by sferics.
Fig. 5: Significant linear correlation between electromagnetic very long wave activity and
average reaction times of exhibition visitors.
Reiter, R. 1960 Meteorobiologie und Elektrizität der Atmosphäre. Akademische Verlagsges. Geest &
Portig, Leipzig
Fig. 3: Bees communicate via electrical
“switching” when their antennae touch.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Fig. 4: Oscillogram of the electrical field of
a bee flying past (1). The field strength
rises as it approaches a receiver (2) and
drops again at a distance from the receiver
(3).
König, H. Unsichtbare Umwelt. Heinz Moos
Publishers, Munich 1973. Copyright Ulrich
Warnke
Reaction time
Indicator
indicator
reaction time in ms
August September October
Heat period
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
16
It has been known for a long time that certain
weather conditions give rise to thromboses,
heart attacks and embolisms; the correlation is
statistically significant (ARNOLD, 1969;
BREZOWSKY, 1965). A significant increase in
platelet adhesion could be shown with certain
electromagnetic oscillations such as those
generated by exchange of electrical charge in
the frontal regions of the atmosphere. These
long-wave sferics easily penetrate into
buildings. The mean impulse repetition
frequency is in the region of 5-15 imp/sec, i.e.
in the biologically active window. Thrombocyte
adhesion was measured in subjects in a
controlled laboratory study using a sferics
stimulator (JACOBI et al. 1975). The result was
a highly significant (p < 0.0005) increase in
adhesive property at a carrier frequency of
10 kHz and an impulse repetition frequency of
10 Hz. The thrombocyte adhesiveness was
reduced at repetition frequencies of 2.5 and
20 Hz and with no electrical signals. Pharmaka
(75 mg Dipyridamol plus 300 mg Acetyl
salicylic acid) prevents sferics-related
thrombocyte adhesiveness. Mentally unstable
subjects were more affected by the change in
adhesiveness than stable ones.
The daily work performance is also correlated
with diurnal sferics activity (RANTSCHT-
FROEMSDORF, 1962).
After further investigation by Jacobi (1977), the
physiologic detector location was found to be
in the head. If the head is largely screened
from sferics, the thrombocyte adhesiveness
disappears under otherwise equal
experimental conditions – a result that is not in
agreement with the effects of screening found
by other researchers.
The fundamental sferics frequency is 7.5 Hz,
considering the speed of propagation of the
electromagnetic oscillations generated by the
lightning discharge and the resonant path
given by the circumference of the earth
between the earth’s surface and the
ionosphere. The bandwidth of the fields is
several kHz.
The correlation between heart attacks and
weak magnetic field variations has been
described in 1979 in Nature, one of the
foremost scientific magazines.
This result is not an isolated case. Other
experiments even found a correlation between
the average number of deaths and earth’s
magnetic activity.
Fig. 6: Significant synchronicity of very long waves and contracting poliomyelitis. The black
bars show days of low (bars downward) or high (bars upward) sferics activity and the
superimposed curves show the correlated levels of poliomyelitis contraction in the fifties.
Reiter, R. 1960 Meteorobiologie und Elektrizität der Atmosphäre. Akademische Verlagsges. Geest &
Portig, Leipzig
Fig. 7: Daily emergency hospital admissions for heart attacks as monthly average (bottom
curve) and geomagnetic activity (top curve)
Malin SRC, Srivastava BJ. Correlation between heart attacks and magnetic activity. Nature 1979;277:646-
648
warm humid ref. days cold dry ref. days
ref. da
y
ref. da
y
ref. da
y
ref. da
y
Infra-long waves – range I Infra-long waves – range I
Infra-long waves – range II Infra-long waves – range II
V
ariations of geo-
magnetic activity
Number of heart
patient emergencies
Jan.
Feb.
Mar.
A
p
r.
Ma
y
.
Jun.
Jul.
Au
g
.
Se
p
.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
Jan.
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
17
3.6 Bees transmit electrical fields
Electrical fields with high amplitudes
are always in evidence when the
unipolar charge accumulations
creating the fields cannot be
repeatedly neutralised. Charges are
easily neutralised when they are highly
mobile.
All land-based insects with rigid body
shells (cuticula) and also animals
with scales, shields, feathers and hair
have used these structures to form
surfaces that have excellent electrical
insulating properties. These body
parts have semi-conducting properties
and are piezo-electric and pyro-electric
– distortion and temperature changes
therefore both create electrical effects.
The conductivities are therefore
subject to the well-known laws of
semiconductor theory: temperature
changes, light effects, microwave
effects, changes to atmospheric ion
concentration – all these parameters
change the conductivity pattern.
The areas of different conductivity
can be shown in a visually impressive
way – demonstrated here on a bee’s
wing - by using a scanning electron
microscope with sample current
imaging.
In terms of electrostatic charging, it is
also important whether the animals
are in flight or on the ground. Animals
having sweat, scent and adhesion
glands afford excellent galvanic
contact. Animals walking on hoofs,
toes or claws are largely isolated
from earth, however.
There is a salient point about
different insects. Flies, bees and
others have a glandular adhesive pad
(arolium) between two toes on their
feet. This adhesive pad can be folded
in or folded out when walking.
Fig. 8: Magnetic storms (bottom) and fatalities from nervous and cardiovascular illnesses.
Weiß 1991
Fig. 9: Wing of a bee under a scanning electron microscope. The electrical current pattern
was recorded. All the white regions have high electron mobility, whilst the darker areas are
highly electrostatically charged due to low electron mobility. Discharge is very difficult.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Average number of
deaths
Earth-magnetic activity
5 days
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
18
When the arolium is folded in, the animals walk on their
claws, insulating them electrically from the environment
allowing them to get statically highly charged up. If the
arolium is folded out and touches the surface on which it is
walking, however, the insect is instantly discharged,
assuming the electrical potential of the surface. In bees,
this happens just prior to taking off from a flower, in which
case certain parts of the animal are discharged or obtain a
different charge or sometimes even reverse polarity. Since
flowers normally are at earth potential, the “arolium
switch” effectively standardises the insect’s potential to
zero. When the bees arrive at the hive, they carry
different charges that they picked up in flight and that
cannot dissipate that fast (WARNKE, 1977).
When two surfaces make contact on the molecular level (10 to the
power of minus 10 m), positive and negative charges are separated at
the point of contact through charge transfer. Many such points are
activated in a short space of time by friction. Frictional electricity is one
of man’s oldest observations and has lent its name to the entire
electrical discipline (electron: Greek for amber). It is therefore surprising
that we thus far hardly spared a thought for the significance of electricity
in animals.
Especially in flight, animals could become statically highly charged
through friction between air molecules and body tissue – up to electrical
field strengths in excess of 1 000 V/cm.
Fig. 10: Every bee landing at the hive carries a specific charge (circle
with cross) thereby changing its pattern of charge at the hive entrance,
determined by the total electrical charge of the colony. Every departing
bee carries with it electrical charge from the hive (circle).
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Fig. 11: A bee in an electrical field; top: a construction, bottom: an
experiment. It is shown how the field strength increases around certain
surface structures.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
19
Fig. 14: Oscillogram of the alternating electrical field around bees
(top) and pigeons (bottom) in a wind tunnel.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
To increase these field strengths, animals have various aids such
as protruding spikes on insect wings, but especially the field
focussing effect of insects’ antennae is measurable, developing
appreciable Coulomb forces.
Fig. 14.1: Representation of a measurable “dipole effect” on the
antennae of the honeybee. Bees are able to change the polarity of
their antennae at will (e.g. from positive to negative charge) – within
a second. The dotted lines are an indication of the forces in the
field.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Fig. 12: Bee in flight in an electric field. The fields around the
antennae are particularly strong.
Warnke 1986, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Fig. 13: Wing movement and the electrical field – with reference to
the wing – are in phase.
Warnke 1989, Copyright Ulrich Warnke
Mechanisms of disorientation and damage
20
3.7 Effects of technically
generated fields on bees
We investigated the reaction of bees
to artificially created electrical fields in
the laboratory (WARNKE 1975, 1976,
WARNKE et al. 1976) and found the
follow