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Learner Satisfaction on Blended Learning

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This paper focuses on learner satisfaction as a mea sure of quality of blended learning. Blended learning combines multiple delivery media that are designed to complement each other and promote learning and application-learned behavior ( Singh, 2003). In other words blended learning is defined as a method of educatin g-at-a-distance that utilizes technology (high-tech, such as television and the Internet or low-tech, such as voice mail or conference calls) combined with traditional (or, stand-up) edu cation or training (Smith, 2001). The aim of using blended learning approaches is to find an harmonious balance between online access to knowledge and face-to-face human i nteraction. The balance between online and face-to-face components will vary for individua ls. Some blended courses will include more face-to-face than online strategies. Other cou rses will tip the balance in favor of online strategies, using face-to-face contact infrequently . Still others will mix the two forms of instruction somewhat equally. Some may emphasize asynchronous student-to-student contact while others will require significant amounts of sy nchronous interaction The aim in either case is to find that harmonious balance- the balanc e of instructional strategies that is tailored specifically to improve student learning (Osguthorp e and Graham, 2003). Distance education has a strong background in Turke y and is recognized as a method of learning for all levels of education, except primar y education (covering the years 1-5). The Ministry of National Education is responsible for a ll distance learning activities from kindergarten to secondary level. The Higher Educati on Council is responsible for the distance learning implementation in universities. There is a growing private sector offering especially IT courses via the internet. The other courses are related to project and time management, language teaching and as preparation for the univer sity entrance examination, which is a regulation to enroll a program at university level in Turkey. On the other hand, distance learning is being used increasingly as a mechanism for professional development. Some courses offered by the universities are for the com pletion toward a BA degree.
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Learner Satisfaction on Blended Learning
Petek Askar and Arif Altun
Hacettepe University, Turkey
Hale Ilgaz
Ankara University, Turkey
Abstract
This paper focuses on learner satisfaction as a measure of quality of blended learning.
Blended learning combines multiple delivery media that are designed to complement each
other and promote learning and application-learned behavior ( Singh, 2003). In other words
blended learning is defined as a method of educating-at-a-distance that utilizes technology
(high-tech, such as television and the Internet or low-tech, such as voice mail or conference
calls) combined with traditional (or, stand-up) education or training (Smith, 2001).
The aim of using blended learning approaches is to find an harmonious balance between
online access to knowledge and face-to-face human interaction. The balance between online
and face-to-face components will vary for individuals. Some blended courses will include
more face-to-face than online strategies. Other courses will tip the balance in favor of online
strategies, using face-to-face contact infrequently. Still others will mix the two forms of
instruction somewhat equally. Some may emphasize asynchronous student-to-student contact
while others will require significant amounts of synchronous interaction The aim in either
case is to find that harmonious balance- the balance of instructional strategies that is tailored
specifically to improve student learning (Osguthorpe and Graham, 2003).
Distance education has a strong background in Turkey and is recognized as a method of
learning for all levels of education, except primary education (covering the years 1-5). The
Ministry of National Education is responsible for all distance learning activities from
kindergarten to secondary level. The Higher Education Council is responsible for the distance
learning implementation in universities. There is a growing private sector offering especially
IT courses via the internet. The other courses are related to project and time management,
language teaching and as preparation for the university entrance examination, which is a
regulation to enroll a program at university level in Turkey. On the other hand, distance
learning is being used increasingly as a mechanism for professional development. Some
courses offered by the universities are for the completion toward a BA degree.
Student satisfaction can be defined as the student’s perception pertaining to the college
experience and perceived value of the education received while attending an educational
institution (Astin, 1993 cited in Bollinger, Martindale, 2004). Learner satisfaction is one of
the key factors for the success of the programs. Moreover, participant satisfaction levels along
with their performance and trust are indicators of the formation and leadership of virtual
teams (Bruce, Avolio, and Surinder, 2003) in e-learning environments.
E-leader Krakow, 2008
Leong, Ho and Ganne ( 2002) investigated the satisfaction of 128 students who enrolled in 29
online courses. The statistically significant dimensions were found as interaction, teacher,
difficulty/work load and technology. In another study, Askar, Dönmez, Kizilkaya, Cevik, and
Gültekin (2005) have argued that student satisfaction is a combination of several factors and
proposed a model aggregating these factors into three groups: usability, instructional design,
and implementation.
To summarize, student satisfaction is a combination of several factors and in this study a
model is proposed by aggregation of these factors into six groups: learner –learner interaction,
learner-teacher interaction, online environment, technical support, printed materials, face-to-
face environment. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop and validate an instrument
related to learner satisfaction with regard to blended learner and to explore whether
satisfaction differs according to gender and age.
Methodology
Study Setting
This study was carried out in a blended-learning environment offered by Ankara University
Distance Education Center (ANKUZEM). ANKUZEM provides different diploma and
certificate programs reaching to 78 provinces in Turkey and 13 different countries with an
approximate number of 1200 students. The center utilizes web-based synchronous and
asynchronous tools with two methods of information delivery, which are online and face-to-
face environment supplemented by books and video. The screenshot of the online
environment was given below.
Sample
The sample for this study included participants studying in a BA completion program for the
Faculty of Theology in a blended learning program. The program is a two-year program with
E-leader Krakow, 2008
a total of 8 courses in the first year and 7 courses in the second year. Total registered numbers
of students to the program is 1338. The data were collected form 360 learners, 235 males and
125 females.
Data Collection Process
An instrument is designed to determine learners’ satisfaction levels and to explore whether
there is a difference in satisfaction levels according to their gender and age. The instrument
included 34 items with six hypothetical factors as well as a section to obtain demographic data
from the participants.
Results
Among the learners in the research group 35 % (125 people) are female, and 65 % (235) are
male. The most populated group is 26-35 age groups with 153 respondents (42, 5 %). Then
come under 25 (37, 5 %) and 36-45 age group (20 %).
A confirmatory analysis was performed. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is a statistical
technique used to verify the factor structure of a set of observed variables. CFA allows the
researcher to test the hypothesis that a relationship between observed variables and their
underlying latent constructs exists ( Suhr, 2006). The learner satisfaction on blended learning
instrument (SBLI) hypothesized six dimension-interaction (learner-learner and learner-teacher
), online environment, technical support, printed materials and face to face environment which
involve examinations. The goodness of fit indices ( e.g. RMSEA= 0.066) showed that the
model is good and the instrument could be used for the adult population.
E-leader Krakow, 2008
E-leader Krakow, 2008
The reliability analysis results for each factor were provided in tables below.
Table 1:
Factor 1: Learner-Learner Interaction ( LLI)
Item #
Scale Mean if
Item Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Cronbach's
Alpha if Item
Deleted
s1
22,32
80,318
,861
,938
s2
22,26
79,941
,875
,937
s3
22,84
81,591
,775
,949
s4
22,38
80,197
,875
,937
s5
22,23
79,734
,876
,936
s6
22,38
81,885
,809
,944
Cronbach’s Alpha 0,95.
Table 2:
Factor 2: Learner-Teacher Interaction ( LTI)
Item #
Scale Mean if
Item Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Cronbach's
Alpha if Item
Deleted
s7
18,29
57,854
,869
,957
s8
18,24
56,297
,906
,951
s9
18,22
56,413
,937
,946
s10
18,24
57,908
,897
,952
s11
18,36
58,224
,854
,959
Cronbach's Alpha 0,96.
Table 3:
Factor 3: Online Environment
Item #
Scale Mean if
Item Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Cronbach's
Alpha if Item
Deleted
s12
30,41
86,471
,620
,918
s13
30,29
83,868
,768
,901
s14
29,69
85,447
,745
,903
s15
29,81
84,005
,760
,902
s17
29,94
84,930
,783
,899
s18
30,32
85,956
,726
,905
Cronbach's Alpha 0, 90.
Table 4:
Factor 4: Technical Support ( TS)
Item #
Scale Mean if
Item Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Cronbach's
Alpha if Item
Deleted
s21
9,56
13,467
,851
,911
s22
9,47
13,721
,887
,882
s23
9,37
14,160
,847
,913
Cronbach's Alpha 0,93.
E-leader Krakow, 2008
Table 5:
Factor 5: Printed Materials ( PM)
Item #
Scale Mean if
Item Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Cronbach's
Alpha if Item
Deleted
s25
36,70
93,067
,733
,886
s26
36,57
93,627
,722
,887
s27
36,50
94,841
,711
,888
s28
36,20
93,382
,786
,881
s29
36,30
95,426
,701
,889
s30
35,97
97,671
,699
,889
s31
36,55
96,092
,577
,901
s32
36,18
98,969
,616
,896
Cronbach's Alpha 0,90
Table 6:
Factor 6: Face to Face Environment ( FFE)
Item #
Scale Mean
if Item
Deleted
Scale
Variance if
Item Deleted
Corrected
Item-Total
Correlation
Cronbach's
Alpha if Item
Deleted
s33
27,40
58,140
,630
,888
s34
26,88
62,087
,587
,894
s35
27,02
59,158
,657
,884
s36
27,72
49,945
,841
,854
s37
27,77
50,700
,815
,859
s38
27,91
50,512
,778
,866
Cronbach's Alpha 0, 89
The t-test and ANOVA were utilized in order to determine the differences according to
gender and age. No statistically significant differences were found between females and males
with respect to satisfaction on blended learning (t= 0
,
487 p>0.05); however female scores
were statistically higher than the males for the face to face environment ( t= 2,265 p= 0,024).
No statistically significant differences were found between ages with respect to satisfaction
and the factors ( F= ,049 p>0.05) .
Conclusion
This paper aims to develop an instrument about the satisfaction on blended learning. The
confirmatory factors analysis confirmed that there were six factors related to satisfaction. This
finding supports the idea that learner satisfaction on online courses depends on several
factors. Since blended learning combines traditional and online environments, the instrument
reflects all the aspects of it.
In addition, it is worth mentioning that personalization of e-learning environment opens a new
venue for researchers to explore individual differences regarding satisfaction and e-leadership.
However assessing individual differences are not quite easy and the existing scales were
developed for traditional teaching-learning environments. Therefore, future research is needed
for identifying learning styles and strategies on Web environments.
E-leader Krakow, 2008
References
Askar, P., Dönmez, O., Kızılkaya, G., Çevik, V.& Gültekin, K., (2005). The dimensions of
student satisfaction on on-line learning programs. Encyclopedia of Distance Learning Vol
4.(editors: Howard, C et. al) Idea-Group Reference: USA. p:585-590.
Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college? Four critical years revisited. San Francisco,
CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bollinger, D.U., Martindale, T. (2004). Key Factors for Determining Student
Satisfaction in Online Courses. International Journal of E-Learning.
Bruce, J., Avolio, and Surinder, S. K. (2003). Adding the "E" to E-Leadership:: How it May
Impact Your Leadership, Organizational Dynamics, 31,(4), pp. 325-338.
Leong, P., Ho,C.P.,& Ganne, B.S., (2002). An empirical investigation of student satisfaction
with web-based courses. eLearn. AACE, Montreal, Canada.
Osguthorpe, R. T. and Graham, C. R., 2003. Blended learning environments: Definitions and
directions. The Quarterly Review of Distance Education, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp 227-233.
Singh, H. ( 2003) Building Effective Blended Learning Programs. November - December
2003 Issue of Educational Technology, Volume 43, Number 6, Pages 51-54.
Smith, J. M., (2001). Blended learning. http://www.gwsae.org/Executiveupdate/2001/March/
blended.htm, accessed 02 May 2003.
Suhr, D.D. ( 2006). Exploratory or Confirmatory Factor Analysis. SUGI 31 Proceedings.

Supplementary resource (1)

... Virtual Universities integrate technology in order to deliver it is services into the whole university processes (Ali & Ahmad, 2011). Hence, student satisfaction must be considered as a key factor to be concentrated on by online universities management (Askar et al., 2008). Students should be treated as universities customers. ...
... Electronic services provided by virtual universities have a key role in attaining student satisfaction (Askar et al., 2008;Ali & Ahmad, 2011;Naaj et al., 2012;Cheawjindakarn et al., 2013). The SVU has faced critical challenges since the start of Syrian crisis in 2011. ...
... A review of e-services provided in previous studies of online learning literature upon student satisfaction concluded that there is a significant role for e-services and student satisfaction. Most of the recent work investigated key factors that affect student satisfaction (Askar et al. 2008;Kuo, 2010;Ali & Ahmad, 2011;Naaj et al., 2012;Cheawjindakarn et al., 2013). These studies focused on a number of specific factors that affect student satisfaction which include Learner to Learner Interaction -Leaner teacher interaction -Online Environment-Technical Support -Printing material -Face to Face Environment. ...
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Purpose – This study aims at exploring the impact of electronic services provided by the Syrian Virtual University (SVU) on student satisfaction. Besides, this study seeks to determine the dimensions of both electronic services and customer satisfaction at the SVU, and to what extent these dimensions may vary in accordance with different personal characteristics among students. Research methodology – A quantitative research method was adopted using an online questionnaire to collect data from students registering in different SVU programs. Findings – Overall, results were analysed using the SPSS: 18. The results indicated that the relationship between all electronic services dimensions and student satisfaction at the SVU were positively significant except for the bulk SMS dimension. Electronic service dimensions are also all applied throughout the SVU (SMS- Web Request- Facebook- email- Electronic library- Website- Learning Management System) respectively. Besides, results show that neither electronic services dimensions nor satisfaction dimensions vary with regards to gender, speciality and age. Furthermore, satisfaction dimensions such as privacy and security – ease of use – order fulfilment – customer service – electronic service portfolio are all applied in the SVU. Research limitations – The study in this paper is limited to only one university since the Syrian Virtual University is the only virtual university in Syria. Also, the study focused only on university’s students, and not it is administrative staff. Practical Implications – the results of this paper are beneficial for the SVU future and other universities attempting to provide online services. Thus, results from advice the SVU to keep their services up-to-date with the latest technological improvements, especially the university’s website. This could be achieved by making it more users friendly and ultimately improve students’ satisfaction. Moreover, the SVU should highlight the bulk SMS service weaknesses and try to use it more efficiently. Furthermore, the SVU employees could use the results of this paper to segment their current and future services provided in the future correctly taking into account the differences between gender and other demographical factors. Originality/Value – This study is one of the first studies to investigate the relationships between E-Learning services and student satisfaction in virtual environments, especially the Syrian Virtual Universities SVU. Moreover, this study investigates specific dimensions regarding both E-services and student satisfaction and brings up a reliable model for further research.
... The rise and flourishing of blended learning make researchers at home and abroad constantly examine the application of technology in education and the education with technology. Numerous studies on the application of blended learning in language teaching have been conducted, yet most researchers studied blended learning model just in theoretical aspects ( [1], [2], [3]). Many foreign studies argued that there are no significant numerical differences in language learning indicators ( [4], [5], [6]). ...
... (2) How about the effect of blended learning model in English teaching in Chinese colleges? (3) What are the main factors influencing the effect of blended learning in English teaching? ...
... The rise and flourishing of blended learning make researchers at home and abroad constantly examine the application of technology in education and the education with technology. Numerous studies on the application of blended learning in language teaching have been conducted, yet most researchers studied blended learning model just in theoretical aspects ( [1], [2], [3]). Many foreign studies argued that there are no significant numerical differences in language learning indicators ( [4], [5], [6]). ...
... (2) How about the effect of blended learning model in English teaching in Chinese colleges? (3) What are the main factors influencing the effect of blended learning in English teaching? ...
... Similarly, Lee, Yeh, Kung and Hsu (2007) investigate the factors affecting the learning in a blended e-Learning course for Mathematics, the result revealed no significant difference between male and female students in the aspects of examination scores, learning attitudes, and learning portfolios. In another study by Askar, Altun, and Ilgaz (2008) and Adas and Abu Samais, (2011) established a significant difference between female and male students exposed to blended learning. Contrarily, Koohang, (2004) reported that male students perform better than their female counterparts when taught using Blended learning strategy. ...
... This implies that the treatment improved the performance of the undergraduates exposed to blended learning and Elearning irrespective of gender. This finding is in agreement with the that of Adas and Abu Samais, (2011), Askar, Altun, and Ilgaz (2008), and Lee, Yeh, Kung and Hsu (2007) which reported no significant difference between female and male students' performance in blended learning. However, this finding disagree with that of Mahmoud, Ahmed and Mirna (2012) which revealed significant difference in students' performance between male and female students who experienced Blended learning courses. ...
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This study investigated the effectiveness of blended learning and E-learning modes of instruction on the performance of undergraduates in Kwara State, Nigeria. It also determined if the student performance would vary with gender. Quasi experimental that employs pretest, posttest, control group design was adopted for this study. This involves three groups, two experimental (blended learning, and E-learning) and a control group (traditional teaching method). Educational Materials and Methods Performance Test (EMPT) was used for data collection from 30 students that formed the sample for the study. The reliability coefficient of 0.71 was obtained from Kuder-Richardson (KR-20) formula. The Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Scheffe post hoc test were used to test the hypotheses. Findings of this study showed that: (i) there was significant difference in the performance of the three groups in favour of Experimental group 1 (Blended learning), (ii) there was no significant difference in the performance of male and female undergraduates taught with blended learning, (iii) similarly, no significant difference was found in the performance of male and female undergraduates exposed to e-learning mode of instruction. This implies that performance of undergraduates was enhanced when they are exposed to blended learning mode of instruction. Based on the findings, it was recommended that university lecturers should be encouraged to adopt blended learning for teach their students. Also, government and appropriate university authorities should support and encourage the usage of blended learning in Nigerian universities.
... The analysis of data indicates learners' satisfaction towards the items of the survey designed and investigated in the present study. The research of Askar, Altun, and Ilgaz (2008) is in-line with the work in hand, who reports no significant differences in the satisfaction of male and female participants, however; they mention that score of female learners is slightly higher than their male counterparts for conventional face-to-face classrooms. For the present study following recommendations have been envisaged: ...
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Since the transmission of knowledge has started, it solely relied on traditional teaching methods but ever since technology-mediated instructions have emerged, they potentially brought a revolution in how we teach, when we teach, from where we teach and what gadgets, modes and apps can better cater learners’ interest and motivation. In this context, hybrid learning is a novel approach in academic settings that embraces advantage of the retention of face-to-face component of traditional classes and e-learning environment. The present study aims at investigating Taif University’s male and female English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ satisfaction towards the onsite and online learning environments. An opinionnaire with 20 items was developed with closed ended questions by employing Likert’s five-point scale to collect the data from 200 male and female EFL participants of Taif University, represents quantitative dimensions of the study. The research tool is designed to measure learners’ satisfaction that is further categorized into five subscales. These include: (a) learners’ satisfaction with the instructor and their real-time feedback; (b) perceived ease of use of technology and internet; (c) effective course content and interactive and collaborative activities; (d) finally engaging nature of hybrid learning and its impacts on learners’ interest and motivation. The study finds no significant differences in male and female participants’ perceptions regarding effective delivery of hybrid instructions except meek variations in male and female learners’ preferences in perceived ease of use of technology. The statistics reveal that male participants and their female counterparts slightly differ in their satisfaction level towards the technical problems faced by them in recording their scores, flexibility in terms of time and space, and in smooth completion of online activities. Finally, the study provides few recommendations to fix certain issues and improve the quality of hybrid learning environment.
... The same study indicated student satisfaction with instructors at a mean of 3.8. Askar and Altun, (2008) found that learners were satisfied with face-to-face sessions of the blend with t-tests and ANOVA results indicating female scores as higher than for males in the satisfaction with face-to-face environment of the blended learning. ...
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This paper investigates the effectiveness of a blended learning environment through analyzing the relationship between student characteristics/background, design features and learning outcomes. It is aimed at determining the significant predictors of blended learning effectiveness taking student characteristics/background and design features as independent variables and learning outcomes as dependent variables. A survey was administered to 238 respondents to gather data on student characteristics/background, design features and learning outcomes. The final semester evaluation results were used as a measure for performance as an outcome. We applied the online self regulatory learning questionnaire for data on learner self regulation, the intrinsic motivation inventory for data on intrinsic motivation and other self-developed instruments for measuring the other constructs. Multiple regression analysis results showed that blended learning design features (technology quality, online tools and face-to-face support) and student characteristics (attitudes and self-regulation) predicted student satisfaction as an outcome. The results indicate that some of the student characteristics/backgrounds and design features are significant predictors for student learning outcomes in blended learning.
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Objective This study aimed to explore and compare the perceptions and attitudes of chiropractic students on a blended learning offering in 2019 and a subsequent shift to an e-learning approach in 2020 owing to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods This was an exploratory descriptive study of 4th-year BHSc chiropractic students enrolled in the Clinical and Applied Biomechanics IV module in 2019 (n = 31) and 2020 (n = 33). The survey used close-ended Likert scale questions collected from 29 July to 14 August 2020. Data were analyzed using frequencies and descriptions, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability. Trends and interrelationships of and between student attitude, satisfaction, social influences, ease of use, accessibility, and effectivity were investigated for each year and compared between successive years' cohorts. Results Students were mostly female (76.6%), aged 20 to 24 years (84.4%). Although both cohorts showed similar positive attitudes, accessibility, and satisfaction levels, the e-learning group showed increased effectivity (p = .016) and ease of use (p = .038) compared with the blended learning cohort. Face-to-face time with the lecturer was shown to be more important to the blended learning cohort (p = .006). Strong correlations were demonstrated in both cohorts between accessibility and satisfaction with attitude, effectivity, and ease of use. Conclusion Findings suggest that students were more receptive to an e-learning approach than they may have been in the past. This may be as a direct consequence of the response to COVID-19, and the adapted offerings of the curriculum.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate key factors influencing student satisfaction with online courses. The Biner instrument (1993) was modified to accommodate questions relating to online courses. One-hundred five respondents out of a sample of 303 online learners completed the resulting Online Course Satisfaction Survey. The results indicated student satisfaction with online courses is influenced by 3 constructs: instructor variables, technical issues, and interactivity. Results indicated the instrument is a valid measure of student satisfaction with online courses
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Introduction The first generation of e-learning or Web-based learning programs focused on presenting physical classroom-based instructional content over the Internet. Furthermore, first-generation e-learning (digitally delivered learning) programs tended to be a repetition or compilation of online versions of classroom-based courses. The experience gained from the first-generation of e-learning, often riddled with long sequences of 'page-turner' content and point-and-click quizzes, is giving rise to the realization that a single mode of instructional delivery may not provide sufficient choices, engagement, social contact, relevance, and context needed to facilitate successful learning and performance. In the second wave of e-learning, increasing numbers of learning designers are experimenting with blended learning models that combine various delivery modes. Anecdotal evidence indicates that blended learning not only offers more choices but also is more effective. November -December 2003 Issue of Educational Technology, Volume 43, Number 6, Pages 51-54. This article has two objectives: 1. To provide a comprehensive view of blended learning and discuss possible dimensions and ingredients (learning delivery methods) of blended learning programs. 2. To provide a model to create the appropriate blend by ensuring that each ingredient, individually and collectively, adds to a meaningful learning experience. Badrul Khan's blended e-learning framework, referred to here as Khan's Octagonal Framework (see Figure 1) enables one to select appropriate ingredients (http://BooksToRead.com/framework). Khan's framework serves as a guide to plan, develop, deliver, manage, and evaluate blended learning programs. Organizations exploring strategies for effective learning and performance have to consider a variety of issues to ensure effective delivery of learning and thus a high return on investment. Figure 1. Khan's Octagonal Framework.
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Electronic communication has become an integral part of higher education. Along with the growth of electronic communication is the rise of Web-based courses. This empirical study surveyed 128 students enrolled in 29 courses offered entirely over the Internet to determine the dimensions which underlie student satisfaction with Web-based courses and examined how these dimensions can be used to predict student satisfaction levels. This study also examined the relationship between demographic variables, such as gender, year in school, students' prior computer, email, and Internet proficiency, as well as, Web-based course experience and their satisfaction levels with Web-based courses. The implication of this study is that instructors of Web-based courses may be able to increase their online students' satisfaction by addressing the appropriate factors underlying student satisfaction.
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This discussion of blended learning environments covers: (1) background; (2) why the term "blended" is used, and what can be blended; (3) goals of blended learning environments, including pedagogical richness, access to knowledge, social interaction, personal agency, cost effectiveness, and ease of revision; and (4) characteristics of five case studies. (MES)
Blended learning. http://www.gwsae.org/Executiveupdate
  • J M Smith
Smith, J. M., (2001). Blended learning. http://www.gwsae.org/Executiveupdate/2001/March/ blended.htm, accessed 02 May 2003.
The dimensions of student satisfaction on on-line learning programs
  • P Askar
  • O Dönmez
  • G Kızılkaya
  • V Çevik
  • K Gültekin
Askar, P., Dönmez, O., Kızılkaya, G., Çevik, V.& Gültekin, K., (2005). The dimensions of student satisfaction on on-line learning programs. Encyclopedia of Distance Learning Vol 4.(editors: Howard, C et. al) Idea-Group Reference: USA. p:585-590.
Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Online Courses
  • D U Bollinger
  • T Martindale
Bollinger, D.U., Martindale, T. (2004). Key Factors for Determining Student Satisfaction in Online Courses. International Journal of E-Learning.