Use of 5α-Reductase Inhibitors for Prostate Cancer Chemoprevention: American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Urological Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guideline

ArticleinThe Journal of urology 181(4):1642-57 · February 2009with16 Reads
DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2009.01.071 · Source: PubMed
To develop an evidence-based guideline on the use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) for prostate cancer chemoprevention. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Health Services Committee (HSC), ASCO Cancer Prevention Committee, and the American Urological Association Practice Guidelines Committee jointly convened a Panel of experts, who used the results from a systematic review of the literature to develop evidence-based recommendations on the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer chemoprevention. The systematic review completed for this guideline identified 15 randomized clinical trials that met the inclusion criteria, nine of which reported prostate cancer period prevalence. Asymptomatic men with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) </=3.0 ng/mL who are regularly screened with PSA or are anticipating undergoing annual PSA screening for early detection of prostate cancer may benefit from a discussion of both the benefits of 5-ARIs for 7 years for the prevention of prostate cancer and the potential risks (including the possibility of high-grade prostate cancer). Men who are taking 5-ARIs for benign conditions such as lower urinary tract [obstructive] symptoms (LUTS) may benefit from a similar discussion, understanding that the improvement of LUTS relief should be weighed with the potential risks of high-grade prostate cancer from 5-ARIs (although the majority of the Panel members judged the latter risk to be unlikely). A reduction of approximately 50% in PSA by 12 months is expected in men taking a 5-ARI; however, because these changes in PSA may vary across men, and within individual men over time, the Panel cannot recommend a specific cut point to trigger a biopsy for men taking a 5-ARI. No specific cut point or change in PSA has been prospectively validated in men taking a 5-ARI.
    • "The FDA decision was based on the PCPT and the REDUCE trials, two large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials. The ASCO and AUA deleted the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer chemoprevention from the main "Clinical Guidelines" on the AUA homepage, after the FDA denied a supplemental New Drug Application for dutasteride for prostate cancer chemoprevention (Table 2) [31,32]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The key enzyme in the androgen synthesis and androgen receptor pathways is 5α-reductase (5-AR), which occurs as three isoenzymes. Types I and II 5-ARs the most important clinically, and two different 5-AR inhibitors (5-ARIs), finasteride and dutasteride, have been developed. Several urology associations have recommended and upgraded the use of 5-ARIs for an enlarged prostate with lower urinary tract symptoms. In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial and the Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events Trial, 5-ARIs reduced the incidence of low-grade prostate cancer. However, despite the documented reductions in the overall incidence of prostate cancer, 5-ARIs are at the center of a dispute. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the American Urology Association (AUA) presented clinical guidelines for the use of 5-ARIs for chemoprevention of prostate cancer in 2008. However, ASCO/AUA has eliminated these from the main "Clinical Guidelines" in 2012, because the U.S. Food and Drug Administration denied a supplemental New Drug Application for the use of dutasteride for prostate cancer chemoprevention. The 5-ARIs can also be used to manage hemospermia and prostatic hematuria, and to prevent intraoperative bleeding, although there is insufficient evidence for a standard strategy. This review summarizes the current use of 5-ARIs for prostate disease, including benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer, prostate-related bleeding, and hemospermia.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2013
    • "A recent review of RCTs concluded that 5α-reductase treatment reduces overall cancer incidence but may increase the risk of high-grade cancer [54]. This issue is particularly relevant, as a recently published clinical guideline stated that healthy men may benefit from a discussion of the risks and benefits of taking finasteride for primary chemoprevention of prostate cancer [55] . In light of these controversies , we focus upon understanding how different androgen environments promote carcinogenesis. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Androgens bind to the androgen receptor (AR) in prostate cells and are essential survival factors for healthy prostate epithelium. Most untreated prostate cancers retain some dependence upon the AR and respond, at least transiently, to androgen ablation therapy. However, the relationship between endogenous androgen levels and cancer etiology is unclear. High levels of androgens have traditionally been viewed as driving abnormal proliferation leading to cancer, but it has also been suggested that low levels of androgen could induce selective pressure for abnormal cells. We formulate a mathematical model of androgen regulated prostate growth to study the effects of abnormal androgen levels on selection for pre-malignant phenotypes in early prostate cancer development. We find that cell turnover rate increases with decreasing androgen levels, which may increase the rate of mutation and malignant evolution. We model the evolution of a heterogeneous prostate cell population using a continuous state-transition model. Using this model we study selection for AR expression under different androgen levels and find that low androgen environments, caused either by low serum testosterone or by reduced 5alpha-reductase activity, select more strongly for elevated AR expression than do normal environments. High androgen actually slightly reduces selective pressure for AR upregulation. Moreover, our results suggest that an aberrant androgen environment may delay progression to a malignant phenotype, but result in a more dangerous cancer should one arise. The model represents a useful initial framework for understanding the role of androgens in prostate cancer etiology, and it suggests that low androgen levels can increase selection for phenotypes resistant to hormonal therapy that may also be more aggressive. Moreover, clinical treatment with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride may increase the incidence of therapy resistant cancers.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2010
    • "There is an increasing interest in the use of 5ARIs for PCa chemoprevention. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and American Urological Association Practice Guidelines Committee jointly convened a panel of experts to develop evidence-based recommendations [35]. Although this issue is beyond the scope of this article, some findings may have clinical implications in patients receiving 5ARIs for symptomatic BPH. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a progressive disease that is commonly associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and might result in complications, such as acute urinary retention and BPH-related surgery. Therefore, the goals of therapy for BPH are not only to improve LUTS in terms of symptoms and urinary flow, but also to identify those patients at a risk of unfavorable disease progression and to optimize their management. This article reviews the current status of therapy with 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), namely fiasteride and dutasteride, for men with LUTS and BPH. Data from key randomized controlled trials (Oxford level 1b) on the use of 5ARIs are analyzed. The efficacy of 5ARIs either as monotherapy or in combination with alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists in the management of LUTS and the impact of monotherapy and combined therapy on BPH progression are discussed. Further promises, including the withdrawal of the alpha-blocker from the combined medical treatment and the potential clinical implications from the use of 5ARIs for prostate cancer chemoprevention in patients receiving 5ARIs for symptomatic BPH are highlighted. Current evidence shows that 5ARIs are effective in treating LUTS and preventing disease progression and represent a recommended option in treatment guidelines for men who have moderate to severe LUTS and enlarged prostates.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2009
Show more