Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses

ArticleinScience of The Total Environment 407(11):3439-49 · March 2009with268 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.02.004 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.
    • "The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water (Christova-Boal et al., 1996; Li et al., 2009). UV disinfection technology is of growing interest in the water industry since it was demonstrated that UV radiation is very effective against (oo)cysts of Cryptosporidium and Giardia, two pathogenic micro-organisms of major importance for the safety of drinking water. "
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    • "Greywater treated at lower levels would potentially provide shorter payback periods compared to rainwater tanks (Ghisi and Ferreira, 2007; Ghisi and Oliveira, 2007). However, in urban areas, where space is limited, higher levels of greywater treatment are required and makes their reuse more expensive (Li et al., 2009; Mourad et al., 2011). Nevertheless, both greywater and rainwater used on a larger scale are acknowledged to be more economically feasible than if used in single-residential households (Friedler and Hadari, 2006; Mourad et al., 2011). "
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    • "The significant variance of both the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of greywater owed to regional, societal and also temporal profiles of the household end users in the primary reason that although greywater constitutes a highly reclaimable source of water, its reuse is nonetheless met with high skepticism (Eriksson et al., 2002; Jung et al., 2015; Li et al., 2009). In the present study, the preparation strategy of a simulated greywater effluent was based on (i) the qualitative characteristics of real greywater discharges taken directly from Greek households, (ii) the identification and selection of individual commercial products found in supermarkets for average use in laundries, showers and sinks, and (iii) the quantitative characteristics of greywater individual sources that have been reported in previous studies (Friedler, 2004; Jamrah et al., 2006 Jamrah et al., , 2008 Jefferson et al., 2004; Kotut et al., 2011; Prathapar et al., 2005). "
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