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Immediate Effect of Slow Pace Bhastrika Pranayama on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate

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Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes on heart rate and blood pressure and the effect of the same breathing exercise for the same duration of time (5 minutes) following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide (Buscopan), a parasympathetic blocker drug. Heart rate and blood pressure of volunteers (n = 39, age = 25-40 years) was recorded following standard procedure. First, subjects had to sit comfortably in an easy and steady posture (sukhasana) on a fairly soft seat placed on the floor keeping head, neck, and trunk erect, eyes closed, and the other muscles reasonably loose. The subject is directed to inhale through both nostrils slowly up to the maximum for about 4 seconds and then exhale slowly up to the maximum through both nostrils for about 6 seconds. The breathing must not be abdominal. These steps complete one cycle of slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min). During the practice the subject is asked not to think much about the inhalation and exhalation time, but rather was requested to imagine the open blue sky. The pranayama was conducted in a cool, well-ventilated room (18-20 degrees C). After 5 minutes of this breathing practice, the blood pressure and heart rate again were recorded in the aforesaid manner using the same instrument. The other group (n = 10) took part in another study where their blood pressure and heart rate were recorded following half an hour of oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide 20 mg. Then they practiced the breathing exercise as stated above, and the abovementioned parameters were recorded again to study the effect of parasympathetic blockade on the same pranayama. It was noted that after slow bhastrika pranayamic breathing (respiratory rate 6/min) for 5 minutes, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly with a slight fall in heart rate. No significant alteration in both blood pressure and heart rate was observed in volunteers who performed the same breathing exercise for the same duration following oral intake of hyoscine-N-butylbromide. Pranayama increases frequency and duration of inhibitory neural impulses by activating pulmonary stretch receptors during above tidal volume inhalation as in Hering Bruer reflex, which bring about withdrawal of sympathetic tone in the skeletal muscle blood vessels, leading to widespread vasodilatation, thus causing decrease in peripheral resistance and thus decreasing the diastolic blood pressure. After hyoscine-N-butylbromide, the parasympathetic blocker, it was observed that blood pressure was not decreased significantly as a result of pranayama, as it was observed when no drug was administered. Vagal cardiac and pulmonary mechanisms are linked, and improvement in one vagal limb might spill over into the other. Baroreceptor sensitivity can be enhanced significantly by slow breathing (supported by a small reduction in the heart rate observed during slow breathing and by reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressure). Slow pace bhastrika pranayama (respiratory rate 6/min) exercise thus shows a strong tendency to improving the autonomic nervous system through enhanced activation of the parasympathetic system.

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... Slow breathing exercises such as those in pranayama yoga improve stress-related physiology, including autonomic imbalance, cardiopulmonary and neuroendocrine function, and mood (Brown and Gerbarg, 2005;Jerath et al., 2006;Kaushik et al., 2006;Courtney, 2009;Pramanik et al., 2009;Noble et al., 2017a). These techniques can increase HRV by a factor of two or more (Elliott and Edmonson, 2005) and drastically reduce self-reported depression (Janakiramaiah et al., 1998;Lehrer et al., 1999). ...
... Such physiological and behavioral benefits are believed to be associated with a shift away from sympathetic dominance toward a net increase in parasympathetic (vagal) tone, thereby reducing stress effects (Brown and Gerbarg, 2005;Jerath et al., 2006). The adaptive changes in autonomic function associated with sustained slow breathing are consistent with the 'relaxation response' (Bernardi et al., 1998;Spicuzza et al., 2000;Joseph et al., 2005;Pramanik et al., 2009), a state of deep rest that changes the physical and emotional responses to stressors (Benson et al., 1974). ...
... Despite evidence of slow, deep breathing's therapeutic benefit in disorders of autonomic imbalance (Spicuzza et al., 2000;Bernardi et al., 2002;Brown and Gerbarg, 2005;Joseph et al., 2005;Jerath et al., 2006;Kaushik et al., 2006;Courtney, 2009;Pramanik et al., 2009), very few studies have focused on isolating slow breathing from attentional or emotional regulatory elements of training (Ospina et al., 2007). A recent systematic review of slow breathing techniques analyzed the results of 15 studies, concluding that despite some disparities, breath control at low frequencies (<10 breaths/minute) results in decreased anxiety and arousal and increased relaxation . ...
Article
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Control of respiration provides a powerful voluntary portal to entrain and modulate central autonomic networks. Slowing and deepening breathing as a relaxation technique has shown promise in a variety of cardiorespiratory and stress-related disorders, but few studies have investigated the physiological mechanisms conferring its benefits. Recent evidence suggests that breathing at a frequency near 0.1 Hz (6 breaths per minute) promotes behavioral relaxation and baroreflex resonance effects that maximize heart rate variability. Breathing around this frequency appears to elicit resonant and coherent features in neuro-mechanical interactions that optimize physiological function. Here we explore the neurophysiology of slow, deep breathing and propose that coincident features of respiratory and baroreceptor afferent activity cycling at 0.1 Hz entrain central autonomic networks. An important role is assigned to the preferential recruitment of slowly-adapting pulmonary afferents (SARs) during prolonged inhalations. These afferents project to discrete areas in the brainstem within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and initiate inhibitory actions on downstream targets. Conversely, deep exhalations terminate SAR activity and activate arterial baroreceptors via increases in blood pressure to stimulate, through NTS projections, parasympathetic outflow to the heart. Reciprocal SAR and baroreceptor afferent-evoked actions combine to enhance sympathetic activity during inhalation and parasympathetic activity during exhalation, respectively. This leads to pronounced heart rate variability in phase with the respiratory cycle (respiratory sinus arrhythmia) and improved ventilation-perfusion matching. NTS relay neurons project extensively to areas of the central autonomic network to encode important features of the breathing pattern that may modulate anxiety, arousal, and attention. In our model, pronounced respiratory rhythms during slow, deep breathing also support expression of slow cortical rhythms to induce a functional state of alert relaxation, and, via nasal respiration-based actions on olfactory signaling, recruit hippocampal pathways to boost memory consolidation. Collectively, we assert that the neurophysiological processes recruited during slow, deep breathing enhance the cognitive and behavioral therapeutic outcomes obtained through various mind-body practices. Future studies are required to better understand the physio-behavioral processes involved, including in animal models that control for confounding factors such as expectancy biases.
... The practice of pranayama influences many physiological variables. Evidence suggests that its practice produces a positive impact on the cardiorespiratory system (4)(5)(6)(7), where slow-paced breathing leads to reduced heart rate and decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure (8), while fast breathing leads to less robust, but consistent increase in heart rate (9)(10)(11)(12). In fact, a previous study observed that the practice of the Bhastrika pranayama with low respiratory rate decreased significantly both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with a modest decrease in heart rate (10). ...
... Evidence suggests that its practice produces a positive impact on the cardiorespiratory system (4)(5)(6)(7), where slow-paced breathing leads to reduced heart rate and decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure (8), while fast breathing leads to less robust, but consistent increase in heart rate (9)(10)(11)(12). In fact, a previous study observed that the practice of the Bhastrika pranayama with low respiratory rate decreased significantly both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure, with a modest decrease in heart rate (10). Furthermore, changes in heart rate variability (HRV) also support the notion that the practice of pranayama improves respiratory function and cardiac sympathovagal balance, which are important psycho-physiological stress-related variables (13,14). ...
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Pranayama refers to a set of yoga breathing exercises. Recent evidence suggests that the practice of pranayama has positive effects on measures of clinical stress and anxiety. This study explored the impact of a Bhastrika pranayama training program on emotion processing, anxiety, and affect. We used a randomized controlled trial design with thirty healthy young adults assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of pranayama practices. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols were used both at baseline and post-intervention: an emotion task as well as a resting-state acquisition. Our results suggest that pranayama significantly decreased states of anxiety and negative affect. The practice of pranayama also modulated the activity of brain regions involved in emotional processing, particularly the amygdala, anterior cingulate, anterior insula, and prefrontal cortex. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) showed significantly reduced functional connectivity involving the anterior insula and lateral portions of the prefrontal cortex. Correlation analysis revealed that changes in connectivity between the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the right anterior insula were associated with changes in anxiety. Although it should be noted that these analyses were preliminary and exploratory, it provides the first evidence that 4 weeks of B. pranayama significantly reduce the levels of anxiety and negative affect, and that these changes are associated with the modulation of activity and connectivity in brain areas involved in emotion processing, attention, and awareness. The study was registered at https://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-2gv5c2/(RBR-2gv5c2).
... Fall in SBP, DBP and HR were noted in the group which practiced Bhastrika for five min without administration of the drug; whereas subjects following the administration of the drug did not show significant changes in BP or HR. Thus the study concluded that the modulation of ANS due to practice of slow pace Bhastrika are attributed to the enhanced parasympathetic activity(Pramanik et al., 2009). due to other yogic breathing techniques:A recent study using HRV demonstrated parasympathetic withdrawal during the practice of Bhramari Pranayama, which reverted back to normalcy after the completion of practice(Nivethitha, Manjunath, & Mooventhan, 2017). ...
... Medical students showed reduced stress levels following practice of a combination of pranayama practices for 1 hour a day, 5 days per week for 2 months. HRV demonstrated reduction in VLF and LF and increase in HF component, indicative of a parasympathetic shift of the autonomic activity(Pramanik et al., 2009). The relaxation attained through practice of pranayama was exploited to ease the test anxiety and improve test scores in 107 postgraduate students. ...
... Numerous studies detail the beneficial effects of breath regulation on cardiac autonomic activity [14][15][16]. A randomized control trial involving 90 healthcare students compared the effects of training in slow versus rapid pranayama for 3 months. ...
... Decreases in cardiac parameters were noted in the group who practiced pranayama with no medication, whereas subjects taking Buscopan did not show notable changes in BP or HR. The study concluded that the modulation of ANS due to the practice of slow-paced breathing is attributed to enhanced parasympathetic activity [16]. Further investigation at the cellular level will reveal why parasympathetic dominant physiology occurs during breath regulation [14]. ...
... systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in a study [37]. ...
... Regulates testosterone level. Control over premature ejaculation [37]. Yoga nidra (yogic sleep) ...
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Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual problem. Various non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options are available currently. The importance of yoga in the management of various sexual dysfunctions is increasingly recognized. In this review, we are analyzing the role of yoga in the management of PE. This paper explores the mechanism of yoga practices in the management of PE and the recommended yoga practice for PE. It also discusses the scientific evidence of yoga practices, such as yoga postures (yogasana), breathing practices (pranayama), lock (bandha), gestures (mudra), relaxation, Aum chanting, yoga nidra and meditation with particular reference the management of PE.
... Our findings, similar to two studies that measured HRV during rapid kapalbhati breathing, reported decreased LFms and HFms, [20,21] whereas two studies that compared HRV before and after kapalbhati breathing reported increased low frequency in normalized units (LFn.u) and reduced high frequency in normalized units (HFn.u). [22] or no change in LFn.u. and HFn.u. and a reduction in pNN50 after the practice [23] [ Table 2]. ...
... This shows that parasympathetic activation occurs with practice of kapalbhati pranayama. [23] The changes of HRV during Kapalbhati are similar to that of physical exercise and the cardiovascular improvement during kapalbhati are excessive but not correlated with intensity of exercise. A person unwilling or unable to exercise may receive similar benefits to physical exercise if he practices kapalbhati pranayama. ...
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Background: Kapalbhati is a fast pace respiratory exercise or pranayam, which is supposed to be practiced by yogis to clean their brain. Pranayamas are well known to improve heart rate variability (HRV) ultimately leading to better autonomic functions. Other studies have observed the immediate effect of kapalbhati on various neurological (brain and spine) and autonomic functions, but their results are varied and inconclusive. Objective: The aim of this study is to find out the changes in HRV and brain waves during and after practice of kapalbhati as compared with the baseline values of different parameters. Methods: Various parameters were measured at baseline, during and after kapalbhati pranayam with the help of Dinamika HRV-Advanced HRV Test System, Moscow, Russia. Statistical analysis was accomplished employing repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis and Holm's multiple comparisons using the Version 28.0.0.0 of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows (190) SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: We found that during and after kapalbhati, changes in HRV were significant in time and frequency domain showing parasympathetic withdrawal and insignificant changes in brain waves as compared with reference point values. Conclusion: Kapalbhati is initially energizing, cleansing, and heating. There occurs parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic activation during pranayama. There is an increase gamma wave activation post pranayama showing control of the default mode network.
... [21][22][23] A previous study showed that a performing pranayama for 5 min decreases the average SBP by 5 mmHg. [24] The results of another study showed that alternate nostril breathing exercise causes a significant decrease in the SBP but no decrease in the DBP in healthy individuals. [25] A randomized controlled study showed that the average SBP and DBP decreased by approximately 10 mmHg at the end of a slow breathing exercise program conducted for 3 months. ...
... The results of a randomized controlled study showed that patients who performed slow breathing exercise experienced an approximate 10 mmHg decrease in the SBP at the end of 3-month exercise program. [24] The results of this study showed no statistically significant difference between the mean BP measured at home in the first week in both groups (p > .05) ( Table 4). ...
... Some studies suggest the role of yogic controlled breathing in reducing the stress levels, controlling mood fluctuations such as anxiety and depression, and at the same time improving quality of life by motor co-ordination, cognitive performance, heart rate variability, and more (Bernardi et al., 2000;Sharma et al., 2014;Gonçalves et al., 2016;Erdogan Yüce and Taşcı, 2020). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure is improved immediately after practicing Pranayama (Pramanik et al., 2009;Bhavanani et al., 2011). It is notable that practicing Yoga, especially breathing techniques, may be beneficial to control anxiety, stress and to some extent modulate immune response. ...
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The global impact of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is tremendous on human life, not only affecting the physical and mental health of population but also impacting the economic system of countries and individual itself. The present situation demands prompt response toward COVID-19 by equipping the humans with strategies to overcome the infection and stress associated with it. These strategies must not only be limited to preventive and therapeutic measures, but also aim at improving immunity and mental health. This can be achieved by yogic breathing techniques. In this perspective, we emphasize the importance of yogic breathing, Simha Kriya and Isha kriya , the simple yet effective breathing techniques.
... In another study in which thirty-six healthy nonsmokers volunteers in Nepal were subjected to a survey were asked to perform alternate nostril breathing (Nadisuddhi pranayama) in sessions for four weeks, which suggested fall in pulse rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and rise in pulse pressure and peak expiratory flow rate [34]. The potential mechanism may be that the yogic breath, through activation of stretch receptors in lungs during high tidal volume inhalation as in Hering Bruer reflex, increases the frequency and duration of inhibitory neural impulses, which bring about the withdrawal of sympathetic tone in the skeletal muscle blood vessels, leading to widespread vasodilatation, thus causing a decrease in peripheral resistance and thus decreasing the BP [50]. ...
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Yoga is increasingly recognized as a mind-body therapy for the prevention and treatment of several medical disorders. Yoga is an umbrella term that incorporates physical postures, breath-regulating exercises (pranayama), and meditation, and is known to maintain physical, mental, and emotional well-being. This review summarizes the scientific evidence of the existing literature demonstrating the effects of yoga on various parameters and body systems and its role in strengthening the immune system and combat medical problems, particularly cardiorespiratory disorders, COVID-19, stress, anxiety, and depression. A growing body of evidence indicated that yoga can downregulate pro-inflammatory markers, boosts immunity, and have favorable modulating effects on the immune and genetic level. Such positive impacts of yoga have made it to be an excellent add-on therapy for a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. However, more studies are required to explain the mechanisms and beneficial effects of yoga on the cellular and molecular level.
... The underlying biological mechanisms of yoga therapy have been studied to further advance its use, and the involvement of autonomic modulation is suggested. [2,3] In addition to heart rate (HR) and blood pressure, [4,5] HR variability (HRV) has been frequently used as a physiological parameter to estimate the influence of yoga on autonomic activity. [6][7][8][9] Among various methods to analyze HRV, frequency-domain power-spectrum analysis is commonly used and calculates the high-frequency (HF) variation corresponding to respiration-related parasympathetic activity and the low-frequency (LF) variation corresponding to blood pressure-related activity. ...
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Background: Yoga therapy is widely applied to the maintenance of health and to treatment of various illnesses. Previous researches indicate the involvement of autonomic control in its effects, although the general agreement has not been reached regarding the acute modulation of autonomic function. Aim: The present study aimed at revealing the acute effect of yoga on the autonomic activity using heart rate variability (HRV) measurement. Methods: Twenty-seven healthy controls participated in the present study. Fifteen of them (39.5 ± 8.5 years old) were naïve and 12 (45.1 ± 7.0 years old) were experienced in yoga. Yoga skills included breath awareness, two types of asana, and two types of pranayama. HRV was measured at the baseline, during yoga, and at the resting state after yoga. Results: In both yoga-naïve and experienced participants, the changes in low-frequency (LF) component of HRV and its ratio to high-frequency (HF) component (LF/HF) after yoga were found to be correlated negatively with the baseline data. The changes in LF after yoga were also correlated with LF during yoga. The changes in HF as well as the raw HRV data after yoga were not related to the baseline HRV or the HRV during yoga. Conclusion: The results indicate that yoga leads to an increase in LF when LF is low and leads to a decrease in LF when it is high at the baseline. This normalization of LF is dependent on the autonomic modulation during yoga and may underlie the clinical effectiveness of yoga therapy both in yoga-naïve and experienced subjects.
... Kelly and Johnson (1994) suggested that aerobic exercise resulted in small reductions in resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure among normotensive adults. Pramanik et al. (2009) found that both SBP and DBP decreased significantly with a slight decrease in heart rate after slow pranayamic bhastrika breathing for 5 minutes. Therefore, previous research has shown that yogasana and pranayama have had a significant influence on systolic blood pressure and the current result is also in agreement with previous research by Yang et al. ...
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Research Methodology book is an attempt to provide the basic concept in multidisciplinary research to the readers. Moreover, it has an elaborate account on various topics such as how to write project proposals and research papers, types of research and sponsored scheme, experimental planning and execution, review of literature and resources, presentation and interpretation of results, effective presentation skills, types of scientific and technical publications, importance of impact factor and citation index, plagiarism tools and their role in publications, dissertation, thesis and project report writing, instrumentation tools and techniques, biochemical calculations and matrics, statistical tools in research, ICT tools and Bioinformatics in research, IPR and Biosafety were discussed in brief
... including meditation, pranayamas, and asanas, significantly reduce the levels of SBP and DBP. 38,39 The LF: HF ratio, a measure of sympathovagal balance, 15,40 was increased in both YG and CG at baseline compared with normal 10 due to increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in RA. LFnu, which reflects cardiac sympathetic drive, 15,40 was increased in both YG and CG at baseline compared with normal levels, 10 which further demonstrates increased sympathetic activity in these patients. ...
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Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Antirheumatoid treatment reduces disease activity and inflammation, but not all patients respond to treatment. Autonomic dysfunction is common in RA leading to frequent cardiovascular complications. Yoga therapy may be useful in these patients, but there are little data on the effect of yoga on disease activity, inflammatory markers, and heart rate variability (HRV). Objectives: This study assessed the effect of 12-week yoga therapy on disease activity, inflammatory markers, and HRV in patients with RA. Materials and Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted on newly diagnosed RA patients attending outpatient services at the Department of Clinical Immunology, JIPMER. One hundred and sixty-six participants were randomized into two groups: the control group (CG) (n = 83) and yoga group (YG) (n = 83). Yoga therapy was administered to participants in the YG for 12 weeks, along with standard medical treatment. The CG received only standard medical treatment. Primary outcomes were disease activity score 28, interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cortisol, and HRV parameters. All parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Disease activity significantly decreased in both groups after 12 weeks, but it was reduced more in YG, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In both YG and CG, IL-1α, IL-6, TNF-α, and cortisol decreased after 12 weeks, but IL-1α and cortisol decreased more significantly in YG than in CG. Low-frequency component expressed as normalized unit (LFnu) and the low-frequency/high-frequency (LF-HF) ratio decreased significantly, and total power and HF component expressed as normalized unit (HFnu) increased significantly in the YG compared with CG. Conclusion: Twelve-week yoga therapy, if given along with standard medical treatment, significantly reduces disease activity and improves sympathovagal balance in RA patients.
... [9,24] A overactive autonomic imbalance may be the cause of dysregulated SNS and HPA axis, [50,73,74] while sympathetic tone decreases with increasing inhibitory neural discharge. [75][76][77] Reciprocal changes in parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve activity do not always occur even during the activation of the baroreceptor reflex. [78,79] The neurovisceral assimilation model describes how the prefrontal cortex regulates in limbic action which helps to restrain parasympathetic activity and activate sympathetic circuits. ...
... That slow pace pranayama influence the heart rate and blood pressure through the parasympathetic dominance had been reported. [4] However very few studies have scientifically investigated the beneficial effect of Brahmari Pranayam on concentration. ...
Article
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BACKGROUND Patanjali, foremost exponent of Yoga, described pranayama as gradual unforced cessation of breathing. Pranayama or control of prana or life force yields heartbeat, pulse and mind control. Brahmari Pranayama (BP) is a pranayama the humming sound of a flying wasp is mimicked. That slow pace pranayama influence the heart rate and blood pressure through the parasympathetic dominance had been reported.
... The mindfulness-based cognitive therapy approach consists of integration of principles of cognitive behavioral therapy with mindfulness based stress reduction, designed to reduce relapse and recurrence of major depressive disorders (Goldin & Gross, 2010;Spijkerman et al., 2016). Yoga creates a balance between the two limbs of autonomic nervous system i.e. induction of parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activation via release of neurotransmitters responsible for relaxation response, improving cardio-vagal tone, decreasing heart rate and blood pressure; and activation of limbic structures of the brain and suppression of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, which is responsible for the stress response including the release of cortisol (Pramanik et al., 2009). With long term practice of yoga, PNS activation dominates over SNS activation, even during stressful situations (Ross & Thomas, 2010). ...
Chapter
Complex chronic lifestyle disorders are the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Stress and anxiety associated with today’s hectic life schedule and polluted environment have contributed a lot in triggering and causing many chronic diseases and decreased quality of life, even with pharmacologic treatment. Most of the chronic complex diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes mellitus share underlying mechanisms like high levels of stress, anxiety, depression, oxidative stress, shorter telomeres, persistent activation of hypothalamo-pituitary adrenal axis, inflammation and dysregulated immune system, and thus need to be managed by an integrated approach that targets both mind and body. The individuals with these conditions have been reported to benefit from yoga, but the underlying mechanism of action of yoga remains unclear. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the mechanism of action underlying the cumulative effect of yoga on multiple pathways at a cellular level.
... The HRV results imply an increased RMSSD and HF, and LF/HF ratio after 3 months of pranayama practice, suggesting an improved parasympathetic activity and sympathovagal balance. Findings of our current study are in line with the positive outcomes observed in few of the previous studies on various other pranayama in normotensive and hypertensive patients [12,20,[22][23][24][25]. A wide variety of pranayamas are described in ancient yoga texts (such as Hatha Yoga Pradipika) with various benefits, such as increase in concentration, relaxation, breathing capacity, etc., and also reduction in blood pressure [26]. ...
Article
Background Sheetali pranayama is a cooling pranayama practiced for hypertension (HTN). The effects of Sheetali pranayama, as a solitary intervention on cardiovascular and autonomic changes in hypertension is unknown. Materials and methods The current study was conducted on 100 patients with HTN, randomly allocated to HTN with pranayama (Intervention group,n = 50) and HTN without pranayama (control group,n = 50) group. The intervention group practiced Sheetali pranayama for a period of 3 months. Blood pressure and HRV was assessed before and after the intervention. Results Intervention group showed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in blood pressure variables when compared to the control group. In short term HRV, time and frequency domain parameters showed parasympathetic dominance (P < 0.05) in the intervention group. Conclusion Sheetali pranayama significantly reduces blood pressure in patients with HTN and improved heart rate variability. Sheetali pranayama could thus be practiced in addition to regular medications for the efficacious management of HTN.
... 34 Bhastrika pranayama, which is done as a slow rate exercise (respiratory rate 6/min), have been shown to cause strong improvement of autonomic functions by increasing the parasympathetic tone. 35 However, contradictory reports in terms of increased HF power 17,36,37 vs no changes 38,39 or even decreased HF power 40 are available as an effect of such slow paced pattern of breathing. It could be emphasized in this context that all the reports indicating increased parasympathetic response due to slow controlled breathing were recorded during the slow breathing except the study of Lehrer et al., 40 which has reported the response immediately after the session. ...
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Background Altered pattern of respiration has been shown to affect both the cardiac as well as cortical activity, which is the basis of central–autonomic dual interaction concept. On the other hand, effect of this association between altered breathing with slow cortical activity, that is, electroencephalography (EEG) theta waves (associated with learning and relaxed alertness) on the cardiac autonomic balance is largely unclear. Objective The study aims to understand this interaction in response to altered respiratory patterns, for example, voluntary apnea, bradypnea, and tachypnea in terms of EEG and heart rate variability (HRV) correlates in normal healthy subjects. Methods This study was conducted on 32 adult male subjects. EEG from F3, F4, P3, P4, O1 and O2 cortical areas and Lead II electrocardiography for HRV analysis was continuously recorded during aforesaid respiratory interventions. Power spectral analysis of EEG for theta waves and HRV measures, that is, RMSSD, pNN50, HF, LF, and LF/HF was calculated as % change taking resting value as 100%. Results Apnea caused decrease in theta power, whereas an increase in LF/HF was observed in HRV. Bradypnea on the other hand, did not elicit any significant change in power of theta waves. However, decreased RMSSD and pNN50 were observed in HRV. Tachypnea led to increase in theta power with HRV depicting significantly decreased RMSSD and pNN50. Besides, significant correlation between EEG and HRV measures was found during tachypnea, which shifted toward posterior cortical sites as compared to resting condition. Conclusion Various altered respiratory patterns caused either depressed parasympathetic or increased sympathetic output, whereas increased theta power along with posterior shift of correlation between theta power and HRV measures observed during post tachypnea might be due to involvement of global brain areas due to respiration-coupled neuronal activity. Thus, a definite link between cortical activity and autonomic output in relation to altered respiratory patterns may be suggested.
... Shirley et al. [2] have proposed that yogic regulated breathing is a bidirectional mind-body practice. A number of studies [3][4][5] have shown reduction of heart rate and blood pressure after different types of pranayama practices. However, not many have looked into the physiological and neural mechanisms of how yogic breathing is intimately connected to the cardiovascular, chemoreflex and endocrine systems of the human body, thus leading to positive health, especially that of the heart. ...
Chapter
See the YouTube videos related to the contents of this chapter: Why pranayama may protect you from COVID: https://youtu.be/Rj0kePuqDWo Pranayama changes your destiny!: https://youtu.be/pQV-FMvnCNo The benefits of pranayama for positive health are well known. Even though there are many studies published on the effectiveness of pranayama, there are very few papers, which actually have systematically studied the physiological mechanisms involved, causing the benefits of pranayama, especially with respect to the cardiac function. This article attempts to have a detailed look at the physiology behind deep breathing. The article also conjectures that voluntary, deep breathing with attention may have a role to play in faster recovery from surgeries, and prevent or delay the onset of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and may be, even cancer. Extended, carefully controlled and detailed studies are needed to prove or disprove these conjectures.
... This indicates that BP might be a more susceptible target for school-based intervention programs than HR/HRV. A previous study in healthy adults also observed significant reductions in BP, but not HR, after a slow pace breathing exercise (Pramanik et al., 2009). Likewise, another study demonstrated larger effects for SBP as opposed to HR after slow, deep breathing in patients with hypertension (Bhavanani et al., 2011), suggesting that BP might be more sensitive to change. ...
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Chronic stress is associated with dysregulations in the physiological stress system, resulting in diverse negative developmental outcomes. Since adolescence is a period characterized by increased stress‐sensitivity, and schools are an important environment for the developing adolescent, school‐based interventions promoting psychosocial functioning are of particular interest to prevent adverse outcomes. The present study therefore aimed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions on HPA‐axis (i.e., cortisol) and cardiovascular (i.e., blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR)/heart rate variability (HRV)) parameters of stress in adolescents, and examined moderators of effectiveness. The search resulted in the inclusion of k = 9 studies for cortisol, k = 16 studies for BP, and k = 20 studies for HR/HRV. The results indicated a significant small overall effect on reducing BP, but no significant effect for HR/HRV. For cortisol, large methodological variation in the few primary studies did not allow for quantitative analyses, but a qualitative review demonstrated inconsistent results. For BP and HR/HRV, larger effects were observed for intervention programs with a mindfulness and/or meditation component, for interventions without a cognitive‐behavioral component and for interventions with a higher intensity. Providing adolescents with techniques to improve indicators of physiological stress may prevent emerging mental health problems. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The probable causes that the pranayama techniques increases frequency and duration of inhibitory neural impulses by activating pulmonary stretch receptors during above tidal volume inhalation as in Hering Bruer reflex which bring about withdrawal of sympathetic tone in the skeletal muscle blood vessels, leading to widespread vasodilatation, thus causing decrease inCitation: Pradhan K. Effect of Kapalbhati and Specific Pranayama Techniques on Psycho-physiological Characteristics of Middle Aged Sedentary Women. Anudhyan An International Journal of Social Sciences 2018;3(1):72-83.peripheral resistance and decreasing the diastolic blood pressure(Pramanik et al., 2009). However, no significant changes occurred over 12-weeks period in the control group. ...
... Pranayama can be practiced without the need of a single setup, material or equipment and the immediate effects could be achieved very swiftly (Kumar and Pradhan, 2017;Anand et al., 2018). Moreover, the immediate benefits of pranayama could be witnessed even in practices that take up to 5 or 6 min (Pramanik et al., 2009). The number of studies, which were carried out to analyze the effectiveness of pranayama and yoga in decreasing stress and anxiety levels as well as improving health conditions related to lung capacity, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, asthma, epilepsy, immune system disorders, diabetes, autonomic dysfunctions, muscular endurance, mental disorders, blood pressure, hypertension, and chronic headaches (Kharya et al., 2014;Butzer et al., 2016a;Hepburn and McMahon, 2017;Kumar and Pradhan, 2017;Kuppusamy et al., 2017) is highly abundant in the field of psychology and medicine. ...
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This study investigated the impact of pranayamic breathing (PB) as a positive psychology exercise on mitigating foreign language anxiety (FLLA) and test anxiety (TA) of undergraduate English students studying at a Turkish university. Additionally, the study examined the effects of PB on academic achievement in listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants as well as exploring learners’ and their instructor’s perceptions of using PB techniques in their classrooms. The sample consisted of 140 sophomore English language learners. Two intact classes, each comprising 70 participants, were selected as the experimental and the control group using convenience sampling. Two basic PB techniques, Nadi Shodhana Pranayama and Bhramari Pranayama, were implemented to the experimental group on a weekly basis for a total of 7 weeks. In this mixed-method study, the quantitative data were gathered using English Language Learning Anxiety Scale, Foreign Language Test Anxiety Scale, and listening and reading achievement pre- and post-tests, while the qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews, and the teacher’s reflective journal. The findings revealed that the implementation of positive psychology technique of pranayama breathing mitigated the FLLA and TA levels significantly and also improved listening and reading comprehension skills of the participants to a considerable extent. The findings also demonstrated that both the students and their instructor perceived PB implementation as a useful and a practical medium in alleviating the anxious feelings, promoting the general class atmosphere and regulating daily habits despite the implementational challenges shared by the instructor.
... Bhramari is one such Pranayama which is mainly recommended for reducing mental problems such as tension, cerebral tension, hypertension, anxiety and controlling blood pressure [20] . Immediately after 5 min of practice of Bhramari, the heart rate and blood pressure is influenced in healthy subjects because of the parasympathetic dominance [21] . It has been suggested that the increase of parasympathetic activity (associated with expiration time) reduces the release of hormones associated with stress, and enhances GABA inhibition from the prefrontal cortex and insula to the amygdala, reducing its activity, and the psychological and somatic symptoms associated with stress [16] . ...
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Pranayama is a Yogic technique which ensure homeostasis between physical and mental health. Bhramari is one of the 8 types of Pranayama as explained by Sage Patanjali which is considered to be effective in maintaining mental health. The following article discusses the probable use of Bhramari in Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Various publications from Pubmed, Google Scholar, Scopus etc were reviewed to reinforce the hypothesis that Bhramari can be effective in GAD. It is worthwhile known that Bhramari is effective in various stressful conditions but its efficacy against GAD is not yet proven. Since GAD is one of the most common mental disorders, it is hypothesised that Bhramari acts good against GAD too. Hence, it can be concluded that it would be beneficial to conduct larger studies on GAD patients to ascertain the efficacy of Bhramari in their population.
... Bhastrikapranayama exercise has shown a strong tendency towards improving function of the ANS through enhanced activation of the parasympathetic system [35]. Yoga practice of cyclic meditation during the day appears to shift sympathovagal balance in favor of parasympathetic dominance during sleep on the following night which promotes improved quality of sleep [36]. ...
... In a previous study, Pramanik et al. [5] revealed that after slow bhastrika pranayamic breathing (respiratory rate [RR] 6 breath/min) for 5 min, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly with a slight fall in heart rate. Raju et al. [6] studied pranayama effect among athletes in two phases on exercise tests. ...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of bhastrika pranayama (bellows breath) and exercise on lung function of healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of thirty male participants were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yoga breathing group (YBG, n = 15) and physical exercise group (PEG, n = 15), and the participants' ages ranged between 18 and 30 years (group age mean ± standard deviation, 22.5 ± 1.9 years). YBG practiced bhastrika pranayama for 15 min, whereas PEG practiced running for 15 min, 6 days in a week, over a period of 1 month. The participants were assessed for (i) forced vital capacity (FVC), (ii) forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), (iii) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and (iv) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) functions of lungs. Results: Repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni adjustment post hoc analyses of multiple comparisons showed that there was a significant increase in YBG for all variables, i.e., FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and MVV (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas there was a significant increase in PEFR and MVV (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) only, among PEG. However, the change in PEG was less of magnitude as compared to YBG. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that incorporating pranayama in sports can enhance the efficiency of healthy individuals and athletes by enhancing the ventilatory functions of lungs, especially for those who partake in aerobic-based sports and require efficient lungs to deliver sufficient oxygen uptake.
... This relationship links respiration to blood flow and blood pressure changes in the brain which may modulate neural activity. Slow, deep breathing in particular has shown to immediately reduce blood pressure and heart rate [102]. Unexplained immediate effects due to respiration (inhalation vs. exhalation) include changes in motor control/force [103] [104], reaction time to sensory detection [17], and perception of pain [105]. ...
... Deep and slow breathing will provide the body with the opportunity to diaphragmatic breathing and it can dramatically change the body's physiology because it activates relaxation centers in the brain. Besides, Pramanik, Sharma, Mishra, Mishra, Prajapati, and Singh (2009) argued that after SDB (breathing frequency 6x / minute) for 5 minutes, there is a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and a decrease in light heart rate [10]. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect DOI ...
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Background: Conclusions/Importance.Indicators of hypertension can be seen through the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Several attempts continue to be made to control BP and HR, such as progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and slow deep breathing(SDB). Objectives:The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of PMR and SDB to control BP and HR on the hypertension clients. Methods: The research utilized a quasi-experimental design with pre-post test nonequivalent control group. Sample of 91 respondents were selected during May-July 2016 through convenience sampling techniques. The researcher used parametric statistical regression multiple linear regression to analyze the effect of PMR, SDB, and combination of PMR and SDB on BP and HR. Results: In the intervention group, PMR, SDB, and combined PMR-SDB are given twice a day for four days. The results showed the influence of PMR,SDB,combinedPMR-SDBtechniquestoBPandHR(p<0.05).PMRandcombined techniques (PMR-SDB) simultaneously and partially have a significant influence on BP and HR (p<0.05). SDB simultaneously only have a significant influence on diastolic BP and HR (p<0.05), but partially have a significant influence on BP and HR (p<0.05). Conclusions: The research concluded that there is significant influence of PMR, SDB, and combined PMR and SDB on BP and HR. PMR and SDB programs need to be developed as independent nursing interventions on the nursing care of patients with hypertension.
... A valuable addition to the active exhale is phonation. For example, the yogic technique Bhramari Pranayama (humming during the exhale) may be effective in cueing active exhales since it not only adds additional airway resistance on the out-breath, but it profoundly increases free nitric oxide (up to 15-fold at rest; Weitzberg and Lundberg, 2002;Pramanik et al., 2009). This may enable nasal breathing at higher intensities, or ease flow limitation. ...
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Running is among the most popular sporting hobbies and often chosen specifically for intrinsic psychological benefits. However, up to 40% of runners may experience exercise-induced dyspnoea as a result of cascading physiological phenomena, possibly causing negative psychological states or barriers to participation. Breathing techniques such as slow, deep breathing have proven benefits at rest, but it is unclear if they can be used during exercise to address respiratory limitations or improve performance. While direct experimental evidence is limited, diverse findings from exercise physiology and sports science combined with anecdotal knowledge from Yoga, meditation, and breathwork suggest that many aspects of breathing could be improved via purposeful strategies. Hence, we sought to synthesize these disparate sources to create a new theoretical framework called “Breath Tools” proposing breathing strategies for use during running to improve tolerance, performance, and lower barriers to long-term enjoyment.
... However, a notable difference is their inclusion of intensive guided breathing and mindfulness techniques and practices. Some breathing techniques in yoga influence the ANS via pulmonary stretch receptors during above tidal volume inhalation (Hering Bruer reflex) stimulating vasodilation (Pramanik et al., 2009). The current yin condition only guided participants' awareness to their breath, body, and the present moment. ...
Article
Introduction Due to the multi-composite, mind-body features of yoga, it is of interest to determine what effect exercise plays as a component of modern yoga in providing psychological and physiological health benefits, and whether benefits are enhanced with a combination of components. Furthermore, although the effects of regular, long-term yoga practice are well documented, the acute effects have received less empirical investigation. Method A within-subjects, repeated measures randomised controlled crossover trial with five conditions was conducted (trial registration: ACTRN12620000983909). Participants (N = 41, mean age = 32 years) with Depressive and/or Anxiety Disorders completed 1) yin yoga, 2) aerobic exercise, 3) vinyasa yoga, 4) stretching (sham) control and 5) no-intervention control. Acute changes in mood and cardiovascular tone were assessed. Results A significant main effect of condition on mood was observed (N = 38; F4,127.193 = 7.507, p = <.001). Participants receiving yin, vinyasa, aerobic exercise and stretching achieved comparable improvements in mood symptoms compared to no-intervention control. Cardiovascular changes were observed for aerobic exercise and vinyasa yoga. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions The acute mood benefits of a single initial session of yoga are not significantly greater than those derived from other forms of movement. Moderate-intensity styles of yoga can provide a sufficient and equivalent acute cardiovascular exercise effect to that of traditional exercise options (i.e., cycling).
... In a previous study, Pramanik et al. [5] revealed that after slow bhastrika pranayamic breathing (respiratory rate [RR] 6 breath/min) for 5 min, both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly with a slight fall in heart rate. Raju et al. [6] studied pranayama effect among athletes in two phases on exercise tests. ...
Article
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Background: The purpose of this study was to observe the effect of bhastrika pranayama (bellows breath) and exercise on lung function of healthy individuals. Materials and methods: A total of thirty male participants were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, i.e., yoga breathing group (YBG, n = 15) and physical exercise group (PEG, n = 15), and the participants' ages ranged between 18 and 30 years (group age mean ± standard deviation, 22.5 ± 1.9 years). YBG practiced bhastrika pranayama for 15 min, whereas PEG practiced running for 15 min, 6 days in a week, over a period of 1 month. The participants were assessed for (i) forced vital capacity (FVC), (ii) forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1), (iii) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and (iv) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) functions of lungs. Results: Repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni adjustment post hoc analyses of multiple comparisons showed that there was a significant increase in YBG for all variables, i.e., FVC, FEV1, PEFR, and MVV (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively), whereas there was a significant increase in PEFR and MVV (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) only, among PEG. However, the change in PEG was less of magnitude as compared to YBG. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that incorporating pranayama in sports can enhance the efficiency of healthy individuals and athletes by enhancing the ventilatory functions of lungs, especially for those who partake in aerobic-based sports and require efficient lungs to deliver sufficient oxygen uptake.
... [19] Pranayam, an ancient breathing exercise inherent to yoga practice, regulates the PNS. [20] By effectively attenuating SNS overactivity, yoga reduces heart rate and achieves a better quality of life for patients with atrial fibrillation. [21,22] Yoga has been shown to help patients with discrete SNS overactivity that results in poorly controlled hypertension. ...
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Yoga is an ancient Indian technique of healthy living. Numerous studies have corroborated yoga's beneficial effects, including a favorable influence on autonomic function and negative emotions. Extensive research in the last few decades has revealed the critical role that yoga can play in eradicating stress. This has laid to the foundation for a scientific understanding of pathophysiological changes attributed to stress, particularly at the molecular and genetic levels. This primarily has helped understand the epigenetic and genetic mechanism at play to induce and alleviate stress, particularly those related to emotional aberrations. As research has indicated, negative emotions are translated into vascular inflammation appropriately accentuated by a sympathetic predominant autonomic function. This cascade is bolstered by multiple factors, including activation of "stressor" genes and elaborating hormones, including steroids with sometimes nocuous consequences, particularly when chronic. Yoga has been categorically found to have inhibited each and every one of these baneful effects of stress. In fact, it also changes the neuronal circuits that potentiate such a plethora of pathological changes. This, in turn, has accentuated yoga's relevance as a powerful preventive intervention in noncommunicable diseases (NCD). NCDs, including heart disease, stroke, and rheumatological disorders, are essentially inflammatory diseases that perpetuate inflammation in different beds like vascular or joint spaces. The precise mechanism by which yoga induces such beneficial changes is yet to be delineated. However, a cornucopia of pointers indicates that neural, endocrine, immunological, cellular, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms are at play. This article attempts to cobble together newfangled research to delineate a medical model for this 5000-year-old practice from India. This is imperative, as a mechanistic model of this ancient-but-complex system would enable a more comprehensive understanding of its mechanism and reveal its yet-undiscovered positive health effects.
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Background Over recent decades, the number of students diagnosed with learning disabilities and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorders has substantially increased. These students face various challenges and experience stress when receiving higher education. Aims The purpose of this study was to compare two non-pharmacological interventions: mindfulness and device-guided slow breathing, with a control group. Methods Seventy-three students (age = 25.76, std. dev = 3.10) with attention problems and/or learning disabilities were randomly assigned to three groups: mindfulness meditation, device guided breathing practice and waiting-list control. Before and after the intervention physiological and psychological measures were collected. Results Our results show that only mindfulness practice improved awareness of the present moment and decreased hyperactivity and inattention. Furthermore, both mindfulness and practice with device-guided breathing were associated with stress reduction, as shown by an increase in the galvanic skin response only in the control group. Conclusions Implementation of the study results may lead to an advance in treating attention deficit disorders and learning disabilities, especially among higher education students.
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Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major avoidable cause of premature morbidity and mortality in the United States (US) and worldwide, due primarily to increased risks of stroke as well as myocardial infarction. While there are therapeutic lifestyle changes and adjunctive pharmacologic medications of proven benefit, recent interest has increasingly focused on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, in particular, Mind-Body Interventions. With respect to BP, it is tempting to speculate that mindfulness with paced breathing will have beneficial effects in the short run that may translate into lowered risks of stroke in the long run. Paced breathing is deep diaphragmatic breathing with typical rates equal to or less than 5-7 breaths per minute compared with the usual rate of 12-14. One plausible mechanism of benefit is that paced breathing stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system which alters neuronal function in specific areas of the brain and reduces stress chemicals. The hypothesis that mindfulness with paced slow breathing reduces BP could be directly tested in randomized trials designed a priori to do so. Subsequently, a finding that mindfulness with paced breathing reduces BP would also lead to direct tests in randomized trials of reductions of carotid atherosclerosis and, if so, a larger scale trial to test whether there is a direct impact of mindfulness with paced breathing on reducing the risks of stroke and MI. If rigorous testing of this medical hypothesis led to positive results this would have large and important clinical and policy implications in the US and worldwide.
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Introduction: Breathing modulates cortical neuronal activity. Various breathing exercises are purported to have specific effects on emotional and cognitive functions. Objective: To determine the effect of unilateral left nostril breathing (ULNB) on nonlateralized, overall cognitive functions using computerized psychometric tests. Methods: A randomized, controlled, pilot study was conducted among 20 healthy yoga-naïve medical students. ULNB was performed for 15 min by the test group (n = 10) and breath awareness by the control group (n = 10). Attention and processing speed, memory, and executive function were assessed using the Letter-Digit Substitution Test, Sternberg Memory Task, and Victoria Stroop Test, respectively. Baseline, pre- and postintervention scores were recorded. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups in baseline scores. In the Sternberg Memory Task, a statistically significant decrease in response time was seen in the test (t(9) = 3.855, p = 0.004) as well as the control group (t(9) = 3.120, p = 0.012); there was no significant difference between the groups. No significant effect of UNLB was seen in the Letter-Digit Substitution Test and Stroop Test. Conclusions: Our study showed no difference in the effects of 15-min practice of ULNB and breath awareness on cognitive functions; both improved memory but not attention or executive function.
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Health indeed is Wealth. The Corona Virus Pandemic has impacted the best health-care systems world-wide; even as the world grapples with the massive loss of human life causing pain to millions. The Pandemic is no more just a medical health challenge; it has thrown up spiritual and emotional challenges as it is affecting our belief system. Prevention is Better than Cure is the mantra. Since, there is no allopathic medicine solution available; people are adopting various measures like social distancing and personal sanitization. There is an urgent need to assist the individuals to take all the preventive measures possible to boost their immunity, improve the respiratory system, and lessen the anxiety, stress, and depression. It can be difficult to not feel anxiety and sometimes panic over the coronavirus outbreak, with the onslaught of updates on news and social media. Yoga has emerged as the perfect tool that an individual can follow to establish physical, mental, and spiritual balance to develop robust health and combat physical and emotional challenges. Yoga offers another path, a fresh perspective with which to deal with events that are beyond our control. The different asanas of yoga can help us to prevent COVID-19 by boosting our immune system and managing the stress that one is going through in this time of uncertainty. This study tries to specifically evaluate the impact of the preventive measures undertaken through Yoga practice. 126 respondents from different states of India were requested to perform yoga daily for 30 days. Significant changes were observed and are mentioned in detail.
Article
Background: Yoga breathing has shown to impose significant cardiovascular and psychological health benefits. Objective: The mechanism (s) responsible for these health benefits remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences in cerebral and central hemodynamic responses following fast breathing (FB) and slow breathing (SB) protocols compared to breathing awareness (BA) as a control. Methods: Twenty healthy participants (10 males and 10 females) volunteered to take part in the study. Participants were between ages 18-55 years (group mean: 24 ± 5 years), with a height of 168.7 ± 9.8 cm and a weight of 70.16 ± 10.9 kg. A familiarization trial including FB and SB protocols were performed by each participant at least 24 h before the testing day. The breathing protocols were designed to achieve 6 breath/min for SB and ~ 120 breaths/min for FB. Results: FB resulted in an increase in both right prefrontal cortex (RPFC) and left prefrontal cortex (LPFC) hemoglobin difference (Hbdiff) (brain oxygenation) compared to BA (P < 0.05). FB resulted in an increased Hbdiff in LPFC compared to RPFC SB (P < 0.05). FB resulted in an increased Hbdiff in LPFC compared to SB (P < 0.05). Conclusion: FB may be an effective yoga breathing technique for eliciting cerebral brain oxygenation indicated by increased Hbdiff. These results may be applicable to both healthy and clinical populations.
Chapter
The aim of yoga is to attain a mental state free from disturbance. Various yoga techniques have been prescribed for this in traditional yoga texts. The ancient yoga masters realized there was a close association between the functioning of the breath and the mind. Voluntarily regulated yoga breathing (pranayama) involves regulating various aspects of breathing of breathing: (i) breathing through one or both nostrils (ii) increasing the depth of breathing (iii) breathing with a period of breath holding (iv) exhaling with the production of a sound (v) breathing through the mouth and (vi) increasing the rate of breathing. The present chapter discusses these yoga breathing techniques. This chapter also discusses the psychophysiological effects of yoga regulated breathing based on the findings of scientific studies on the psychophysiology of yoga regulated breathing.
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Transformative learning harnesses reflection to create deep change in adult learners. These changes can be embodied in our neurobiological and cardiovascular systems. These physiological embodiments of transformative learning require health of body and mind. Contemplative practices including embodied reflective practices are technologies that can support the reintegration of body, brain, and mind, therefore supporting transformative learning and deep sustainable change.
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Background Stress resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV) on pregnant women causes and sustains poor health and contributes to poor pregnancy and birth outcomes. Appropriate interventions to reduce stress in this population of women are warranted. Objective To present a systematic review and the state of the science of evidence on alternate nostril breathing (ANB) as a holistic intervention for stress reduction for pregnant survivors of IPV, framed by complex adaptive systems theory and psychoneuroimmunology. Data Sources Eight databases and reference lists of potential articles. Study Eligibility Criteria Randomized controlled trials published between January 2013 and July 2019. Participants Adults. Intervention ANB. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Method PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Results ANB is effective in reducing stress, as measured by psychological and biological indicators. Limitations Studies were limited in ethnic and gender diversity, most of the populations being Asian Indian and predominately male. Conclusions Use of ANB as a safe and effective holistic intervention for stress reduction shows promise, but research in pregnant survivors of IPV is limited. Implications Stress reduction benefits may be significant for pregnant survivors of IPV and their fetuses, with minimal risk.
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Unilateral forced nostril breathing can influence the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of left unilateral forced nostril breathing practice of 2 minutes for one week on the cardio-vagal activity. The cardiovagal activity was studies before and after the breathing practices among 50 men in the age group between 18 and 30 years. The battery of autonomic test performed was resting heart rate, E:I ratio, Valsalva ratio and 30:15 ratio for standing. Paired “t” test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test was performed for parametric and non-parametric data respectively. All the autonomic tests reflected increased vagal activity which were statically significant (p<0.001). Our study supports the hypothesis that by manipulating the nasal cycle the autonomic activity can be altered. Further research in unilateral forced nostril breathing can help patients with dysautonomia.
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A broad range of degenerative disorders present with an underlying mitochondrial dysfunction. Various environmental triggers such as air pollutants, smoking, and poor lifestyle induce oxidative stress, which may compromise mitochondrial integrity. An adoption of yoga-based lifestyle may hold the key to increase mitochondrial copy number, optimize oxidative stress markers, and increase the expression levels of transcripts that maintain mitochondrial integrity, and reduce associated consequences on physical and mental health,and hence can be beneficial as an adjunct therapy.
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Unilateral forced nostril breathing can influence the autonomic nervous system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of left unilateral forced nostril breathing practice of 2 minutes for one week on the cardio-vagal activity. The cardiovagal activity was studies before and after the breathing practices among 50 men in the age group between 18 and 30 years. The battery of autonomic test performed was resting heart rate, E:I ratio, Valsalva ratio and 30:15 ratio for standing. Paired “t” test and Wilcoxon signed ranked test was performed for parametric and non-parametric data respectively. All the autonomic tests reflected increased vagal activity which were statically significant (p<0.001). Our study supports the hypothesis that by manipulating the nasal cycle the autonomic activity can be altered. Further research in unilateral forced nostril breathing can help patients with dysautonomia.
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In this book, a particular emphasis, was given to the technological development of new health care/services approaches describing processes regarding the introduction and implementation of technologies into health systems; the knowledge translation; evidence-based policy and its utility as a guide for implementation of health-promoting technologies; big data analytics for health policy in decisions making; and realworld cases.
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Introduction: Elevated level of anxiety and low attention in university students has detrimental effects on their academic performance and well-being. The practice of pranayama is considered to enhance the attention and reduce anxiety of individuals. Though, ujjayi pranayama has a relaxing and tranquilising effect, its effects on attention and anxiety in students has not been explored yet. Aim: To assess the immediate effect of ujjayi pranayama on sustained attention, selective attention and state-trait anxiety in university students. Materials and Methods: This was a randomised self-control study in which 34 students were randomly divided into group A and group B using the lottery method. Inclusion criteria were students in the age range of 18-35 years, conversant in English, willing to participate and having at least two years of proficiency in pranayama practice. The assessment and intervention were conducted at the yoga hall of Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anausandhana Samsthana, Bangalore, Karnataka, India, in the month of April 2015. The duration of intervention was for 10 minutes. On day one, group A practiced ujjayi pranayama for eight minutes and two minutes of breath observation. Students in group B were asked to sit in a meditative posture with eyes open. The order was reversed on the day two. Students from both groups were assessed just before and immediately after the intervention using the Digit Letter Substitution Test (DLST), Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Results: A total of 34 participants with mean age 23.35±3.82 years were randomised into group A and group B. Statistical analysis showed, a significant difference in STAI scores (9.00±3.05 vs 10.29±3.23, p=0.005). No significant difference was observed in other variables in between group comparison. Likewise, the within group analysis showed a significant difference in pre and post scores of DLST (53.68±9.35 vs 59.65±9.66, p
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Slow breathing at 6 breaths per min (corresponding to ∼ 0.1 Hz) has been found to benefit psychological and physical health. In this study, we aimed to examine if paced singing at 0.1 Hz has beneficial acute effects on physiological function as compared to slow breathing. Participants were randomized to one of four experimental interventions prior to performing a mental stress task: paced breathing at 0.1 Hz (n = 26), paced singing at 0.1 Hz (n = 26), spontaneous breathing (n = 24), or spontaneous singing (n = 25). Heart rate, heart rate variability in the low (LF-HRV) and high frequency (HF-HRV) domain, blood pressure and affective wellbeing were assessed. As expected, both paced breathing and paced singing resulted in elevated LF-HRV. Moreover, both singing groups evidenced increases in heart rate, blood pressure and positive affect, thus indicating elevated sympathetic activation. Breathing and singing at 0.1 Hz had no robust effect on cardiovascular stress reactivity. Findings suggest that paced singing could constitute a promising alternative to slow paced breathing as it increases cardiovascular coherence, although more studies are needed to elucidate whether slow breathing and/or singing could ameliorate acute stress responses.
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Background: Nadi shodhana Pranayama ensures that the whole body is nourished by an extra supply of oxygen. The beneficial effects of practicing Nadi shodhana Pranayama on body functions and ability to combat stressors in our daily life has been well recorded in our ancient yogic books. Yogic discipline aims at disciplining of organ system functions acting at cortical level. Objectives: The present study aimed at comparing the immediate effect of Nadi shodhana Pranayama practice on blood glucose level, heart rate and blood pressure. Methods: The study was conducted on male yogic practitioners from Dev Sanskriti Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar who gave consent and performed Nadi shodhana Pranayama correctly were included in the study. (N=25, mean and SD of age respectively 20±2 as the scores were normally distributed). A detailed demographic profile with a structured questionnaire and observational checklist was filled for data collection. The data were collected on the subjects on selected physiological variables before and after the immediate practice of Nadi shodhana Pranayama. The blood glucose level, heart rate and blood pressure were measured by glucometer, heart rate monitor and sphygmomanometer during mentioned time. The tests were administered before Nadi shodhana Pranayama and immediately after Nadi shodhana Pranayama practice at early morning in empty stomach. Results: A Paired t-test was employed as statistical analysis to compare the mean at 5% level of significance. Finally, significant difference was shown in blood glucose level from 89.40± 2.30 to 74.80± 3.10 and heart rate was significantly decreased from ± 5.47 to 66.40 ± 6.43. Significant difference was found in systolic blood pressure (from128 ± 3.15 to 122 ± 3.28) during Nadi Shodhana Pranayama where diastolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after Nadi Shodhana Pranayama (from 84 ± 3.45 to 82 ± 3.34). Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that Nadi Shodhana Pranayama could reduce the blood glucose level, heart rate and blood pressure by activating the parasympathetic nervous system which enhance the healthy cardiovascular functioning of the body control high blood glucose by stimulating the insulin secretion from pancreas.
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Pranayama (breathing exercise), one of the yogic techniques can produce different physiological responses in healthy individuals. The responses of Alternate Nostril Breathing (ANB) the Nadisudhi Pranayama on some cardio-respiratory functions were investigated in healthy young adults. The subjects performed ANB exercise (15 minutes everyday in the morning) for four weeks. Cardio-respiratory parameters were recorded before and after 4-weeks training period. A significant increment in Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR L/min) and Pulse pressure (PP) was noted. Although Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was decreased insignificantly, the decrease in pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significant. Results indicate that regular practice of ANB (Nadisudhi) increases parasympathetic activity.
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To evaluate effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion. Thirty healthy men in the age group of 25-35 years volunteered for the study. They were randomly divided in two groups of 15 each. Group 1 subjects served as controls and performed body flexibility exercises for 40 minutes and slow running for 20 minutes during morning hours and played games for 60 minutes during evening hours daily for 3 months. Group 2 subjects practiced selected yogic asanas (postures) for 45 minutes and pranayama for 15 minutes during the morning, whereas during the evening hours these subjects performed preparatory yogic postures for 15 minutes, pranayama for 15 minutes, and meditation for 30 minutes daily, for 3 months. Orthostatic tolerance, heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, dynamic lung function (such as forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced expiratory volume percentage, peak expiratory flow rate, and maximum voluntary ventilation), and psychologic profile were measured before and after 3 months of yogic practices. Serial blood samples were drawn at various time intervals to study effects of these yogic practices and Omkar meditation on melatonin levels. Yogic practices for 3 months resulted in an improvement in cardiorespiratory performance and psychologic profile. The plasma melatonin also showed an increase after three months of yogic practices. The systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and orthostatic tolerance did not show any significant correlation with plasma melatonin. However, the maximum night time melatonin levels in yoga group showed a significant correlation (r = 0.71, p < 0.05) with well-being score. These observations suggest that yogic practices can be used as psychophysiologic stimuli to increase endogenous secretion of melatonin, which, in turn, might be responsible for improved sense of well-being.
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Since the original work of by Hering and Breuer in 1868 numerous studies have demonstrated that slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (SARs) are the lung vagal afferents responsible for eliciting the reflexes evoked by moderate lung inflation. SARs play a role in controlling breathing pattern, airway smooth muscle tone, systemic vascular resistance and heart rate. Both anatomical and physiological studies support the contention that SARs, by their close association with airway smooth muscle, continuously sense the tension within the myoelastic components of the airways caused by lung inflation, smooth muscle contraction and/or tethering of small intrapulmonary airways to the lung parenchyma. In addition, intrapulmonary SAR discharge activity is sensitive to changes in P(CO2) within the physiological range. Despite this extensive characterization of SARs, their role in determining breathing pattern and airway tone in individuals with respiratory diseases is only recently being appreciated.
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Stress has many mental and biological effects. In this review we discuss the cardiovascular effects of mental stress and particularly, the relationship between stress and hypertension. The issues include: physiology, effect on blood pressure, job stress, white coat hypertension and the effect on the treatment of hypertension. This interaction could help us to understand the hypertension associated symptoms and to decide on the appropriate treatment.
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Meditation is a complex mental process involving changes in cognition, sensory perception, affect, hormones, and autonomic activity. Meditation has also become widely used in psychological and medical practices for stress management as well as a variety of physical and mental disorders. However, until now, there has been limited understanding of the overall biological mechanism of these practices in terms of the effects in both the brain and body. We have previously described a rudimentary neuropsychological model to explain the brain mechanisms underlying meditative experiences. This paper provides a substantial development by integrating neurotransmitter systems and the results of recent brain imaging advances into the model. The following is a review and synthesis of the current literature regarding the various neurophysiological mechanisms and neurochemical substrates that underlie the complex processes of meditation. It is hoped that this model will provide hypotheses for future biological and clinical studies of meditation.
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We evaluated heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for increasing vagal baroreflex gain and improving pulmonary function among 54 healthy adults. We compared 10 sessions of biofeedback training with an uninstructed control. Cognitive and physiological effects were measured in four of the sessions. We found acute increases in low-frequency and total spectrum heart rate variability, and in vagal baroreflex gain, correlated with slow breathing during biofeedback periods. Increased baseline baroreflex gain also occurred across sessions in the biofeedback group, independent of respiratory changes, and peak expiratory flow increased in this group, independently of cardiovascular changes. Biofeedback was accompanied by fewer adverse relaxation side effects than the control condition. Heart rate variability biofeedback had strong long-term influences on resting baroreflex gain and pulmonary function. It should be examined as a method for treating cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Also, this study demonstrates neuroplasticity of the baroreflex.
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Practitioners understand "meditation," or mental training, to be a process of familiarization with one's own mental life leading to long-lasting changes in cognition and emotion. Little is known about this process and its impact on the brain. Here we find that long-term Buddhist practitioners self-induce sustained electroencephalographic high-amplitude gamma-band oscillations and phase-synchrony during meditation. These electroencephalogram patterns differ from those of controls, in particular over lateral frontoparietal electrodes. In addition, the ratio of gamma-band activity (25-42 Hz) to slow oscillatory activity (4-13 Hz) is initially higher in the resting baseline before meditation for the practitioners than the controls over medial frontoparietal electrodes. This difference increases sharply during meditation over most of the scalp electrodes and remains higher than the initial baseline in the postmeditation baseline. These data suggest that mental training involves temporal integrative mechanisms and may induce short-term and long-term neural changes.
The modern living lifestyle is known to produce various physical and psychological stresses and subject the individual to produce oxidative stresses as well. The aim of this study has been to assess the effect of yogic breathing exercises (pranayama) on the oxidatives stress. The study group consisted of 30 young male volunteers, trained for the purpose of this study and an equal number of controls were used. The free radicals and Super oxide dismutase levels were measured before the study and at the end of the study. The free radicals were decreased significantly in the study group but the SOD was increased insignificantly as compared to the control group. Yogic breathing exercises not only help in relieving the stresses of life but also improve the antioxidant status of the individual. An improvement in the antioxidant status is helpful in preventing many pathological processes that are known with impaired antioxidant system of body.
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The hyperpolarization and cyclic nucleotide activated current Ih is thought to have a role in rhythmic brain activity that is important in complex behaviors and might be perturbed in some neuropsychiatric diseases. We have used whole-cell voltage and current clamp techniques to characterize Ih in neurons from the subiculum-the major output region of the hippocampal formation. Subicular projection neurons are themselves classifiable as intrinsically bursting (IB) or regular spiking (RS) and Ih is present in both. Given the possible involvement of Ih in neuropsychiatric diseases, we have also characterized Ih in subicular neurons from rats that have been housed in individual cages (though still able to see, smell, and hear other rats) as these rats can display behavioral changes similar to those seen in schizophrenia. Individual housing is associated with a 4.4-mV depolarization of the Ih activation curve (P=0.0027) and an increase in mean firing rate measured in response to current injection (P=0.037) specifically in RS neurons and a change in the relative amplitude of Ih between IB and RS neurons. Thus, we have shown significant changes in a current thought to be relevant to psychiatric disease in a partial model of schizophrenia. Its further investigation might reveal chemical targets for novel antipsychotic drugs.
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Hyperpolarization-activated cation currents, termed If, Ih, or Iq, were initially discovered in heart and nerve cells over 20 years ago. These currents contribute to a wide range of physiological functions, including cardiac and neuronal pacemaker activity, the setting of resting potentials, input conductance and length constants, and dendritic integration. The hyperpolarization-activated, cation nonselective (HCN) gene family encodes the channels that underlie Ih. Here we review the relation between the biophysical properties of recombinant HCN channels and the pattern of HCN mRNA expression with the properties of native Ih in neurons and cardiac muscle. Moreover, we consider selected examples of the expanding physiological functions of Ih with a view toward understanding how the properties of HCN channels contribute to these diverse functional roles.