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The Influence of Being Physically Near to a Cell Phone Transmission Mast on the Incidence of Cancer

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Abstract

The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier. In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years' operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.

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... The highest rate was of breast cancer, and the common time of developing it was noticeably lesser, 50.8 years in comparison to 69.9 years for the individuals residing in the exterior zone. Prostate tumors, lung, gut, skin, pancreas, and blood cancer were all greater than before as listed in Figure 2. 9 For the purpose of comparison, an 'inner' and 'outer' zone was distributed. The inner area occupied the territory that was within a distance of 400 meters from the mobile tower. ...
... So it means that in the inner zone (within 400 meters of the towers) tumors develop at a younger age. 9 2.3. Israel A survey 10 was done using medical documents of the community residing within 350 meters of the long constructed mobile tower. ...
... Summary of the total tumors occurring per year, no. and per thousand.9 ...
... The studies by Navarro et al., 2 Santini et al., 3 Gadzicka et al., 4 and Hutter et al. 5 reported differences in the distance-dependent prevalence of symptoms such as headache, impaired concentration, and irritability, while Abdel-Rassoul et al. 6 also found lower cognitive performance in individuals living ≤ 10 meters from base stations compared with the more distant control group. The studies by Eger et al. 7 and Wolf and Wolf 8 reported increased incidence of cancer in persons living for several years < 400 meters from base stations. By contrast, the large retrospective study by Meyer et al. 9 found no increased incidence of cancer near base stations in Bavaria. ...
... Each of the 10 studies reviewed by us had various strengths and limitations as summarized in Table 1 3,4,7,9 it should be noted that distance is not the most suitable classifier for exposure to RF-EMF. Antennae numbers and configurations, as well as the absorption and reflection of their fields by houses, trees, or other geographic hindrances may influence the exposure level. ...
... Multiple testing might also produce spurious results if not adjusted for, 3,5 as might failure to adjust for participant age and gender. 7 Latency is also an important consideration in the context of cancer incidence following or during a putative environmental exposure. In this regard, the study by Meyer et al. 9 found no association between mobile phone base station exposure and cancer incidence, but had a relatively limited observation period of only two years. ...
Article
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Human populations are increasingly exposed to microwave/radiofrequency (RF) emissions from wireless communication technology, including mobile phones and their base stations. By searching PubMed, we identified a total of 10 epidemiological studies that assessed for putative health effects of mobile phone base stations. Seven of these studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects and three investigated cancer. We found that eight of the 10 studies reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 meters from base stations. None of the studies reported exposure above accepted international guidelines, suggesting that current guidelines may be inadequate in protecting the health of human populations. We believe that comprehensive epidemiological studies of long-term mobile phone base station exposure are urgently required to more definitively understand its health impact.
... RF exposure from MPs is concentrated to the handset closest to the head tissue, which includes the auditory nerve and the exposure is relatively high only for the glial and meningeal tissue closest to the surface of the head, the parotid gland, and the vestibular portion of the eighth cranial nerve where acoustic neuromas arise [4][5][6]. To date, numerous research reports have been reported in the literature regarding the possibility of adverse health effects related to RF electromagnetic energy (EME) emissions from MPs and their associated base stations [4,5,[7][8][9][10]. ...
... It explains the effect of mobile phone radiation on children, mentioning that a one year old could absorb around double RF radiation and a five year old around 60%, more than an adult. A German study showed that the possibility of developing cancer is three times higher for people who lived within 400 meters of a cell phone tower for a period of five years [8]. A similar Spanish study found that people living in the close vicinity of a cell phone tower had the following health problems: 1) depression increased by up to 64-fold, 2) fatigue increased by up to 37-fold, and 3) appetite loss increased by up to 25-fold [13]. ...
... 7. Avoid long conversations and frequent use. 8. Planning guidance on base station locations. ...
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Adolescents around the world are increasingly confident and passionate users of mobile phones (MPs). They are embracing the opportunities provided by it in ways that could not have been predicted a decade ago. Research has revealed that the MPs are the dominant sources of radio wave exposures and relevant sources of extremely low frequency magnetic fields, which can penetrate easily into the head of children and may show a significant effect on their cognitive function. A cross sectional study was conducted by distributing a perception questionnaire among 178 adolescents of school and college of Sylhet city to show the present phenomenon of MPs usage by them and to create awareness among them against the adverse effects associated with the usage of MPs. Percentage and logistic regression model are used to study the distributions, associations, and determinants of the entities. From the study, it has been revealed that in Sylhet nearly 70% of all adolescents surveyed use MPs, among which 46% of users are between ages of 12-16 years and 54% are between ages of 16-20 years. Furthermore, the analysis shows that nearly 70% of the teenagers who are using MPs are facing different types of health problems due to the long/short duration communication through the MPs. The findings of this study conclude that as long as the adverse health effects cannot be ruled out with some degree of certainty, it appears to be appropriate to emphasis on the prudent use of MPs by children.
... For decades, there has been an increasing concern on the possible adverse effects of RFR on humans living near mobile phone base stations despite the fact that RFR spectrum are of low frequency (ARPANSA, 2011). There has been a link between the RFR exposures and several human health disorders including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological diseases (Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Eger et al., 2004;Havas, 2013;Lerchl et al., 2015;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, 2011) has classified RFR as a possible carcinogen to humans (group 2B), based on the increased risk for glioma, a malignant type of brain cancer associated with wireless phone use (Hardell et al., 2013). ...
... RFR may change the fidelity of DNA as the increased incidence of cancer has been reported among those residing near mobile phone base stations (Abdel-Rassonl et al., 2007;Bortkiewicz et al., 2004;Cherry, 2000;Eger et al., 2004;Hardell et al., 1999;Hutter et al., 2006;Wolf and Wolf, 2004). RFR emitted from mobile base stations is also reported to increase the DNA strand breaks in lymphocytes of mobile phone users and individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile base station/s (Gandhi and Anita, 2005;Gandhi et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted by mobile phone base stations have raised concerns on its adverse impact on humans residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations. Therefore, the present study was envisaged to evaluate the effect of RFR on the DNA damage and antioxidant status in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) of individuals residing in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations and comparing it with healthy controls. The study groups matched for various demographic data including age, gender, dietary pattern, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, duration of mobile phone use and average daily mobile phone use. The RF power density of the exposed individuals was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) when compared to the control group. The HPBLs were cultured and the DNA damage was assessed by cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) assay in the binucleate lymphocytes. The analyses of data from the exposed group (n = 40), residing within a perimeter of 80 m of mobile base stations, showed significantly (p < 0.0001) higher frequency of micronuclei when compared to the control group, residing 300 m away from the mobile base station/s. The analysis of various antioxidants in the plasma of exposed individuals revealed a significant attrition in glutathione (GSH) concentration (p < 0.01), activities of catalase (CAT) (p < 0.001) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) (p < 0.001) and rise in lipid peroxidation (LOO) when compared to controls. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed a significant association among reduced GSH concentration (p < 0.05), CAT (p < 0.001) and SOD (p < 0.001) activities and elevated MN frequency (p < 0.001) and LOO (p < 0.001) with increasing RF power density.
... In the work of Ouadah et al. [11], data were proposed that suggest the possible effect of RF EMFs on brain tumors of laboratory Wistar rats by reducing the invasion of immune cells and apoptosis of glioblastoma cells, possibly due to low amplitude to affect survival [11]. Eger et al. [12] took up a challenge to medical professionals by Germany's radiation protection board to determine if there was an increased cancer incidence in populations living near cell towers. Their study evaluated data for approximately 1000 patients between the years of 1994 and 2004 who lived close to cell antennas. ...
... Compared with those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on an average of 8 years earlier than expected. In the years between 1999 and 2004, after 5 years' operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had tripled for residents in proximity of the installation compared with inhabitants outside of the area [12]. Хu et al. [13] in their work investigated the effect of the 1800 MHz EMF on cell death and cell proliferation in the developing brain. ...
Article
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Background and Aim: The radiation emitted from cell phones has various deleterious effects on human health. The article considers the problem of the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of cell phones on the behavior of animals. The use of mobile phones is continually increasing throughout the world. All of the world population uses mobile phones widely; thus, having strong and daily effect on the brain. There is no restriction on the use of mobile phones. Getting more advantages and convenience of mobile communication, the population is trying not to hear the information about possible risks to their health, there is no element of self-restraint. The aim of this work was to study behavioral patterns in response to the influence of cell phones. Materials and Methods: The experiments were carried out on 90 white outbred rats weighing 250-300 g. Experiments were carried out and the effect of EMR from Samsung Galaxy J1 mini and Xiaomi Redmi S2 phones on animal behavior was studied. Behavioral reactions were studied using the open field method. Results: By the quality of the act of locomotion in the second experimental group is reduced by 30% and also in this group by the time of the act is 23% lower than in the control data. Vertical motor activity, a support stand, is also suppressed in the second experimental group: 61% lower in number and 47.2% lower in act time compared to the control group. Based on the data, we can conclude that the EMR of the phone Samsung Galaxy J1 Mini affects the behavior of animals to a greater extent than Xiaomi Redmi S2. By the frequency of the act, sniffing is 26% lower; by the time of the act, it remained at the level of control data in the second group. In the third group of the animals, the number and time of the act are 15% lower than the control data. The support stands as an indicator of research activity. In the second group the act of stand with support – by number was lower by 57% than the control data, this indicates that research activity is being suppressed. Conclusion: According to the above changes under the action of EMR from the Samsung Galaxy J1 Mini and Xiaomi Redmi S2 phones, the motor component of behavior is suppressed. The research component of behavior in all groups of animals is enhanced due to high rates of sniffing. It is possible that in animals under stress, the motivation to interact with the environment decreases, leading to an excessive self-accentuation of the animal.
... Breast cancer was in the top lists. Besides, cancers of the pancreas, prostrate, lungs and intestine also increased [3,19]. ...
... It is reported in May 2011 that electromagnetic radiation emitted by transmitting cell phone antennas is linked to the occurrence of some types of cancer. Out of 4,924 cancer patients, nearly 80% of them lived within 500 m from one of the radiating towers [19]. ...
Article
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Over the last decade, detrimental effects of human exposure to electromagnetic radiations have received widespread attention. With the increasing number of cellular communication system around the world, the number of base transceiver station is also increasing. This scenario is very common around us. When these base stations are located in a crowd place and even on the top side of the building, it can create some panic to the general public. The electromagnetic radiation from these base stations may cause serious health hazard. This paper takes into account the adverse health effects caused by radiated electromagnetic energy from typical base stations in different countries and the exposure level due to these base stations are compared to international guideline like ICNIRP and FCC.
... Interestingly, cancers (Eger et al., 2004;Kundi et al., 2004;Wolf and Wolf, 2004) and symptoms of EHS (Zwamborn et al., 2003;Oberfeld et al., 2004) are the two most common associations with RF exposure from wireless technology including their base stations and antennas. ...
Article
Poor power quality (dirty electricity) is ubiquitous especially in schools with fluorescent lights and computers. Previous studies have shown a relationship between power quality and student behavior/teacher health. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of power line filters to reduce dirty electricity in a school environment and to document changes in health and behavior among teachers and students. We installed Graham Stetzer filters and dummy filters and measured power quality in three Minnesota Schools. Teachers completed a daily questionnaire regarding their health and the behavior of their students for an 8-week period. Teachers were unaware of which filters were installed at any one time (single blind study). Dirty electricity was reduced by more than 90% in the three schools and during this period teacher health improved as did student behavior in the middle/elementary schools. Headaches, general weakness, dry eyes/mouth, facial flushing, asthma, skin irritations, overall mood including depression and anxiety improved significantly among staff. Of the 44 teachers who participated 64% were better, 30% were worse, and 6% did not change. Behavior of high school students did not improve but elementary/middle school students were more active in class; more responsive, more focused; had fewer health complaints; and had a better overall learning experience. Dirty electricity in schools may be adversely affecting wellbeing of teachers and behavior of their students, especially younger students in middle and elementary school. Power line filters improve power quality and may also protect those who are sensitive to this energy. Work on electric and magnetic field metrics with and without Stetzer filters urgently needs to be carried out to determine just what characteristics of the dirty electricity may be interacting with the people.
... Epidemiological studies have shown the expected increases in cancer, miscarriage, and reproductive adverse effects. [55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62] Three plausible biological mechanisms may be involved. 13 Increased free radical activity and genetic damage to DNA and chromosomes may occur (i) as a response to the exposure 25-62 and (ii) because of an induced reduction in the free radical scavenger melatonin, for which there is both animal 63,64 and human evidence. ...
Article
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Rao and Thakur have shown that the antioxidants melatonin and alma (Emblica officinales, Indian gooseberry) are effective, both individually and in combination, against fluoride-induced genotoxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocyte cells, which was first described in humans in 1994. Some animal and human work also suggests that fluoride (F) can impair the defensive response to genotoxicity by being deposited in high concentrations in the pineal gland and, through an enzyme-inhibiting action, reducing the secretion of melatonin, a powerful antioxidant able to eliminate free radicals and protect DNA. In having the capacity to be both genotoxic and impair melatonin secretion, F is similar to electromagnetic radiation, at power line frequencies and above, and both have very low or zero thresholds for causing toxicity. In view of the seriousness of neoplasia, the effect of fluoride on melatonin secretion warrants further research.
... Also a German study found a threefold higher frequency of cancer among people living in the vicinity 400 m of a GSM base station compared to people living further away from the antenna. The frequency increased also the longer people had been exposed to the radiation (Eger et al, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
On the 16 th of May, 2001, the first Global System for Mobile Communications: originally called Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) call was made in Nigeria, thereby opening communication among the teaming population in the country. Given the mode of operation of GSM technology, Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) are required for the provision of GSM services. Consequently, network of base stations were established in areas that enjoyed the GSM services all over Nigeria. However, studies have shown that exposure to GSM radiations are linked to health hazards such as fatigue, headache, decreased concentration, dizziness, local irritation, tumour induction, sperm motility, morphology and viability, cancer, especially brain tumour and leukaemia, viral and infectious diseases. Given these potential health impacts of BTS on humans, the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) established guidelines for National Environmental Standards for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Facilities. The guidelines provided for the establishment of BTS within a minimum setback of ten (10) meters from the perimeter wall (fence) of residential/business premises, schools and hospitals. Similarly, where there is no perimeter wall (fence), the BTS must be at a minimum of twelve (12) meters from the wall of residential/business premises schools and hospitals. Consequently, using spatial analysis techniques, this study examined compliance of GSM service providers with the established guidelines for the mounting of BTS within three Abuja districts in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT); namely, Utako, Garki and Wuse. All the 119 BTS sampled in the study failed the 10m and 12m buffer zone tests. As a result, policy prescription was made on the way forward.
... These include brain tumors [2,3], acoustic neuromas [4,5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8] and lymphomas [9]. Similarly, an increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations was also reported [10,11]. As a result, in 2011 the World Health Organization/ International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency radiation as a possible carcinogen to humans [12]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Radiofrequency radiation (RFR), e.g. electromagnetic waves emitted by our cell phones and Wi-Fi, are referred to as non-ionizing. This means that in contrast to the ionizing radiation, which does induce ionization of water and biologically important macromolecules, RFR does not have a capacity for such effects. Unlike, for example X-rays, the energy of RFR is not enough to break electrons off the molecules. However, is RFR completely safe for public health? Traditionally, the industry and the public bodies said yes. Nevertheless, new research data change this perception. Oxidative stress is an induced imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems resulting in oxidative damage to proteins, lipids and DNA; and is closely connected to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells [1]. The notion that the low intensity RFR can bring about significant oxidative stress in living cells has been doubted for years. The logic is simple: as low intensity radiofrequency electromagnetic waves are not able to ionize molecules, they can do nothing wrong for the living tissues. However, during the last decades a worldwide increase in penetration of wireless communication systems, including cellular telephony and Wi-Fi, attracted massive attention to possible biological effects of low intensity RFR. Consequently, the recent epidemiologi-cal studies unexpectedly indicated a significant increase in the occurrence of various tumors among long-term and "heavy" users of cellular phones. These include brain tumors [2, 3], acoustic neuromas [4, 5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8] and lymphomas [9]. Similarly, an increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations was also reported [10, 11]. As a result, in 2011 the World Health Organization/ International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency radiation as a possible carcinogen to humans [12].
... Eger et ál. 17 también observaron un riesgo 3 veces mayor de riesgo de cáncer en personas que vivían en un radio de 400 m a las estaciones en relación con los residentes fuera de estas áreas. Sin embargo, otros estudios no han encontrado asociación entre riesgo de cáncer y proximidad a las estaciones de radiofrecuencia 18 . ...
Article
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En Europa, la recomendación 1999/519/EC establece las restricciones y niveles de referencia para la exposición del público general a campos electromagnéticos (0 Hz –300 GHz). Varios países europeos, incluido España, han establecido límites más restrictivos o medidas adicionales en áreas denominadas “espacios sensibles” en base a la duración de la exposición y a la presencia de población sensible. El objetivo de este estudio es describir el emplazamiento y la proximidad de las antenas de telefonía móvil a espacios sensibles en los municipios del Proyecto INMA-Gipuzkoa. Se georreferenciaron las antenas y los espacios sensibles (escuelas, centros de salud, residencias y parques públicos). Se crearon áreas de influencia de 50, 100, 300 y 600 m alrededor de los espacios sensibles y se contabilizaron las antenas de telefonía móvil en cada una de ellas. Se contabilizaron 247 espacios sensibles y 156 antenas. El 54 % de las antenas se localizaron dentro de las áreas de influencia establecidas. A excepción de un centro sanitario y un parque, el resto de espacios sensibles no presentó ninguna antena en un radio de 100 m. El 47 % de espacios sensibles presentó al menos una antena en un radio de 600 m, el 20,6 % contaban con 1 a 3 y el 21,5 % con 3 a 6 antenas. Únicamente dos espacios sensibles tienen alguna antena en las áreas de influencia próximas (0 - 100 m). Sin embargo, la distancia no es la única variable que afecta a la exposición, por lo que futuros estudios deberían medir los niveles de exposición en estas áreas.
... Also a German study found a threefold higher frequency of cancer among people living in the vicinity 400 m of a GSM base station compared to people living further away from the antenna. The frequency increased also the longer people had been exposed to the radiation (Eger et al, 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
On the 16 th of May, 2001, the first Global System for Mobile Communications: originally called Groupe Spécial Mobile (GSM) call was made in Nigeria, thereby opening communication among the teaming population in the country. Given the mode of operation of GSM technology, Base Transceiver Stations (BTS) are required for the provision of GSM services. Consequently, network of base stations were established in areas that enjoyed the GSM services all over Nigeria. However, studies have shown that exposure to GSM radiations are linked to health hazards such as fatigue, headache, decreased concentration, dizziness, local irritation, tumour induction, sperm motility, morphology and viability, cancer, especially brain tumour and leukaemia, viral and infectious diseases. Given these potential health impacts of BTS on humans, the National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) established guidelines for National Environmental Standards for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Facilities. The guidelines provided for the establishment of BTS within a minimum setback of ten (10) meters from the perimeter wall (fence) of residential/business premises, schools and hospitals. Similarly, where there is no perimeter wall (fence), the BTS must be at a minimum of twelve (12) meters from the wall of residential/business premises schools and hospitals. Consequently, using spatial analysis techniques, this study examined compliance of GSM service providers with the established guidelines for the mounting of BTS within three Abuja districts in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT); namely, Utako, Garki and Wuse. All the 119 BTS sampled in the study failed the 10m and 12m buffer zone tests. As a result, policy prescription was made on the way forward.
... Based on the surveyed literature [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] we believe there is a health hazard associated with EMF and RF radiation. However, studies were not able to find and confirm the exact dangerous levels due to the complex nature of the problem. ...
Article
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Due to the possible harmful effects of magnetic radiation countries have set limits on transmitted power density. Therefore, many have conducted field surveys to measure its levels, especially around mobile base stations. We present the initial results on our field survey to measure magnetic radiation between 75 MHz and 3 GHz in Kuwait. Presented results of four locations show that other sources are as high as GSM sources. However, all are below ICNIRP limits.
... Findings of the only two published studies investigating cancer risks associated with proximity to cell phone towers indicate that living close to a cell phone tower may lead to increased cancer rates. A German study by Eger et al. (2004) found an increase in cancer rates among people living within 400 m of a cell tower while an Israeli study by Wolf and Wolf (2004) found that people living within 350 m of a tower had greater incidents of cancer. In spite of these findings, Kundi and Hutter (2009) conclude that both aforementioned studies suffer from methodological limitations and therefore no far reaching conclusions can be drawn. ...
Article
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Purpose – This paper aims to determine if proximity to cell phone towers influences house prices with a focus on isolating the impact of tower aesthetics on nearby property values. Design/methodology/approach – Sales transaction data from the Auckland Region during 2005-2007 were analysed using a series of hedonic models testing various proximity specifications across two populations of cell towers: residential-only and global (all towers). Findings – The study could not establish a relationship between cell towers and house prices with the exception of armed monopole towers located in residential areas due to such towers' acute visual disamenity. Practical implications – The study's findings can be directly applied to residential valuation practice and can assist government regulators and telecommunication companies in siting new cell towers. Originality/value – This research provides three distinct methodological improvements: unconventional geocoding that improves spatial accuracy, separate analysis of towers in residential areas that enhances internal validity and inclusion of tower mast data to isolate the impact of tower aesthetics.
... They recommended that the sum total for ambient exposures should not be higher than 0.02 V/mthe equivalent of a power density of 0.00011 mW/cm 2 , which is the indoor exposure value for GSM base stations proposed by the Public Health Office of the Government of Salzburg, Austria in 2002 14 . Eger et al. (2004) took up a challenge to medical professionals by Germany's radiation protection board to determine if there was an increased cancer incidence in populations living near cell towers. Their study evaluated data for approximately 1000 patients between the years of 1994 and 2004 who lived close to cell antennas. ...
Article
The siting of cellular phone base stations and other cellular infrastructure such as roof-mounted antenna arrays, especially in residential neighborhoods, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Local resistance from nearby residents and landowners is often based on fears of adverse health effects despite reassurances from telecommunications service providers that international exposure standards will be followed. Both anecdotal reports and some epidemiology studies have found headaches, skin rashes, sleep disturbances, depression, decreased libido, increased rates of suicide, concentration problems, dizziness, memory changes, increased risk of cancer, tremors, and other neurophysiological effects in populations near base stations. The objective of this paper is to review the existing studies of people living or working near cellular infrastructure and other pertinent studies that could apply to long-term, low-level radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposures. While specific epidemiological research in this area is sparse and contradictory, and such exposures are difficult to quantify given the increasing background levels of RFR from myriad personal consumer products, some research does exist to warrant caution in infrastructure siting. Further epidemiology research that takes total ambient RFR exposures into consideration is warranted. Symptoms reported today may be classic microwave sickness, first described in 1978. Nonionizing electromagnetic fields are among the fastest growing forms of environmental pollution. Some extrapolations can be made from research other than epidemiology regarding biological effects from exposures at levels far below current exposure guidelines.
... En contraste a esta resolución del gobierno colombiano, existen múltiples estudios científicos en todo el mundo que indican que los niveles de potencia que irradian los sistemas de telefonía móvil celular se deben controlar, debido a los "posibles" efectos nocivos en la salud como diversos tipos de cáncer, abortos, daños en el ADN, cambios en la actividad eléctrica del cerebro, depresión, insomnio, tumores cerebrales, leucemia, entre otros [7] , [8], [9], [10], [11], [12], [13], [14]. ...
Article
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The electromagnetic pollution could increase because the increase in the number of cellular mobile telephone antenna in urban areas of cities, this has raised the concern of residents in cities. This article aims to examine pollution electromagnetic non-ionizing fields making measurements of band wide in representative sectors of the city of Bucaramanga taking the type of area and the number of antennas around, so to determine whether exposure limits allowed for general public in the recommendation ITU-T K.52 International.
... This investigation was carried out between 1994-2004 and 1000 case histories of patients were surveyed between this period. After five years of being at the vicinity of a cell phone tower, from 1999-2004, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area (Eger et al., 2004). ...
... In France, Santini et al (2002) in their study observed that the people who lived closest to the cellular antennas had the highest incidences of the following disorders: fatigue, sleep disturbances, headaches, feeling of discomfort, and difficulty in concentrating, depression, memory loss, visual disruptions, irritability, hearing disruptions, skin problems, cardiovascular disorders, and dizziness. Eger et al (2004), examined in Germany whether people living close to cellular transmitter antennas were exposed to a greater risk of ISSN 2157-6092 2014 becoming ill with malignant tumors. Wolf and Wolf (2004) presented in Israel that, based on medical records of people living within 350 meters of a long established phone mast, showed a fourfold increased incidence of cancer compared with the general population of Israel, and a tenfold increase specifically among women, compared with the surrounding locality further from the mast. ...
Article
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Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) is a form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles which can be harmful to human body depending upon the radiated power density and the distance from the transmitter. This paper investigates the implications of EMR from the mobile cellular Base Station (BS) transmitter to the body. A cellular mobile network analyzer which can measure power density of a cellular mobile signal was used to measure the received power density from the BS transmitter in two scenarios: along the express road and residential/commercial area. The radiated power absorbed was calculated to be 348.94nW/cm2 at 210m distance from transmitter and higher as moved closer to the transmitter. It was concluded from the results that the power density measured within 300m distance from BS transmitters is of higher and negative health concern. We therefore recommend that the government should develop a strict policy to ensure that the power density radiated is reduced generally and BS transmitters should be located from 300m to 500m distance from human residence.
... No references to that statement are given. In a review by Khurana et al. [127] two of three studies reported increased incidence of cancer at a distance < 350 m [128] or < 400 m [129] from a base station. Dode et al. [130] reported increased cancer mortality in an area within 500 m from a base station in Belo ...
... A study conducted in Israel shows that there is an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in the proximity of a cell phone transmitter station (within 350 m radius), with the obtained power density far below 0.0053 W/m 2 [10]. A study involving roughly 1,000 patients in Naila, Germany, concluded that the proportion of newly developing cancer case was significantly higher among those patients who lived up to 10 years at a distance within 400 m from cellular transmitter site, compared to those patients living farther away [11]. A similar study conducted in a remote part of a town in Westphalia, Germany involving 575 inhabitants, showed a statistically significant increase of the cancer incidence within a 400-metre radius of a mobile base station five years after it was established there [12]. ...
Article
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During the last decade, the installation of macrocell mobile telephone base station antennas in residential areas has been increased significantly and therefore much attention is being paid to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation and its effects on human health. High intensities of RF radiation can be harmful since RF energy can heat biological tissues rapidly. This paper presents the RF exposure levels of major cities in Sri Lanka occurred due to the mobile base station antennas belong to different network providers. In this research the mobile cellular transmitting antennas in 900 MHz, 1800 MHz and 2 GHz of all five network providers were considered. The results were compared with the FCC (Federal Communication Commission) guidelines and the present exposure levels were found to be below the maximum limits set by the standards. RF exposure levels due to mobile base station antennas obtained at present and in 2005 were compared.
... The readings were taken linearly up to a distance of 850 meters from the base station. The measuring distance range is reported to have maximum effect on human health ( Blettner 2009, Eger 2004). The measurements in each case were taken around a single tower with no other tower within 1 km of radius. ...
Article
The cell-phone radiation is a potential health hazard not only to the singular user but to the whole population through the environmental pollution. The environmental radiation density may vary from place to place depending upon its absorption or reflection by surroundings, e.g., trees, buildings, human population, water bodies, etc. The present work was taken to study the effect of population density and surroundings on the environmental radiation. The power density values of radiation were measured using a hand-held portable power density meter TES 593, and specific absorption rates (SAR) were estimated from the measured values. The SAR values were compared with the safe limit of 1 mW/kg above which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The studies indicated that the average environmental radiation power density values were higher in unpopulated and open areas than densely populated regions by 300%. Nat. Env. & Poll. Tech. Website: www.neptjournal.com
... The readings were taken linearly up to a distance of 850 meters from the base station. The measuring distance range is reported to have maximum effect on human health (Blettner 2009, Eger 2004. The measurements in each case were taken around a single tower with no other tower within 1 km of radius. ...
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The cell-phone radiation is a potential health hazard not only to the singular user but to the whole population through the environmental pollution. The environmental radiation density may vary from place to place depending upon its absorption or reflection by surroundings, e.g., trees, buildings, human population, water bodies, etc. The present work was taken to study the effect of population density and surroundings on the environmental radiation. The power density values of radiation were measured using a hand-held portable power density meter TES 593, and specific absorption rates (SAR) were estimated from the measured values. The SAR values were compared with the safe limit of 1 mW/kg above which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The studies indicated that the average environmental radiation power density values were higher in unpopulated and open areas than densely populated regions by 300%. Nat. Env. & Poll. Tech. Website: www.neptjournal.com
... However, an early Egyptian cellphone tower study in the Algharbia governate area (1999)(2000)(2001)(2002) suggested an increase in the overall cancer rate of the local population by 7.5% [18]. Later, a German study found elevated cancer incidence in patients who had lived 5-10 years within 400 meters of a cell installation [19]. Another Israeli study indicated an association between increased cancer incidence and living in proximity to a cell base station [20]. ...
... The effects of RFR combined with one other stressor in lab tests can result in damage at lower RFR exposures than RFR exposures shown to cause serious damage when measured in isolation. The effects of RFR combined with myriad other stressors, as reflected in epidemiology studies, (e.g., [26][27][28]) can result in serious damage at RFR exposures orders of magnitude less than RFR exposures shown to cause serious damage when measured in isolation. ...
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This editorial addresses the effects of toxic stimuli combinations on determination of safe Exposure Limits. Examination of thousands of Medline abstracts showed typically that combinations of toxic stimuli can produce damage even when the exposure level of each member of the combination is less than the lowest exposure level of the member that produced damage when tested in isolation. The synergy of the toxic stimuli in combination means less of each component stimulus is required to cause damage compared to exposure levels when tested in isolation. This Editorial concludes there is no reason to believe today that the Exposure Limits on potentially toxic stimuli that have been set by the regulatory agencies are fully protective against serious adverse health effects in all real life exposure scenarios. The conclusion is applicable to essentially all potential contributing factors to disease amenable to Exposure Limits, including not only chemicals but other types of exposures such as radiofrequency radiation (RFR).
... During the last years, epidemiological studies indicated on the significantly increased risk of different types of tumors among heavy users of a cell phone, including brain tumors [1][2][3], acoustic neuroma [4,5], tumors of parotid glands [6], seminomas [7], melanomas [8], and lymphomas [9]. Furthermore, it was reported on a significant increase in tumor incidence among people living nearby cellular base transmitting stations [10,11]. And finally, a bulk of experimental studies revealed a significant metabolic changes in living cells under the exposure to low-intensity MW [12,13]. ...
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This chapter looks at the UK cell phone industry and considers transmission from microcell and picocell towers. No openly published studies have been available in the UK until now, which is partly due to this being a relatively new phenomenon and partly due to lack of publicly accessible data. In this chapter, public opinion surveys are reported to determine whether there is any impact on value from the type and location of cell tower. The chapter also compares results in the UK with a study undertaken in Hamburg, Germany.
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Chapter
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The associated potential health threatening effects of Radiofrequency (RF) radiation are highly debatable among scholars and science experts with emphasis on those originating from mobile phone base stations (BTS). On one hand, the population of these BTSs has increased globally and Malawi in particular. City locations have generally larger number of users and also obstructions which in compensation, allows a lot more BTSs to cover demand with possible cell sizes of about 2-5km radius or less. EM and RF fields are classified as carcinogenic in nature with others being sleeping problems, fertility problems, chromosome alterations, dizziness as well as nausea as detrimental health problems associated with BTSs. In order to evaluate the measured radiation levels from the BTS, the study employed a descriptive study design where a Spectran HF V4 spectrum analyser was used to measure RF radiation levels in Watts per square meter (W.m-2) at every 25m interval from the fence of the BTS to a maximum distance of 150m. Quantitative data management used Microsoft excel and IBM® SPSS® statistics version 23.0 for organization and analysis to further answer the research question(s) A total of 17 BTSs in Lilongwe were purposively selected and their RF radiation levels at different distances from the BTS fence was measured and analysed. The investigation registered a maximum radiation level of 0.00139W.m-2. All the recordings were found to be below the ICNIRP standard guidelines of 1 – 10W.m-2 and safe for the public. When compared to other epidemiological studies, similar radiation levels were reportedly linked with other public health concerns in the literature. It is important to consider roof top BTSs as well as street mounted towers in similar studies in the future and intensify on number of base station measurements. Civic educating the public on better safety aspects on such EM and RF radiation sources could be commendable while on one hand making the information available. Available as open access from: http://www.ss-pub.org/journals/aeer/vol-5/vol-5-issue-4-april-2020/
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The electromagnetic fields (EMFs) radiated from typical cellular phone transmitter stations are calculated and compared to available guidelines considering thermal and non thermal biological effects. Exclusion zones close to the transmitter station are then estimated. These are three-dimensional figures calculated in comparison to a chosen EMF reference human exposure guideline limit. The volume inside them represents the regions in which the estimated electromagnetic field level is above the limit. Outside the exclusion zone the estimated electromagnetic field is below the limits. This procedure can be very useful in many applications, e.g., when a transmitter station is expected to be placed close to schools, hospitals, or close to areas where people live or work and where they spend much time each day. Owing to the uncertainty in science regarding the minimum non ionizing radiation level below which no adverse health effects can occur, the Precautionary Approach is suggested and it is recommended that EMF human exposure be kept to a minimum.
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This article proposesthat the Right to Life Principle, dened as “every person hasthe right to a natural birth and legitimate survival and development into adulthoodwithout environmental or othersystematic injury to theirwell-being,”may be violated byRFRemissionsfromcell phones,Wi-Fi,macro cell phone base stations (MCPBSs), 5G/4G small cell antennas (SCAs), etc. in excess of the standards set by the Building Biology Institute. BBI standardsset1000µW/m2as anextreme anomaly;theprecisedivisionpointofharm/noharmbelow1000µW/m2is unknown. I review literature describing (1) the Right to Life Principle, (2) the attributes of non-ionizing radiation, and (3) proven injury from cell phones, WiFi, MCPBSs, 5G/4G SCAs, etc. to living organisms with 20 categories of illnesses and 58 references. Non-ionizing radiation isshown to place a force eld on negatively charged particles including electrons, neurons, and DNA, and exciting/energizing electrons with shifts to outer orbits with energy emission when they return to ground orbit thereby destabilizing atoms, molecules, cells and organs in the process of orbital shifts. RFR induced illnesses include sperm damage, fetus injury, irreversibility infertility, emotional and hyperactive disorders, cancer, damage to DNA, the immune system, blood brain barrier, and stem cells, increasesin oxidative stress and free radicals, and harm to those living lessthan 500 metersfrom MCPBSs. My recommendationsto reduce injury from RFR are based upon review of the literature, experience in metering residential property and MCPBSsfor RFR, avoiding the use of RFR emitting devices and accessto line-of-sight antennas, and legislative proposalsto show the dangers of RFR devices and antennas by,for example,requiringnotice tobuyers andlessees ofresidentialpropertyof powerdensitieswithinhousingunits.
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A small area study of cancer incidence in 1974-1986 was carried out to investigate an unconfirmed report of a "cluster" of leukemias and lymphomas near the Sutton Coldfield television (TV) and frequency modulation (FM) radio transmitter in the West Midlands, England. The study used a national database of postcoded cancer registrations, and population and socioeconomic data from the 1981 census. Selected cancers were hematopoietic and lymphatic, brain, skin, eye, male breast, female breast, lung, colorectal, stomach, prostate, and bladder. Expected numbers of cancers in small areas were calculated by indirect standardization, with stratification for a small area socioeconomic index. The study area was defined as a 10 km radius circle around the transmitter, within which 10 bands of increasing distance from the transmitter were defined as a basis for testing for a decline in risk with distance, and an inner area was arbitrarily defined for descriptive purposes as a 2 km radius circle. The risk of adult leukemia within 2 km was 1.83 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.74), and there was a significant decline in risk with distance from the transmitter (p = 0.001). These findings appeared to be consistent over the periods 1974-1980, 1981-1986, and were probably largely independent of the initially reported cluster, which appeared to concern mainly a later period. In the context of variability of leukemia risk across census wards in the West Midlands as a whole, the Sutton Coldfield findings were unusual. A significant decline in risk with distance was also found for skin cancer, possibly related to residual socioeconomic confounding, and for bladder cancer. Study of other radio and TV transmitters in Great Britain is required to put the present results in wider context. No causal implications can be made from a single cluster investigation of this kind.
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A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p<0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p<0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.
Department of Epidemiology
  • F Forastiere
  • A Biggeri
  • A Barca
FORASTIERE, F., BIGGERI, A., BARCA, A. & C.A.PERUCCI (2001):Department of Epidemiology.Local Health Authority RME Rom, Italy. MICHELOZZI, P., CAPON, A., KIRCHMAYER, U.,