Chickpea, Faba Bean, Lupin, Mungbean, and Pigeonpea: Potential New Crops for the Mid-Atlantic Region of the United States
The evaluations of chickpea, pigeonpea, and mungbean were conducted as replicated field experiments. The evaluations of faba bean and lupin germplasm were conducted by planting single row plots of each acces- sion. All field experiments were conducted at the Randolph Farm of Virginia State University which is located approximately 37° 15' N and 077° 30.8' W. CHICKPEA Cicer arietinum L., an ancient crop, was probably grown in Turkey 7400 years ago. Most chickpea world production is in India. The mature chickpea seed are used as a dry bean and green immature seed are used as a vegetable. In chickpea, two seed types exist: kabuli or garbanzo (large seeded) and desi (small seeded). Chickpea is an annual plant generally requiring a cool season. However, it can be planted in spring in Virginia. The chickpea plant is 20-100 cm tall. Chickpea has a deep tap root and is considered drought tolerant. The results of chickpea evaluations are presented in Table 1. The mean yield of desi type chickpea lines (1153 kg/ha) was significantly higher than that of kabuli type lines (719 kg/ha). However, the larger kabuli- type chickpea are known to be sold at premier prices at the green-immature stage for use as a vegetable. Re- cent research has indicated that 'Sanford' and 'Dwelly' ( kabuli type cultivars) and 'Myles' ( desi type cultivar) are adaptable and high yielding in Virginia. FABA BEAN Vicia faba L. is known to be an efficient nitrogen fixer and there is interest among farmers to grow faba bean as a vegetable crop to market the green beans in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. The faba bean is generally a cool season crop but can be planted in Virginia during spring. A diverse germplasm collection of faba bean germplasm has been evaluated for production potential. This collection has included lines from ICARDA (Syria); US collection at Pullman, Washington; and lines from Dr. Al Slinkard (University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada). The seedling and foliar diseases have been a major hindrance in faba bean production under Virginia conditions. Although our results with faba bean have been disappointing, two cultivars, 'Fatima' and 'Chinese', seem to have promise under Virginia conditions.
Available from: Sharad C. Phatak
- "Pigeonpea seed has 36.5% protein (Pathak et al., 1993) with excellent water retention (250.3 ml/100g), fat absorption (130 ml/100g), emulsification (120%) and foaming (130%) capacities (Eltayeb et al., 2012). These two crops gaining pride for cultivation in southeastern USA (Pathak et al., 1993, Bhardwaj et al., 2002) due to their adaptability, and production capabilities and were potential alternative crop resources (Bhardwaj et al., 1999) for tobacco farmers and drought prone areas of USA (Narina et al., 2013) and as forage crops for animal consumption (Bhardwaj, 2013). Further, these legumes were also potential for industrial use in production of biodiesel, forage, biodegradable substances like plastics, oils, gums, and medicines besides bread, chips, tortillas, yogurt, and flavor (Graham & Vance, 2003). "
Available from: Harbans Bhardwaj
- "Blade (2002) cited the recent successful development of many new crops in Canada such as canola, chickpea, field pea, lentil, mustard, canaryseed, sunflower, and many spice crops. Potential of new legume crops in Virginia has previously been documented (Bhardwaj et al., 1999). "
Available from: Sharad C. Phatak
- "Since the temperatures in summer is high in USA, it is essential to develop new food legume cultivars with short growth duration, high yield and tolerance to high temperature and water stress. No Studies were conducted to date to evaluate the drought tolerance of the breeding lines and developed cultivars in pigeonpea, mungbean and other new food legume germplasm available in chickpea, faba bean, mothbean, and lupin for production in southern USA or drought prone areas of USA (Bhardwaj et al., 1999, 2002). "
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